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42-Store Candles. «R. B. -- That candles information on this subject. The notion that improve by keeping is well known; but the eating very frequently, and in very small quantiproper season for storing them is not so clearly ties at each time, is conducive to the health of understood. A quantity of air and water are the patient, appears to be an erroneous doctrine held in solution anal candles which have not The eating of small quantities of food is certainly been kept for some time: hence those made in 'to be recommended; but the number of meals, or March are better than others, evaporation having rather periods of eating, should never exceed generally taken place before they are required for three or four in the day, for unless the stomach use, owing to the length of the day.
have time for repose, it cannot perform its func43-Umbrellas. J. J.-It is by these, as you tions: eating hard biscuits in the intervals beterm them, trifling matters, that real distinction tween meals is also injurious for the same reason. of character is shown. In the management of
48-Is House-keeping an essential part of umbrellas persons show their good or ill breed.
Female Education ? M. J. J.-Undoutedly it is, ing. In approaching a lady with either in her
and our fair correspondent will sacrifice much hand, you should raise yours high enough to pass happiness and comfort by neglecting these imby hers, without interfering; and never carry it
portant duties. For a young woman in any situalong with regard only to your own convenience,
ation in life to te ignorant of the various busibut be constantly on the alert to prevent the sharp
ness that belongs to good housekeeping, is as points from touching people's faces or deranging
great a deficiency as it would be in a merchant their dresses.
not to understand accounts, or the master of a 44-Walking the best Exercise. B. R.-Walk
vessel not to be acquainted with navigation. If is, beyon compare, the most natural and
a woman does not know how the various work of salutary exercise : it is the most salutary, be
a house should be done, she might as well know cause it is the most natural; indeed, man, if he nothing, for that is her express vocation; and it must be defined, is a walking animal. Carriage- matters not how much learning, or how many riding is a sort of cheating indolence. Horse- accomplishments she may have, if she is wantback exercise is much better than carriage, but ing in that which is to fit her for her peculiar much inferior, under almost all circumstances, calling. to walking. It has been said, and with some
49-Assistance to Sick Friends. S. E.-Un. truth, that “riding is the best exercise for regaining health, and walking for retaining it.”
questionably it is a duty to aid our friends in time 45-Paper-hangings. E.-A safe rule with
of illness. No absurd notions of etiquette should regard to paper-hangings, is to choose nothing prevent us from doing our duty. It is in the power that looks extravagant or unnatural; no staring
of young girls to make themselves very dear and pattern or colour, which would only be fit to very useful to their married friends, and to renmake caps for May-day sweeps. Regard should
der them such services as are beyond all price. be had to the uses of an apartment: a drawing. In sickness and sorrow the sympathy and preroom should be light and cheerful, a parlour
sence of a beloved female friend are among the should look warm and comfortable without
best of Heaven's gifts; while she who ministers being gloomy : bed-room papers should be cool
to the afflicted is as much blessed as blessing. and quiet, and generally of a small pattern, and
Let no young person stay away from a friend who of such colours as harmonise with bed furniture
is sick or in affliction from the fear that her inand other fittings.
experience will render her company undesirable; 46-Origin of the use of Bride Cake. T. C.
all who have strong affections and a ready power Bride cake is used at weddings, because of its
of sympathy can make themselves acceptable, origin in confarreation, or a token of the most
and in endeavouring to do so, will increase their firm conjunction between man and wife, with a
own happiness. cake of wheat or barley, from far (Latin), bread 50-Every-day Duties. M. C.-Y our own or corn. Dr. Moffatt tells us, that "the English, good sense will tell you how to regulate your when the bride comes from church, were wont to time. By adopting a certain system, and decast wheat upon her head.” Herrick says, speak- voting specified hours to certain duties, you will ing to the bride :
accomplish much. There is time enough, in a
While some repeat well-ordered day, for everything that a young Your praise, and bless you, sprinkling you with lady ought to do. Time enough for her morning wheat.
