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P. c. 2 angustifolia Hort. has the lobes of the leaves narrow, and flowers rather later than the species.
P. c. 3 glaucophylla Hort. has the leaves glaucous beneath. P. c. 4 Colvillii Swt. Fl.-Gard., t. 126., has the lobes of the leaves ob. long-lanceolate, and the flowers whitish, tinged with blue and purple. It is a hybrid, which was raised in Colvill's Nursery; and it is consi. dered as hardy as the species.
P.c. 5 racemosa Hort. Trans., 4. t. 9., is a hybrid between P. cærulea and the stove species, P. racemdsa, originated in 1820. It has pur. plish flowers; and is not so hardy as P. cærulea.
P. incarnata L. (Bot. Reg., t. 332. ; and our fig. 710.), the flesh-coloured Granadilla, or May Apple, is a native of South America and Virginia, with Alesh-coloured Howers, and fruit about the size of a small apple, orange.coloured, with a sweetish yellow pulp. It may almost be considered as herbaceous, as the shoots die down nearly to the ground every year ; on which account the roots, or stool, may, with the greater ease, be preserved against a conservative wall.
P. tiliafolia L., the Lime-tree-leaved Passion Flower, is a native of 710 Peru, with cordate entire leaves, red flowers, and fruit globose and variegated with red and yellow. It was introduced in 1823, and is considered nearly as hardy as P. cæràlea.
Other species or varieties, to be found in British catalogues and gardens, may, perhaps, be as hardy as some of those above mentioned ; and, as they are all eminently beautiful, we recommend them to be tried against a conservative wall as extensively as possible.
Disémma adiantifolia Dec. ; PassiAdra. adiantifolia Bot. Reg.,
t. 233. ; and our fig. 711. ; is a splendid twiner, a native of Norfolk Island, introduced in 1792; and, though not very common, it is highly probable that it would thrive against a conservative wall. The leaves are lobed, and the flowers yellow at first, becoming at length of an orange colour, with the inner crown green, and longer than the purple rays that surround it. (Don's Mill., 3. p. 56.)
Tacsònia pinnatistipula Juss., Swt. Fl.-Gard., new series, 2. t. 156. ; Passifldra pinnatistipula Cav. ; is a climbing shrub, a native of Chili, introduced in 1828. The leaves are white from velvety down on their
711 under surface; the stipules are pinnate; and the flowers rose-coloured, or purplish, with the crown a deep blue. The plant, which is exceedingly beautiful, has flowered magnificently, and ripened its round yellow fruit, in the conservatory of Mrs. Marryat, at Wimbledon; and it has flowered on the open wall of the garden of Englefield House, near Reading. There are several other species of this genus, but they have not yet been introduced. Hybrids will, no doubt, be raised between this genus and PassiAdra; and perhaps something might be gained in hardiness by grafting T. pinnatistípula on Passifdra cærůlea. The flexible shoots of all the plants noticed in this chapter admit so readily of protection, by tying them in bundles, and enveloping them in straw and matting, that no conservative wall ought to be without them.
OF THE HARDY AND HALF-HARDY SPECIES OF THE ORDER
SE'DUM populifolium L. (Willd. Sp. Pl., ii. p. 762., Bot. Mag., t. 211.); the Poplar-leaved Sedum, or Stonecrop; Anacampseros populifolia Haworth Syn. Plant. Suc., p. 113.; is a hardy miniature shrub, a native of Siberia, which was introduced in 1780, and flowers in July and August.
It is remarkable as being truly ligneous in a genus the other species of which are nearly all herbaceous. The flowers are white, and are particularly grateful to bees, whence this shrub is well adapted for planting near an apiary.
Sempervivum arbdreum L., the Tree Houseleek, (Bot. Reg., t. 29. ; and our fig. 712.) is a native of Portugal, Barbary, and Candia, where it grows to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft.; producing its yellow flowers from March to December. It is an old inhabitant of our green. houses, and, with the proper protection, would stand against a conservative wall! There are two varieties : one with variegated leaves, and one with leaves which
712 take a rich brown in summer or autumn.
CHAP. LII. OF THE HALF-HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER FICÖIDA'CEÆ,
OR MESEMBRYACEÆ. Mesembryúnthemum L There are a great many species and varieties of this genus described by botanists, no fewer than 339 being enumerated in Don's Miller. Most of them are natives of dry sandy soils at the Cape of Good Hope, and in other parts of Africa ; and many sorts will live through the winter on rockwork, in the neighbourhood of London, if protected with dry litter. When they can be preserved through the winter, they make a splendid appearance in the summer, with their brilliant flowers of scarlet, yellow, purple, or white. Several species have stood through the winter, without any protection, on the rockwork in the Chelsea Botanic Garden ; and a number of sorts were, till lately, preserved in a cold-pit in the garden of the
London Horticultural Society.
OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER NITRARIA'CEÆ.
