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F. bacillaris Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1480., is a native of Mexico, introduced in 1829, which grows to the height of 5 ft., and produces its rose-coloured flowers all the summer.
F.hýbrida Swt. is a hybrid of uncertain origin, raised in 1825, and producing its scarlet flowers from May to October. It grows 3 ft. or 4 ft. high.
F.globosa Hort, is supposed to be a hybrid originated between F. macrostèmon and F. cónica, about 1830. It is remarkable for the globular shape of the calyx before it bursts, when it looks like the drop of a coral ear.ring. It is tolerably hardy, and, when killed down to the ground, will shoot up again in spring.
F. g. 2 longiftdra Hort. A plant bearing this name was exhibited at the Horticultural Society's Garden, May 14. 1836. It closely resembled the species, only differing in the flower being much larger and longer.
F. longiflora Hort., F. longipedunculåta Beaton, has been much vaunted; but it is chiefly remarkable for its long peduncles.
F. speciosa Hort, F. grandiflora Hort., F. præ'cox Hort., and F. Thompsonii Hort., are names current in gardens for sorts originated in this country, of va. rious degrees of beauty.
F. ercorticàta Lin. fil., Skinnera excorticàta Forst., (Bot. Reg., 857. ; and our fig. 668.) has smooth branches, and ovate-lanceolate leaves, with the sepals green and purple, and the petals violaceous. The stem and branches, after a few years' growth, throw off the bark in the manner of Arbutus Andrách ne, by which this species is readily distinguished from all others. It is a native of New Zealand, where it was discovered by Forster, during one of Captain Cook's voyages, but was not introduced in a living state until 1824. It grows to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft., and flowers from June to October.
Other Varieties are continually being obtained from seed by different cultivators. Mr. Dennis, of the Grosvenor Row Nursery, Chelsea, has raised a
668 great number of these, particularly in 1834 ; one of which seems to have a pendulous habit, with flowers like those of F. globosa, but smaller. (Gard. Mag., xi. p. 582.)
OF THE HALF-HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER Lythracex.
Helmia salicifolia Link et Otto (Swt. Brit. Fl-Gard., t. 281. ; and our fig. 669.), Nesæ'a salicifolia H. B. et Kunth, Lythrum fàrum Spreng., is a shrub, growing to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft.; with willow-like leaves, and lythrum-like yellow flowers, which are produced from June to September. It was introduced in 1821, and requires very little protection.
H. myrtifolia Hort. Berol., Lģthrum apétalum Spreng., has smaller leaves than the preceding sort; but in other respects
+ closely resembles it, and is, in all probability, only a variety. It is a native of Brazil; was introduced in 1826, and flowers in August and September.
H. linearifolia Hort, is obviously a variety of H. salicifolia. It was introduced in 1826; and, with the two preceding sorts, was, in 1834, in abundance in the open garden in the Epsom Nur. sery.
Å. syphilitica Dec. is a native of Mexico, said to possess powerful medical properties ; but it is not yet introduced. It grows, like the others, from 4 ft. to 6 ft. high. All these plants are easily propagated by cuttings ; and they
669 will grow in any light sandy soil, with a little protection during winter.
Lagerstræ'mia indica L. (Bot. Mag., t. 405., and our fig. 670.), the Pride of India of the Americans, is a splendid shrub, a native of China, Cochin-China, and Japan; but not of India, notwithstanding its name. Ít has roundish, ovate, glabrous leaves ; many-flowered terminal panicles, and the petals curled at the edges, with long claws, somewhat in the manner of Clárkia pulchélla, by which alone its flowers may be easily distinguished from those of most other woody plants. The petals are flesh-coloured, and the bark and the veins of the leaves of a somewhat reddish brown. It was introduced in 1759, and has stood out, with very little protection during winter, in the Fulham Nursery, and in other gardens about London, for upwards of 10 years; but it seldom flowers, except in a stove. It is, however, worth cultivating against a conservative wall, for the sake of its foliage.
L. parvifolia Roxb. is a native of the Circar Mountains, in the East Indies; and it was introduced in 1818. We are not aware of its having been tried against a conservative wall; but it is probably as hardy as the preceding and following species, both of which have been tried successtully.
L. reginæ Roxb. is a native of the Circars and of Java, where it grows to be a tree 20 ft. high. It was introduced in 1792, and appears as hardy as L. indica. The flowers are nearly two thirds of an inch in diameter; of a beautiful rose colour in the morning, growing deeper through the day, until they become purple in the evening. The angles of the branches in this, as in all the species, are winged. They are all of the easiest culture, and, being decidedly deciduous, if their wood is ripened in time, they may be covered with a mat, or with straw, during the whole of the winter. In the warmest parts of Devonshire and Cornwall, this and the two preceding species may be treated as wall shrubs. 670
OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER TAMARICA'CEÆ.