and evening consultation with her conscience;
time enough for a careful and exact toilet ; for 47-Frequeni Eating. A.-Throughout the household duties, for study; time enough for pages of the Family Friend you will find useful exercise in the open air, for visits, for family
intercourse, for serious and light reading, for physiology, or pathology, arc indispensable to the needlework and accomplishments; nothing need student or physician who would excel, or even be left undone for want of time, if you only keep pace with the progress of others in his pro. know how to economize that most precious pos- fession. session, and are resolute to perform all that you 54-Porced Fruits. M. T. B.-Forced fruits can.
realise a high price from the early period at 51- Ridicule. S.--It is a sad defect to be which they are brought to market, and not from over sensitive, and one that will occasion you superiority of size or flavour, as their dearness much vexation in life. It is true that few
leads many to imagine. Indeed, forced fruits persons can bear to be laughed at; it is a mode are very superior to those of natural growth: the of attack which admits of no desence; if
former are obtained at a season when there is become the subject of it, and appear angry at little light, whereas the latter are matured in the the first laugh, it is sure to raise another at your full blaze of a summer's sun. Thus, melons expense, and so on. The best policy is to join grown in frames, covered with mats, and carein the laugh. The direst enmities have been fully excluded from the influence of that solar occasioned by laughter. A striking instance of light which is indispensable to their perfection, this is given by Miss Edgeworth, in her “ Castle have, whatever may be their external beauty, Rackrent," when she describes the bride of Sir none of that luscious flavour which the melon, Kit. just arrived from England, and laughing at when well cultivated, possesses so eminently. all the peculiarities of her husband's Irish resi- Our moralists have not overlooked this error. dence, particularly at the name of a bog on his La Bruyère says:-" There are miseries which estate. This was the foundation of an enmity, wring the very heart: some even want food; they that caused her ladyship an imprisonment of | dread the winter; others eat forced fruits; artifiseven years in her own house.
cial heats change the earth and seasons to please 52- Food of Children. T.-We have nume- their palates.” Hume thus refers to this false rous inquiries on the same subject. You will taste of the rich:-“The same care and toil that find inany of your observations enlarged upon in raise a dish of peas at Christmas would give page 27, a chapter we have especially devoted to bread to a whole family during six months." this important branch of household care. The
55-Care of Sleeping Apartments. G. C. W. food given to children is generally unsuited to -Sleeping rooms ought to be frequently and their age, both in quality and quantity; we do thoroughly ventilated. There are many of the not draw the necessary distinction between the continental practices, which, in this particular, youthful and adult natures; and though we are superior to our own. It Italy, for example, would not vindicate the wisdom of our own food, it is the custom of those who superintend the there can be no doubt that such articles as coffee, household concerns, to order that a separation of hot bread, rich or highly spiced dishes, pic kles, all the clothes that have been used during sleep wine, pastry, are far more injurious to the young be effected, and thus separately suspended from than to the old. Their food should be of the the windows, so as to get the benefit of free and best quality, and wholesome unadulterated arti- full exposure to the purifying influence of the cles should be carefully selected; but it should atmosphere. Many are the contrivances of mobe a plain description of food, well, but simply dern ingenuity for the purpose of insuring an cooked.
unobstructed circulation of air in rcoms-but 53–Uses of the Microscope. W. E. G.-The where there is a door, and a window, and a services of this instrument to the cause of science chimney-place, all these contrivances may be are invaluable. To the student of vegetable phyo dispensed with. Let the windows of the bedsiology the microscope is an indispensable in- room, however, be so constructed, as that they strument. By it he is enabled to trace the first
shall be capable of being drawn down as well as beginnings of vegetable life, and the functions of pushed up; and let it always be recollected, the different tissues and vessels in plants. The that no effectual ventilation can be accomplished zoologist finds it also a necessary auxiliary. With- without this plan of admitting condensed and out it, not only would the structure and functions purer, and giving an exit to lighter and impurer of many animals remain unknown, but the exist- ' atmospheric matter. A good mode of airing ence of numerous species would be undiscovered. bed-rooms, in which persons are constantly sleep It is to the medical student and practitioner, how. I ing, is that of pumping them, as it is called; or ever, that the microscope commends itself for its waving the door backwards and forwards for utility. A new branch of medical study-his- some minutes together, so as by agitation to tology, has been created by its means alone ; , favour the universal diffusion of the admitted while its contributions to morbid anatomy and air.