This order includes only one genus, so that the following generic characters will portray the chief of the characteristics of the order : Nitra'ria L. Calyx inferior, in 5 deep divisions. Petals 5, arising from the
calyx, their æstivation inflexed and valvular. Stamens 15, perigynous. Ovary with 3 or more cells, with a continuous fleshy style, at whose tip are as many stigmatic lines as there are cells. Fruit drupaceous, opening by 3 or 6 valves. Seeds solitary, pendulous by a long funiculus. Embryo straight, dicotyledonous. - Shrubs, with deciduous, succulent, alternate leaves, which, in some instances, are in fascicles; and with flowers in cymes, or solitary. Properties, slightly saline. (Lindl. Introd. to N.S.)
NITRA'RIA L. Tue NITRARIA. Lin. Syst. Dodecándria Monogynia. Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 602.; Lam. Ill., t. 403. ; Gærtn. Fruct., 1. t. 58. ; Dec. Prod., S. p. 456;
Don's Mill., 3. p. 155. Derivation. So named by Schober, from one of the species being discovered in certain nitre-works in Siberia, along with other saline plants.
Description, 8c. Shrubs, seldom rising more than 4 ft. in height; and, in British gardens, thriving best in a dry soil, composed partly of lime rubbish, which should be, about once a year, strewed with a thin coat of salt. Propagated by cuttings.
1. N. Scho'bERI L. Schober's Nitraria. Identification. Lin. Sp., 638.; Dec.
713 Prod., 3. p. 456. ; Don's Mill., 3.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves
oblong, perfectly entire. Drupes ovate. It varies,
714 with branches spiny, and not so. A native of the neighbourhood of salt lakes in Russia. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 456.) Intro
duced in 1788. Varieties.
N. S. 1 sibirica; N.
* N. S. 2 cáspica; N. caspica Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 50. f. B.; and our
fig. 714. — Fruit red. Leaves longer. Native by the Caspian Sea.
By Steven's written observations in Willdenow's Herbarium, it
the bush very ornamental.
* 2. N. TRIDENTA'TA Desf. The 3-toothed-leaved Nitraria.
ovate. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 456.) A native of sandy fields of Barbary and Egypt; growing to the
OF THE HALF-HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER CACTA'CEÆ.
Opuntia vulgaris Mill. ; Cactus Opúntia L., Mill. Icon., t. 191. ; the common Indian Fig, or Prickly Pear; is a native of North America, in the southern states, and is found abundantly in gardens in the neighbourhood of New York. It is also very common in Italy, and various parts of the south of Europe. In Virginia, it is valued for its refreshing fruit; and it has been cul. tivated for the same purpose on dry rockwork, in the neighbourhood of London. (See Encyc. of Gard., edit. 1835, p. 979.)' It will live many years, with little or no protection, at the bottom of a dry warm wall; and, though usually prostrate, yet, if the shoots are nailed to the wall, it will grow to the height of several feet. It deserves a place in a collection of half-hardy ligneous succulent plants, for the sake of its singular appearance; and various other genera and species belonging to the same order are, probably, nearly as hardy.
OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER GROSSULA'CEÆ.
This order consists of the genus Ribes only; and the following characteristics of that genus are the chief of those of the order : Ri`BES L. Calyx superior, having 4-5 coloured lobes; and bearing from its
throat 5, 4, or ? 0, small petals; and 5, very rarely 6, stamens. The lobes of the calyx, the petals, and the stamens, are, in most instances, 5 each; and, in such, are alternate with one another. The two sexes are present, in most kinds, in the same flower; in a few diecious, at least in result. Ovary with 1 cell, and 2 parietal placentas. The ovules numerous. Style 1. Fruit a subglobose berry, tipped with the remains of the part of the flower that is distinct from the ovary. The seeds many, oblong, subcompressed; each suspended in the pulp by a long, slender, funiculus; and having an aril, horny albumen, and an embryo that is minute, dicotyledonous, and situate at the smaller end of the seed, contiguous to the bilum, but with the radicle pointing to one side. Shrubs, unarmed or prickly. Leaves alternate, lobed or cut, plaited when folded in the bud, deciduous. A bractea is at the base of every pedicel, and two smaller are upon it below the ovary; Flowers greenish, whitish, yellow, or red. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 477., and Lindl. Introd. to N. S.) M. Spach, in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles for 1835, has subdivided the genus Ribes into the genera authenticated as his among our synonymes.
