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phorus was burned, you observe it to be tion been a corrosive powder, it would pervaded with snow-white particles, which, soon have killed us by penetrating into gradually depositing on the sides of the our lungs. jar, cover it with a crust, and which, by “ The results of useful ordinary combusfalling into the water, dissolve and dis- tion could not then have been different to appear.
what they are without disturbing the whole "But the result of combustion is most economy of the world ; so beautifully have strikingly exemplified in the jar, where all these things been calculated and prothe iron-wire was burned. There, instead vided for, so wisely have all consequences of a gas, or a vapour, or a powder in dis- been foreseen by an all-wise Creator. tributed particles, little fused beads are “ Of course, when the result of burning a seen, to the existence of which I have substance is a liquid or gas, there must already directed your attention. They are be more difficulty in collecting this result, 1ot iron, nor, if you come to regard them in catching it, so to speak, storing it up ittentively, do they look like iron. All and examining it, than when the result is he metallic splendour of the original a solid. For this reason it was that tire is gone, and the little beads look chemists in bygone time actually consiery much like the black scales which dered that bodies burned were bodies over an iron - bar when taken from a destroyed. Had they been accustomed to lowing blacksmith's forge. They are, weigh the substances which they experiadeed, the very same.
And now for a mented upon, and likewise to weigh the urious circumstance. These fused beads, results, this opinion could not have been omposed of oxygen and iron, therefore long entertained; but the operation of rmed oxide of iron, if collected and weighing, which we modern chemists eighed, would be found to be heavier think so essential, ancient chemists han the original iron consumed by the neglected altogether; and see what a xact amount of oxygen which has dis- beautiful truth they lost by this same ppeared. Thus you see the result of neglect; the true principle regulating urning a combustible body may be a gas, the combustion of bodies was totally vapour--may be a powder, may be unknown to them.
Generally, and most fortu- “ Well, time admonishes me to be brief ately, as we shall hereafter discover, all with this element, oxygen,--admonishes le ordinary combustibles do not yield me to pass on to the consideration of other olids or powders when they are burned, subjects. Proceeding, therefore, with our ut gases or vapours; and, consider what investigations, it is very natural for us to
fortunate circumstance this is. Sup- try to discover, and I am sure you would jose, for instance, a candle so constituted, like to know, since oxygen is the virtue, is it might have been-consider it so con- the power of atmospheric air, what the tituted, that, instead of the results of its other part of atmospheric air consists of. ombustion consisting of invisible gases I did not introduce oxygen to you for a r vapours, floating away in the passing air, long time by name, but went on describing pidly, insensibly-suppose the results quality after quality; now I shall follow the f its combustion had been a powder, opposite plan with its associate, and term it uch as phosphorus yields - powder nitrogen at once. Some chemists term it hich is intensely sour and almost corrosive azote, meaning the life destroyer ; but there -suppose that, like iron, it had yielded a are many other gases equally capable of blid, -what, then, would have been the destroying life, although none else are onsequence ? Why, it is terrible to capable, when united with oxygen and eflect
the necessary result of potash in a particular way, of forming the uch an alteration. We could not have substance nitre; therefore, surely the term sed candles of this kind. Had the re- nitrogen which expresses this quality, is ult of their combustion been solid, not only more appropriate of the two. How shall we ould their light have been too feeble for generate nitrogen ? Think a little, and I le purposes of useful illumination, but we am sure the principle will occur to you. hould soon have become enveloped in If the air consists of oxygen and nitrogen, shes. Had the result of their combus- and if oxygen alone is burned away by
combustion, is it not evident that nitrogen, in itself, is possessed of the most extraor. mixed with the product of combustion, dinary powers. must remain ? On this principle we obtain • Very few elements, perhaps, can dis. nitrogen, and the mode of obtaining it as play such numerous qualities--can do, as follows :
we may term it, so many different things “An empty bell glass, as in ordinary as nitrogen can. In certain proportions
language we should it can associate itself with oxygen, and call it, that is to say, constitute the atmosphere we breathe a bell glass contain. whilst, in other proportions, the very same ing atinospheric air, elements generate, by their union, the is inverted over a lit- powerful corrosive liquid, called aquafortis. tle flame, containing Is not this extraordinary? We all know ignited phosphorus, how bland, how innocent, how harmless is
and placed swimming atmospheric air, how it bathes our skin, Fig. 27.