56-Economy of Cooking. B.--It is generally on the uselessness of many articles sold as neadmitted that the French excel in the economy cessary adjuncts to the toilette. Hair-dye and of their cooking. By studying the appropriate rouge, pearl powder and lotions, still figure on flavours for every dish, they contrive to dress all the catalogues of the perfumers, bearing evithe broken pieces of meats, and make a variety dence that somewhere they are in demand. Few of dishes from vegetables at a small expense. of the consumers but have the grace to keep
57- Nursery Education. F. J.-- From the their obligations to such aids as quiet as possi earliest age children require the most vigilant ble-a very decided proof that as refinement care. He who has been reared in a brawling and progresses we grow ashamed of such empiricism, ill-mannered nursery can hardly be expected to and that woman is daily learning to trust to ripen into a polite man. The elder members of a higher charms than mere physical beauty to family should bear in mind that the influence of make her beloved and respected. their own conduct will encircle the children like
62—True Object of Taste in Dress. M.-The an atmosphere. There can be little happiness true object and importance of taste in dress few in that household in which the minutest offices understand. Let no woman suppose that any are not dictated by a spirit of thoughtful cour- man can be really indifferent to her appearance. tesy and delicate consideration for others.
The instinct may be deadened in his mind by a 58-Infants' Dresses. G. S.—The age at which slatternly, negligent mother, or by plain maiden the change of an infant's dress becomes advisable, sisters; but she may be sure it is there, and, with is somewhat a manner of opinion and circum- a little adroitness, capable of revival. Of course, stance, some mothers adopting the abbreviation as the immediate effect of a well-chosen feminine early as four months, others keeping the graceful toilet operates differently in different minds. In sweep of long drapery twice that time. The season, some, it causes a sense of actual pleasure; in too, must be consulted. But somewhere between others, a consciousness of passive enjoyment. In the ages of four and eight months, the new- some, it is intensely felt while it is present; in comer seems to crave a freer use of limb than the others, only missed when it is gone. swaddling clothes will permit; and the disposition 63-Affection necessary to Marriage. E.-You to creep about the carpet which now becomes are right. What are termed marriages de convedeveloped, is also impeded by them.
nance, are deeply to be deplored, and the un59-Carving. C. H.-The art of carving is a happy consequences of such unions are frequent. very requisite branch of domestic management; Whatever be the motives for marrying, marriage it not only belongs to the honours of the table, but is a dishonourable transaction when resorted to is important in an economical point of view; for without the conviction of being able to sustain a joint of meat ill-carved will not serve so many the character of friend; and whatever disappersons as it would if it were properly carved. pointments may ensue in marriage may be attri Ladies ought especially to make carving a study, buted to a want of this endearing principle. and should be enabled to perform the task Marriage involves the interests of two persons so allotted to them with sufficient skill to prevent intimately, that it is impossible for them not to remark, or the calling forth of eager profiers of be friends without being enemies. A state of assistance from good-natured visitors near, who indifference cannot exist where there is mutua! probably would not present any better claim to a dependence. neat performance.
64-Industry essential. W. C. H.-If you are 60-Gloves. J. J.-Before the art of weaving not possessed of brilliant talents, you can at least them was known, gloves were sometimes made be industrious; and this, with steady perseverof velvet, tiffany, and satin, as well as of various ance, will compensate for many intellectual gifts. kinds of leather; at present, the skins generally The history of almost every really eminent man, made use of are chamois, kid, lamb, doe, dog, no matter in what pursuit he has signalized him beaver, elk, and buff. Yeovil, in Somersetshire, self and served mankind, abounds with proofs is famous for their manufacture, as are Worces- that to industry, fully as much as to genius, have ter and Woodstock; the latter for driving gloves. all really great human achievements been attriOf late years, the silk gloves of Derby have butable. Great scholars, for instance, have been much in request, and manufactories of always been, not merely laborious, but they have thread, cotton, worsted, and other woollen also studied both methodically and regularly. gloves, have sprung up; but for dress, kid have they have had for every portion of the day its always been most approved.