REESE LIBRARY UNIVERSITY
RIBES L. The Ribes. Lin. Syst. Pentándria Monogynia. Identification. Lin. Gen., 281. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 477. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 177. Synonymes. Grossulària Tourn., Gærtn.; Chrysobótrya, Calobótrya, Coreósma, and Rebes Spach ;
Groseiller, Fr.; Johannisbeere, Ger. ; Kruisbes, Dutch; Uva Spina, Ital.; Grossella, Span. Derivation. The word is from the name of an acid plant mentioned by the Arabian physicians,
which has been discovered to be the Rhèum Ribes ; Grossulària is from the Latin grossulus, a little unripe fig. Description, &c. This genus consists of low deciduous shrubs, two of which (the common currant and gooseberry) are well known in British gardens, for their valuable fruits. We shall here consider all the species of the genus entirely in the light of ornamental shrubs, taking little notice of the varieties cultivated in gardens for their fruit. Many of the sorts here set down as species are, we have no doubt, only varieties; but, as we are not able to refer these to their aboriginal forms, we have followed the usual authorities, and more especially the nomenclature adopted in the Horticultural Society's Garden; a synopsis of the sorts in which, by Mr. Gordon, will be found at the end of this article. All the species of Ribes strike root readily from cuttings; and grow freely in any soil that is tolerably dry; but, as they are only ligneous in a subordinate degree, and are but of a temporary duration under any circumstances, they require to be grown in dry beds or borders, and are, therefore, more fitted for scientific collections or flower-borders, than for general shrubberies, undug arboretums, or lawns. The most showy species are Ribes sanguíneum and aureum, and their varieties. R. speciosum, has a singular fuchsia-like appearance when in blossom; and R. multiflòrum, though the flowers are greenish, is remarkably elegant, on account of the long many-flowered racemes in which they are disposed. The price, in the London nurseries, varies from 1s. to 2s. each; at Bollwyller, from 50 cents to 1 franc; and at New York, from 25 cents to half a dollar. The varieties cultivated as fruit trees are much cheaper ; and R. speciòsum, which is rather difficult to propagate, and some of the other species, which are new, and as yet rare, are dearer.
Ø i. Grossulariæ Ach. Rich. Gooseberries.
Synonymes. Grosseiller à Maquereau, Fr. ; Stachelbeere Strauch, Ger.; Kruisbes, Dutch ; Uva
Spina, Ital.; and Grosella, Span.
in racemes, 1, 2, or 3, in a raceme. Calyx more or less bell-shaped. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 478.) Shrubs with prickles; and with the leaves and fruit more or less resembling those of the common gooseberry.
A. Flowers greenish white. s 1. R. Oxyacanthör'des L. The Hawthorn-leaved Gooseberry. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 165.; Berlandier in Mém. Soc. Phys. Gen., 3. pars 2.
p. 43. t. 1. f. 1., not of Michaux. Engravings. Mém. Soc. Phys. Gen., 3. pars 2. t. 1. f. 1. ; Dill. Elth., t. 139. p. 166. ; and our fig. 715. Spec. Char., &c. Infra-axillary prickles larger, and mostly solitary; smaller
prickles scattered here and there. Leaves glabrous, their lobes dentate, their petioles villous, and a little hispid. Peduncles short, bearing 1-2 flowers. Berry globose, glabrous, purplish blue. A native of rocks of Canada. (Dec. Prod., iii
. p. 478.) This shrub varies much in the number and colour of its prickles, and its more or less dense ramification and pubescence. The fruit resembles that of the common gooseberry, and is sometimes red, and
at other times green, or purplish blue;
2. R. sEto'sum Lindl. The bristly Gooseberry. Identification. Lindl. Bot. Reg. ; Hook. FI. Amer., 1. p. 230.
Don's Mill, 3. p. 177. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Prickles unequal, subulate. Leaves roundish, cordate at the base, pubescent, 3—5-lobed, deeply crenated. Peduncles 2-flowered, sometimes bracteate. Calyx tubularly campanulate, with the segments linear, obtuse, and spreading, twice the length of the petals, which are entire. Berries hispid. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 177.) Native of North America, on the banks of the Saskatchawan. A shrub, growing 4 ft. or 5 ft. high; flowering in April and May. Introduced in
3. R. TRIFLO'RUM W. The 3-flowered Gooseberry.
Mill., 3. p. 177. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
our fig. 717.
tary. Leaves glabrous, 3—5-lobed, incisely dentate. Peduncles bearing 1-3 flowers. Pedicels long Bracteas membranaceous, 717 sheathing. Calyxes tubularly bell-shaped. Petals spathulately obcordate. Berries reddish, glabrous. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 479.) A native of North America. Introduced in 1812; and easily distinguished from R. Cynósbati by its smooth fruit, narrow flowers, and exserted stamens. In British gardens, its grows to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft., and produces its whitish flowers in April and May. 9 4. R. (T.) NI'veum Lindl. The snowy-flowered Currant-like Gooseberry, Identification. _Lindl, in Bot. Reg., t. 1692. Engravings. Bot. Reg. t. 1692.; and our fig. 718. Spec. Char., &c. Branches prickly, the prickles solitary, or in pairs, or in
threes. Leaves glabrous, roundish, entire at the base, having in the outward part 3 blunt lobes that are crenately cut. Flowers about 2