This order consists of two genera; and the most of its characteristics are included in the generic characters which are given below. TA'MaRix Desv. Calyx persistent, parted into 4-5 lobes that are subimbri.
cately æstivated. Petals 4–5, inserted into the base of the calyx, alternate with its lobes, imbricate in æstivation, withering. Stamens 4–5, alternate with the petals; the filaments almost wholly distinct from one another. Ovary free of the calyx, ovate-pyramidate, triangular, with a long taper termination. Stigmas 3, long, divaricate, glandulose at the tip, oblique. Capsule with 3 angles, 3 valves, 1 cell, and many seeds. Seeds inserted into the very base of the valves, or nearly into the centre of the capsule, erect, each bearing at its tip a coma of many simple hairs. There is not any albumen. Embryo straight; its radicle small, inferior; its cotyledons fat-convex, oblong. Flowers small, in spikes : these, in many instances, are disposed in panicles. (Dec. Prod., iii.
p. 95.) MYRICA'RIA Desv. Calyx parted into 5 lobes. Petals 5. Stamens 10;
every alternate one shorter; the filaments of all connate from the base to about the middle of their length. There is not any style. Stigmas connate into a little head. Seeds inserted along a line in the middle of each valve of the capsule, ascending, ending in a plumy thread. Flowers in terminal, simplish spikes. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 97.)
These genera were originally included under one genus, Támarix; the separation being made on account of the above technical distinctions. “The plants of the genus Támarix,” Royle observes, "are distributed over a wide extent of territory in the Old World; from 10° to 50° and 55° of N. lat. in Europe and Siberia; and from the Canaries and Senegambia on the west, to China on the east. They differ as much in their localities as in their latitudes; being found on the shores of the ocean, or the banks of rivers (as the Ganges and the Nile), as well in the arid and sandy parts of Northern India and the Punjab, as in the cold and elevated climates of Tibet and Siberia: but in these the soil is saline. The genus Myricària, existing in Europe, Siberia, and Dahuria, is found also in Kunawur, and in the country crossed by Mr. Moorcroft in his journey to Manasarowur.” (Illustrations, fc., p. 213.) There are two species of Tamarix common in India; viz. T. indica and T. dioica. “ The former, found on the banks of the Ganges, and other rivers, as well as on the coast of Coromandel, has been referred, by some authors, to T. gallica, with which it is closely allied; and, if identical, the circumstance will afford an additional instance of the great extent over which a species may spread, when growing in the vicinity of water. T. Furas Hamilt. is the T. orientális of Forskahl, and is common in the drier parts of the Doab, and at Delhi; and also in Arabia and Egypt. Myricària, the other genus of this order, includes Támarix germánica, which extends from Europe to the Caucasus: other species, or perhaps varieties, are found in Siberia and Dahuria, and two in the Himalayas.” (Ibid.) Támarix gallica and Myricària germánica, are almost the only plants of this order found in British gardens. The former is interesting, from its ascending spreading stems, numerous slender branches, abundant minute foliage, and its plentiful panicles of racemes, of pale rosy flowers; M. germánica is interesting from its close upright habit of growth, glaucous hue, and evergreen foliage.
The Properties of the Tamaricaceæ are considered to be bitterness and astringency; and hence “ the occasional employment of the European species as a tonic, and as a substitute for hops, in making beer, in Denmark. In India, also, the twigs of T. índica and T. dioica are considered astringent; but the plants are more valued on account of the galls that are found on them, and
other species ; and which, being highly astringent, are used in medicine and dyeing. The ashes of T. gallica and T. africàna, when growing near the sea, contain a large proportion of sulphate of soda; so that they may be profitably burnt to obtain this salt : its abundance explains the utility of some of these plants as diuretics. T. gallica grows on Mount Sinai; and, by the puncture of Cóccus manniparus, a species of manna is produced, which is known by the name of Arabian, to distinguish it from the Persian manna, which is the produce of Alhagi Mauròrum. (p. 646.) The tamarisk was a celebrated medicinal plant with the ancient Arabians, from whom the Latins seem to have borrowed the high encomiums they bestowed on its virtues. Dr. Grindall, who brought it from Germany after he was made Archbishop of Canterbury (see p. 39.), cultivated it chiefly for its medicinal virtues; and Master Richard Hakluyt, in 1599, tells us that “many people have received great health by this plant.” (Voy., ii. p. 161.). The tamarisk is mentioned by nearly all the ancient poets. Homer states that it was the tree against which Achilles laid his spear before he plunged into the Eanthus to pursue the flying Trojans; and Theocritus, in his Pastorals, Virgil, in his Eclogues, and Ovid, in several of his poems, all refer to this plant. Some of the older British poets have also celebrated it. Davy says,
“ On yon rough crag,
Where the wild tamarisk whistles to the blast;" and Browne,
“Among the rest, the tamarisk there stood,
For huswives' besomes onely knowne most good." Evelyn speaks of it as having been anciently considered as a tree accursed; and says that the Romans wove wreaths of it, with which they crowned their criminals.