proper and allotted study, and in nowise would 61-Cosmetics. F. H.-Our fair correspond- they allow any one portion of time to be enent will find in our pages repeated injunctions croached upon by the study to which another
portion was especially appropriated in their fixed your correspondent astray. If you have so cles: 6 plan of action.
un idea of your operation in your mind, or if it in 65–Flower-gardens. J. M. W.-The extent is so simple a one that it needs no words, except of the flower-garden depends jointly on the specific directions, or a plain request, you need general scale of the residence, and the parti- | not waste time, but, with the proper forms of th cular taste of the owner. There is no impro- | courtesy, instruct him of your wishes. In whatpriety in having a large flower-garden to a small ever you write, remember that time is valuable: the kitchen-garden or mansion, where the taste of and that embarrassing or indefinite letters are a the owner leads to such a deviation from com- great nuisance to a business man. We need mon rules. As moderation, however, is gene- hardly remark, that punctuality in answering a rally found best in the end, the compass of correspondents is one of the cardinal business ground appropriated to flowers must vary ac- virtues. Where it is possible, answer letters by 2 cording to the size of the place of which that return of post, as you will thus save your own ground forms a part, and should in no case be of time, and pay your correspondent a flattering great extent. If the form of ground where a compliment. And in opening a correspondence per parterre is to be situated is sloping, the size or writing upon your own business, let your comshould be larger than when a flat surface, and
munication be made at the earliest proper date
SO the borders of various shapes, and on a bolder in order that your correspondent, as well as scale, and intermingled with grass; but such a yourself, may have the benefit of thought and flower-garden partakes more of the nature of a
deliberation. pleasure-ground than of the common parterre,
68-Attention to Health in Youth. W.-The and will admit of a judicious introduction of most precarious period of life is said to var; flowering slirubs.
from the ages of ten to twenty-one years, when 66-Nourishment of Meats. J. M.-To pre- the frame is most prone to deformity; but par serve in dressing the full nourishment of meats, | ticularly from ten to fifteen, when the body is
7 and their properties of digestiveness, forms a in its most active state of growth. The most most important part of the art of cooking; for frequent cause of deformity at this most dangerthese ends the object to be kept in mind is to ous period is the over-exercise of the mind, to retain, as much as possible, the juices of the the neglect of the body, augmented in the female meat, whether roast or boiled. This. in the case sex by the baneful use of stays. “Many are the of boiling meat, is best done by placing it at children,” says a physician, “who have been once in briskly boiling water; the albumen on born healthy and robust, the pride and hope of the surface and to some depth is immediately i fond parents, having the rosy hue of health upon coagulated, and thus forms a kind of covering the cheek, the sparkling eye and laughing mouth; which neither allows the water to get into the happiness and enjoyment, the certain attendants ineat, nor the meat juice into the water. The upon robust health, plainly marked upon their water should then be kept just under boiling countenances; the voice, the active romping until the meat be thoroughly done, which it will motion of the body, confirm it; but wait a little be when every part has been heated to about 165 while, until the approach of the insidious age,
7 degrees, the temperature at which the colouring the period when the body is at its highest promatter of the blood coagulates or fixes; at 133 gress of upward growth, the muscular fibres
you degrees the albumen sets, but the blood does being still lax, the bones comparatively soft, not, and therefore the meat is red and raw. The when the powers of the system are so severely same rules apply to roasting: the meat should tried, nature requiring to be supported by the first be brought near enough a bright fire to most careful watching and utmost aid of science,
are brown the outside, and then should be allowed in supplying and regulating the quality and to roast slowly.
quantity of air, food, and exercise, so requisite 67-Leiter-writing. T. F.-If you are writing at this period; whereas, instead of such judi a letter, either upon your own business or upon cious attention, we often find that the too fond
7012 that of the person you are addressing, not in parent, ever and wholly absorbed with the mental answer to him, but opening the subject between education of his offspring, to the entire neglect, you, follow the rule we have frequently alluded and even sacrifice of his bodily frame, at this to, of clearness and of business brevity. Come to most dangerous stage of his life, often fancies the point at once, in order that the person ad- that it is the best age for mental training and
mit dressed may easily comprehend you. Put no- activity; consequently, taxes both the mind and body to the labour of guessing what you desire, body of the youth to the utmost, by forcing him and be careful that half instructions do not lead to employ all the hours of the day in study."