on the surface of some and pervades our lungs, although we are
The phos- scarcely conscious of its presence ; conphorus burns as usual, and in the opera- sider, then, what the effect would have tion of burning removes the whole of the been had we been surrounded with aqua. oxygen present, combining with it and fortis ! If you are engaged much in forming these white, flocculent, particles, chemical experiments, you will, as the which, perhaps, you may remember as being chances are, soon have evidences of its composed of phosphoric acid, and which corrosive action on your fingers and dress may easily be removed by agitation with One does not, however, purposely seek for water. This being done, nitrogen remains. this evidence, for which reason, I find a Nitrogen is, altogether, a very peculiar substitute in a sheet of dry parchment. body. I can show an experiment illus. Upon this I pour a few drops of nitric trative of its power, as I did with oxygen. acid (aquafortis), and you see the result. All I shall show you is an experiment The parchment becomes yellow and shri. which you will perhaps say, shows nothing velled, crumpling up, smoking and evenat all, although, it is an experiment which | tually it is destroyed.” really shows a great deal. In the first place, And here we must conclude our preyou see it will not allow the combustion sent sketch, leaving the subject of atof a taper immersed in it to proceed, but mospheric air to be again adverted to immediately puts out the flame. In this hereafter. it does not differ from the gas developed by burning charcoal in oxygen ; therefore, Fix your Mind.-Lay it down as : for anything we know at present to the sound maxim :-Nothing can be accomcontrary, they may both be the same. We plished without a fixed purpose—a con. shall soon prove, however, that they are centration of mind and energy. Whatever not the same, because, if I throw a portion you attempt to do, whether it be the writing of lime water, perfectly clear and trans- of an essay, or whittling of a stick, let it parent, into the jar in which the charcoal be done as you can do it. It was this was burned, and shake the whole together, habit that made Franklin and Newton, and the lime-water turns white ; whereas, if I hundreds whose labours have been of indo the same with nitrogen gas, no white calculable service to mankind. Fix your ness results. By this simple test, then, may mind closely and intently on what you we distinguish these two invisible gases. undertake ; in no other way can you
hare “ If this is the only thing nitrogen can a reasonable hope of success. An energ! do, you may, perhaps, say with yourselves, that dies in a day is good for nothing; an If it can only not whiten Jime-water-hour's fixed attention will never avail. The this nitrogen must be altogether a power- inventions that bless mankind were not less substance, and its glorious associate, the result of a few moments' thought and oxygen, is called the virtue of atmospheric investigation. If you, then, have a desire air to some purpose. Arrive at no such to bless your species, or to get to yourself rash conclusion ; it would be very wrong. a glorious name, fix your mind upon someNitrogen, although seemingly powerless thing, and let it remain fixed.
HYMN OF THE CITY.
THE DEATH BED.
THOMAS HOOD. We watch'd her breathing through the night,
Her breathing soft and low, As in her breast the wave of life
Kept heaving to and fro.
So silently we seem'd to speak,
So slowly moved about,
To eke her living out.
Our fears our hopes belied-
And sleeping when she died.
Nor in the solitude
Only in savage wood
Or only hear His voice
Even here do I behold
Through the great city roll'l,
Choking the ways that wind
Thy golden sunshine comes From the round Heaven, and on their dwelling lies,
And lights their inner homes :
And givest them the stores
Thy Spirit is around, * Quickening the restless mass that sweeps along;
And this eternal sound-
Like the resounding sea,
And when the hours of rest
Hushing its billowy breast-
It breathes of Him who keeps
For when the morn came dim and sad,
And chill with early showers, Her quiet eyelids closed-she had
Another morn than ours.
THE PALE IMAGE.
To the blanch'd cheek:
On that mouth so meek:
Gentle ones as she.
dreams; And when met in Paradise
Scarcely known shall be.
Would I could wing it like a bird to thee,
Brother, come home.
That beam in brightness but to gladden thine ; Come where fond thoughts like holiest incense
rise, Where cherish'd memory rears her altar's shrine.
Brother, come home.
Come to the ark, like the o'er-wearied dove, Come with the sunlight of thy heart's warm
rays Come to the fireside circle of thy love.
Brother, come home.
Is still unclaim'd, where thou wert wont to be ;
Brother, come home.
Come home. We've nursed for thee the sunny buds of spring,
Watch'd every germ a full-blown flowret rear Saw o'er their bloom the chilly winter bring Its icy garlands, and thou art not here.
Brother, come home.
Would I could wing it like a bird to thee,
Brother, come home. RIDDLE.
BY DR. COTTON.
In silk, satin, silver, or gold;
By females my science is told. My leaves are all scarlet, my letters are steel,
Each letter contains a great treasure; To the poor they spell lodging, and fuel, and
meal, To the rich, entertainment and pleasure. The sempstress explores me by day and by
night, Not a page but she turns o'er and o'er ; Though sometimes I injure the milliner's sight,
Still I add to her credit and store. 'T is true I am seldom regarded by men,
Yet what would the males do without me? Let them boast of their head, or boast of their
pen, Still vain is their boast if they flout me!
CONUNDRUMS. 1. Why is a drunkard hesitating to sign the pledge like a sceptical Hindoo? Ăns.-Becanse he is in doubt whether to give up the worship of Jug or not (Juggernaut).