TA'MARIX Desv. The TAMARISK. Lin. Syst. Pentándria Trigynia. Identification. Desv. Ann. Sc. Nat., 4. p. 348. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 95. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 725. Synonymes. The species of Tamarix of authors that have 4 stamens and 5 stamens ; Tamaris, Fr.;
Tamarisken, Ger. Derivation. So called, according to some, from the plants growing on the banks of the river Tamaras now Tambra, on the borders of the Pyrenees; or, according to others, from the Hebrew word tamaris, cleansing, on account of their branches being used for brooms.
Description, fc. Tall shrubs, natives of Europe, the north of Africa, and the west of Asia ; subevergreen in British gardens; and highly valuable, as standing the sea breeze in situations where few other ligneous plants, and no other flowering shrubs, will grow.
ul. T. GA’LLICA L. The French Tamarisk. Identification.. Lin. Sp., 386. ; Mill. Ic. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 96. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 726. Synonymes. T. narbonensis Lob. Ic., 2. t. 218. ; Tamariscus gallicus Aul. ; Tamariscus pentán.
drus Lam. Fl. Fr., not of Pall. Engravings. Mill. Ic., t. 262. f. 1. ; Blackw. Herb., t. 331.; Lob. lc., 2. t. 218.; N. Du Ham., vol.
vii. t. 59. ; and our fig. 671. Spec. Char., fc. Glabrous, glaucous. Leaves minute, clasping
the stem or branch, adpressed, acute. Spikes of flowers lateral, somewhat panicled, slender, 5 times longer than broad. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 96.), Frequent in sandy places in France, on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and of the Atlantic Ocean, as far as Poictiers ; also found upon the banks of rivers in the south of Europe, north of Africa, and west of Asia : flowering from May to October. It is likewise a native of Tartary, Barbary, the Himalayas, and Japan; and it has been found wild + in Cornwall, Hampshire, Sussex, and Suffolk, in England. It 671
was known to the Greeks by the name of Myrica, and to the Latins as
Leaves glabrous, pale green, a little spreading. This may be considered the form of the
species. T. g: 2 narbonensis Ehr., 1.c.-Branches stiff, spreading. Leaves glabrous, obscure green,
densely imbricated, margined with white; spikes of Aowers short, rather lateral. T. g. 3 nilótica Ehr., 1. c., p. 269.-Branches effuse, rather loose. Leaves short, glaucous,
spreading Spikes elongated. Gland surrounding the ovary, hypogynous, with 10
equally distant teeth. #T. g. 4 arbórea Sieb. ex Ehrenberg, l. C. — Branches effuse, thickened, stiffish, nearly
terete, Leaves glabrous, densely adpressed to the stem. Teeth of hypogynous gland
usually approximate by pairs. T. g. 5 mannifera Ehr., 1. c, P. 270.-Branches stiffish. Leaves short, glaucous, covered with
white powder, spreading. Hypogynous gland with teeth at equal distances. The manna of Mount Sinai (noticed p. 917.) is the produce of this species. Of this there are two
subvarieties. * T. g:6 heterophylla Ehr., 1. c., p. 270.-Branches very slender. Leaves light green, glabrous,
1 short, acute; the upper ones densely imbricated, the middle ones elongated and bluntish;
lower rameal ones broad-ovate, fat. Spikes much elongated, all very slender, T. g. 7 libanólica Lodd. Cat. The Rosemary-like Tamarisk. There are plants of this variety
in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, from
which it appears to be tolerably distinct.
App. i. Other hardy Species or Varieties of Támarix. In De Candolle's Prodromus, and in Don's Miller, several hardy sorts of Tamarix are described, in addition to T. gallica, most of which are found in Siberia, Tartary, or Caucasus ; and there are some tender species natives of the Canary Islands and Japan. Most of the hardy sorts described as species are, probably, only varieties of T. gallica ; which, according to Pallas, assumes a great variety of forms, according to the soil, situation, and climate, to which it may be indigenous. The hardy sorts enumerated in Don's Miller are as follows; and none of them have yet been introduced :
T. tetrandra Pal. Don's Mill., 2. p. 725. ; T. gallica Habl. ined. Taur., 6. p. 105. ; is a native of Tauria, about Astracan.