tra l-Progress of Microscopic knowledge. T. W.-dependence that degrades it, as nothing is more E: ir own times, the Germans seem to have degrading than mere mercenary views. Those
a the lead in histological observations; and guided by them are true hirelings; but no reputation of the well-known names of governess is, or ought to be, a hireling. The
nberg, Müller, Schwann, Schulz, Wagner, office of a governess differs in some respects from daand Valentin, principally depends on that of a public teacher, but is not wholly with-iscoveries they have made by means of the out analogy in nature; for they may be reoscope. In England, the names of Car- garded as the workers in the human hive. 1 Todd, Bowman, Owen, Cooper, Busk, Their duty is to nourish the human embryos ett, Bowerbank, and others are connected from stage to stage of intellectual and moral microscopic research.
development, till able to enter on the cares and Marriage. J. C. H.-We by no means duties of mature existence, or at least till they Ti amend a separation.
Try by mild and arrive at that chrysalis state when they must liating kindness to regain the affections pause to digest attainments, and repose awhile ups only temporarily estranged, and which ere entering on the arena of life.
been probably occasioned by coldness or 74Cabinet for Microscopic Objects. E. M. H. :: peculiarities of manner of which you may -The author of “Microscopic Objects” recom
e conscious. When marriage is a perfectly mends a cabinet with shallow drawers-twelve cei issed, voluntary act; the result of reflection of them occupy a depth of four and a half inches individual preference, and not of selfish
the most convenient width from front to back lation or levity ; above all, where there has being six inches. Into these shallow drawers no deception, it is the most sacred of all the slides containing the objects are laid flat in gements, and nothing but death can war
The outer ends of the slides are its dissolution.
made to fit into a ledge in the front and back of 1- To extract the Essential Oil from any each drawer. The inner ends of the sliders
er. G.-A correspondent has supplied us meeting in the middle of the drawer are kept To the following receipt, in answer to your
down by a very thin slip of wood covered with -ication :—Take any flowers you like, which velvet. In this way the sliders do not shake e tify with common sea-salt in a clean earthen when the cabinet is moved from place to place;
ed pot. When thus filled to the top, cover every object is seen without removal, and no 1 ell and carry it to the cellar. Forty days loss of time is occasioned in making a selection.
twards put a crape over a pan, and empty Some persons have their sliders arranged edgewhole to strain the essence from the flowers wise, in boxes made in imitation of books; the pressure. Bottle that essence and expose it ends of the sliders being held by a sort of rack. Por five weeks in the sun, and dew of the This may sometimes be convenient, but the ning, to purify.
One single drop of that other form is preferable. ' ance is enough to scent a whole quart of 75-Lending and borrowing Books. C. W.G.
Your complaints arə doubtless just. It is not 2- Fixed attention. E. R.-A proper appli- uncommon for persons to borrow books, and ion of your reasoning faculties will enable so neglect to read or return them, that at last d to avoid wandering thoughts, better than they forget that such books are in their possesc7 rules we could give you. If you find your sion, or forget to whom they belong, or perhaps ad incapable of fixed application to a book even imagine they are their own. Each library, ich you are reading, or a translation you however small, should be furnished with an making, or some new music you are learn- inventory and register of any book which may be ; do not sit over your task in vain, with eyes, lent, when and to whom, that if the borrower ich, though fixed on the page, do not convey should omit or forget to return it, the lender may e idea to the mind ; but immediately change be reminded to apply for his property. In like ur occupation for something you can attend manner, a careful person will keep a list of ; and when you have succeeded in fixing your
borrowed books in his or her possession, that tention on any task, however light, you have they may be made use of, and duly returned anaged your mind, and economized your time, to their respective owners. It is very well to Etter than in reading the profoundest work keep all borrowed books on a shelf entirely ith wandering thoughts.
apart from our own, and in a conspicuous place 73—Situation of Governess. S.-A dependent that the eye may affect the heart with a sense ituation is not necessarily a mercenary one; it
of honesty in a matter where it is too frequently _3 this idea of the mercenary being attached to disregarded.