2. If an awkward fellow upsets your best tea. service, what flower does he remind you of? Ans.--China a-stir (China Aster).
A famous town you then will find.
Ans.--The letter E.
I'm used in traffic every day :
2. A part of the head to a consonant join'd, A fruit much esteem'd you'll presently find.
Although my second puny be and weak,
2. My first is always restless seen, My second every man has been, My whole is time in every stage of childhood, manhood, youth, and agen 'Tis summer, winter, autumn, spring, Fleeting, and ever on the wing.
Down to this moment from the fall;
The gate, the peristyle, and wall.
Are dreaded rather than admired.
ANSWERS TO FAMILY PASTIME.
PAGE 359. Puzzle-The counters being placed eight in s row, take the fifth from the left hand, and place it on the second; then take the third and place it on the seventh; then place the first on the fourth; and lastly, the sixth on the eighth.
ENIGMAS-1. Shades, Hades. 2, Nail. 3. Tenet. 4. Mole. 5. The five vowels.
QUERIES–1. Because manors (manners) make the man. 2. Because he kept Good Friday. 3 Because a queen's head was not worth a penny during his reign. 4. Because both are employed in an elegant mode of wa(i)sting time.
CHARADES-Fox-glove. 2. Madam. 3. Spin. i net. 4. Star-ling. 5. Can-did.
THE EDITOR AND HIS FRIENDS.
Editor's Address :-London, 69, Fleet-street. The Editor of “The Family Friend."
IN commencing the Third Volume of our New SERIES, let us as usual impress upon our Friends that our Appendix is devoted not merely to Editorial answers to Questions put by Correspondents, but to useful Facts, Hints, and Suggestions, supplied by Correspondents themselves, -as Friends of our great Family. We cannot too highly prize the many useful treasures communicated to our first Series by numerous co-operators, and we earnestly invite not only a continuance but an increase of this friendly feeling, which prompts the possessor of any useful and practical information to publish it through our pages for the benefit of others.
All letters of inquiry should be written as briefly and legibly as possible ; and but one Query should be submitted by one Correspondent at a time.
Correspondents should avoid troubling the Editor for information which may be easily obtained by reference to works usually accessible. Thus, the meaning and pronunciation of English words; the dates of well-known events, &c., &c., &c., are not fair matters for Editorial interrogation, since all parties, with less delay and trouble than would be occasioned by addressing the Editor, may obtain the required information for themselves.
Inquiries which are merely of individual interest will seldom be replied to; and queries of a trifling character, unless they are of a nature to afford amusement, and thus relieve the more solid matter of the Appendix from the disadvantages of dulness and monotony, will seldom be regarded. Legal and medical questions, except such as relate to established general principles of jurisprudence and medical science, must necessarily be set aside. We assume that every paragraph inserted in the Appendix should be useful to many persons, which would not be the case if matters of a merely local or private nature were introduced.
1-Acuteness of Hearing in Animals. L.--Your next, a coarse towel, but of loose texture, and observations are just. Cats and dogs can hear highly absorbing quality, should be passed more the movements of their prey at incredible dis gently and slowly over the skin until perfect drytances, and that even in the midst of noise, ness is produced. which we should have thought would have over- 4-Cold Weather. E. W.- Keep away from powered such effects. Rabbits when alarmed, the fire as much as possible. Those who geneforcibly strike the earth with their feet, by the rally occupy warm apartments, cannot well vibration of which they communicate their appre- imagine how much more brisk and happy the hensions to burrows very remote.
feelings are, and how far more clear and vigorous 2
Morocco Leather. J. C. S. - Is not so is the intellect, while one is kept warm by exercalled from its being brought from Morocco, but cise on a cold day, than by sitting in a hot room; from the art of dressing it being originally intro- nor how lax and listless, in comparison, are we duced from that country. The true Morocco rendered by artificial heat. Abundance of exerleather is made of goat-skins tanned and dyed on cise, respiration, and good food, is the great their outsides; sheep-skins are also similarly receipt for keeping comfortable in cold weather. treated. The goat-skins are not only more pliant, 5--Liveries. G. R. W.-We cannot tell you but their surface is smoother; they are also more the precise period when liveries were first worn durable than those of sheep, but their employ- / by domestics. In olden times tradesmen as well ment is restricted on account of their high price. as servants wore these badges. Anterior to
3--Towels for Drying the skin. W. H.--The Richard the Second, tradesmen who served roughness of the towel must be proportioned to a nobleman's family wore his livery, and the the sensitiveness of the skin. Some will bear a placing of royal and noble arms over tradesmen's coarser cloth than others. Two towels should be shops to this day is a relic of such a custom. The used, the first of sufficient roughness to produce livery of London, besides the dress of their coman agreeable glow after the necessary friction; panies, often wore on great occasions, from com