T. láza Willd. is a native of Siberia, in the valleys of Astracan, and about salt lakes. T. elongata Led. is also a native of Siberia, in the Desert of Soongaria, in saltish places. T. gracilis Willd. is found in Siberia, in salt marshes near the river Irtisch. T. hispida Willd., T. pentándra var. Pall., T. gallica var, 8 Willd., T. tomentosa Smith, T.ca. néscens Desv., is a native of the sandy deserts about the Caspian Sea.
T. ramosissima Led., T. gallica Sievers, is found at Lake Noor-Laisan, in Siberia.
T. Pallàsii Desv., T. pentandra Pall., T. gallica Bieb., T. paniculata Stev., is a native of Cape
T. cupressiformis Led. is a native of Siberia, in the Desert of Soongaria, near salt lakes.
T. effusa Ehrenb. is a native of the north of Africa. Remark. The native localities of the above sorts, and their synonymes; the circumstance of T. gállica being found not only in Europe, but in Africa and Asia ; together with the nature of the plant, which is extremely liable to vary with soil and situation ; seem to us to render it highly probable that all the above sorts are only varieties of one and the same species. Whether or not they are worth keeping distinct as varieties, it is impossible to say from the description, without having seen the plants.
App. ii. Half-hardy Sorts of Támarix.
T. africàna Poir., Don's Mill, 2. p. 726. ; T. gallica var. y Willd. ; has the bark browner, and
; the flowers a little larger than in T. gallica. It is found on the shores of the Mediterranean, in Egypt, and in various parts of the Levant. It is considered as requiring the protection of a frame in England; which may, probably, be the case, till it has become inured to the climate, even if it should be only a variety of T. gallica.
T. canariensis Willd. is a native of the Grand Canary Island and of Teneriffe, where it grows to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft. T. pycnocarpa Dec. is a native of the Levant, on the road side between Bagdad and Kermancha.
T. passerinordes Del. Fl. Egypt. is a native of Arabia and Egypt, in arid places. Ehrenberg, in the Linnæa, as before quoted, has described three forms of this alleged species : T. p. I divaricata, a native of the Oasis of Jupiter Ammon; T. p. 2 Hammonis, also a native of the Oasis; and T. p. 3 macrocarpa, found in various parts of Arabia and Egypt.
Other species or sorts are enumerated in Dec. Prod. and Don's Mill., which, being natives of India and Senegal, are considered as requiring the stove in Britain, and they are, consequently, omitted here ; though, if they properly belong to the genus, they will, probably, be found half-hardy.
MYRICA'RIA Desv. The MYRICARIA. Lin. Syst. Monadélphia
Decándria. Identification. Desv. Ann. Sc. Nat., 4. p. 349.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 97.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 727. Synonymes. The species of Támarix of authors that have monadelphous stamens. Derivation. From murikë, the Greek name of the tamarisk, derived from muro, to flow; the species being generally found on the banks of running streams; or from the flowing of the sap as manna.
Description, &c. Subevergreen shrubs, not growing to half the height of Tamarix gallica, and readily distinguished from it by their longer and thicker leaves, placed at a greater distance from one another on the stem; and by their larger flowers, which have 10 stamens. The propagation and culture are the same as those of the preceding genus.
. 1. M. GERMA’NICA Desv. The German Myricaria, or German Tamarisk. Identification. Desv. Ann. Sc. Nat., 4. p. 349.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 97. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 727. Synonymes. Tamarix germánica Lin. Sp., 386., Schkuhr Handb., t. 35.; Tamariscus decandrus
Lam. Fl. Fr.; Tamarix decándra Manch; Tamariscus germánicus Lob. Ic., 2. t. 218.; Tamaris d'Allemagne, Fr.; Deutschen Tamarisken, Ger. Engravings. Mill. Íc., t. 262. f. 2. ; Schkuhr Handb., t. 35. ; Lob. Ic., 2. t. 218. ; and our fig. 672. Spec. Char., &c. Fruticulose, glabrous. Leaves linearlanceolate, sessile. Spikes of flowers terminal, solitary. Bracteas longer than the pedicels. Capsules ascending. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 97.) A native of inundated sandy places, and the banks of rivers, throughout all Europe; and, in Asia, found on Caucasus, and the Himalayas. It was introduced into Britain in 1582, and, it is supposed, by Archbishop Grindall. It grows to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft., and Powers from June to September.
. 2. M. DAHU'RICA Dec. The Dahurian Myricaria. Identification. Dec. Prod., 3. p. 98. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 728. Synonyme. Támarix dahůrica Wild. Act. Berol., No. 16. Spec. Char., 8c. Shrubby, glabrous. Leaves linear, almost oblong, sessile,
slightly spreading. Spikes of flowers lateral, ovate-cylindrical, thick, blunt, with scales at the base. Bracteas extending as far as the flowers. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 98.) A native of Siberia, beyond the Baikal, and of Dahuria. Introduced in 1816, and growing to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft.