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kinds, some as growing wild in Italy; and others, that were in cultivation, and so large, that they weighed the boughs on which they grew down to the ground: he also mentions that some were of a green, and others of a golden, colour. The only kind that was eaten raw, he says, was the variety grafted on the small-fruited quince. . . . All kinds of this fruit,” he continues, are grown in boxes, and placed within the waiting-chambers of our great personages, in which men wait to salute these personages as they come forth every morning." It appears, from the same author, that quinces were used to decorate the images of the gods, which were placed, in sleeping-chambers, round the beds ; whence it follows, that the Romans did not think that there was anything either. injurious or unpleasant in the smell. Pliny gives directions for preserving the fruit, by excluding the air from them, or boiling them in honey; or, by plunging them into boiling honey; a practice in use with this and other fruits in Genoa at the present day. The date of the introduction of the quince into Britain is unknown. Gerard and Tusser mention it; the former, as growing in gardens and orchards, and as being "planted oftentimes in hedges and fences belonging to gardens and vineyards :" from which we may infer, that it was by no means rare in his time; and, indeed, in all probability, it has existed in this country from the time of the Romans. By some, the tree is considered as indigenous ; and Phillips states that quinces grow in such abundance in some parts of the Wealds of Sussex, as to enable private families to make quince wine in quantities of from 100 to 200 gallons in a season. (Pom. Brit., p. 327.) This wine, it is said, is greatly esteemed for
Properties and Uses. The wood of the quince is seldom found of such dimensions as to be applied to any purpose in the arts; and the tree is therefore cultivated entirely for its fruit, or as stocks on which to graft the pear. The fruit is seldom eaten by itself, and never raw; but is generally made into marmalade, or mixed with apples in tarts. Medicinally, it is considered astringent and stomachic. Quince wine is made with sugar and water, in the same manner as other fruit wines are in England; the quinces being first ground, or beaten into a pulp. The Portugal quince is considered the best variety for marmalade, as its pulp turns to a fine purple or crimson, when stewed or baked; and becomes much softer, and less austere, than that of the other varieties. This is also the best variety to cultivate for stocks, as its growth is less contracted than that of the common quince. Independently altogether of its value as a fruit tree, or of the young plants for stocks, the quince richly deserves a place in ornamental plantations, on account of the velvety surface of its leaves, its fine, large, pale pink flower, and, above all, its splendid golden fruit, which, when ripe on the tree, reminds us of the orange, groves of Italy, and may very well justify the conjecture that the quince was the true golden apple of the Hesperides. For ornamental purposes, the common pear, and the apple-shaped varieties, are much to be preferred to the Portugal quince; because the latter is not such a good bearer, and its fruit is not of such a deep orange colour,
Poetical and mythological Allusions. The quince was considered by the ancients to be the emblem of love, happiness, and fruitfulness: it was dedicated to Venus, and the temples of that goddess at Cyprus and Paphos were decorated with it. The nuptial chambers of the Greeks and Romans were decorated with the fruit ; and the bride and bridegroom also ate of it as soon as the marriage ceremony was performed. It has been supposed to be the golden fruit of the Hesperides; and a statue of Hercules, discovered at Rome, with three quinces in one of the hands has been referred to as a proof. The Farnese Hercules has, however, apples in his hand. It has also been alleged, that the golden fruit thrown by Hippomenes to Atalanta were quinces, and that the fruit of the forbidden tree, which the Jewish traditions expressly describe as golden, was a quince.
Soil and Situation. The quince prefers a moist but free soil, near water, and a situation open, but sheltered. In dry soil, neither the tree nor the fruit
attains any size; and, in situations exposed to high winds, the fruit will not remain on the tree till ripe. The finest specimens of quince trees in this country are to be found in old orchards, adjoining ponds ; it being customary, formerly, to plant a quince tree in every apple orchard.
Propagation and Culture. Seeds are ripened as readily by the quince as by the apple and pear; but the quickest way of raising plants is by layers, which is that generally adopted in British nurseries. The quince will also grow by cuttings, put in in autumn, in moist sandy soil. The tree, when once planted out, requires very little attention, beyond that of removing the suckers from the root, and the side shoots from the main stem. To have the fruit of a large size, the head of the tree ought to be kept open by thinning out the shoots; and the fruit ought also to be thinned out, leaving no more on the tree than it can well mature.
Statistics. In the environs of London, there are trees from 15 ft. to 20 ft. high, in various marketgardens. An old tree, in the Garden of the Horticultural Society, is 12 ft. high. In Radnorshire, at Maeslough Castle, there is a tree 21 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk of which is 10 in., and of the head 22 it. In Rutlandshire, at Belvoir Castle, 26 years planted, it is 15 ft. high. In Staffordshire, at Rolleston Hall, 50 years planted,
it is 20 ft. high, in moist soil on marl. In Suffolk, at Finborough Hall, 60 years planted, it is 16 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 4 in., and of the
head 20 ft. in Wilt shire, at Longford Castle, it is 15 ft. high, in light loam on moist gravel. In Worcestershire, at Hagley, 10 years planted, it is 11 ft. high.
I 2. C. SINE'nsis Thouin. The China Quince Tree. Identification. Thouin Ann. Mus., 19. p. 145. t. 8. and 9. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 638. ; Don's Mill., 2 Synonyme. Pyrus sinensis Poir. Suppl., 4. p. 452. Engravings Ann, Mus., 19. t. 8. and 9.; and the plate of this tree in our Second Volume. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves ovate, acuminated at both ends, acutely serrated
when young, a little villose, and when adult, glabrous. Stipules oblong linear, serrated, the teeth glanded. Flowers rosy, becoming red. Calyx glabrous, its lobes serrulated, and a little leafy. Stamens in one row. Fruit egg-shaped, large, hard, almost juiceless, and greenish. Seeds in each cell about 30, with many abortive. (Dec. Prod., č. p. 631.) A very handsome low tree, very distinct in appearance from the common quince, from the shining surface of its leaves, and the regular serratures of their margins. It is a native of China, where it grows to the height of 20 ft., flowering in May and June, and producing egg-shaped greenish fruit, which, as before stated, is hard, and nearly dry. There are plants in the Horticultural Society's Garden from 8 ft. to 10 ft. high; and it is propagated in the principal London nurseries.
. 3. C. JAPO'NICA Pers. The Japan Quince Tree. Identification. Pers. Syn., 2. p. 40. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 638.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 650. Synonymes. ? Pýrus japonica Thunb. Fl. Jap., 207., and Bot. Mag., t. 692. ; Chænomèles japonica
Lindi. Lin. Trans., 13. p. 98. Engravings, Bot. Mag., t. 692 ; Morris Fl. Conp., t. 1.; and our fig. 652. Spec. Char., fc, Leaves oval, somewhat cuneated, crenately serrated, gla brous upon both surfaces. Stipules kidney-shaped, and serrated. Flowers mostly 2–3 together, rarely solitary. Calyx gla
, brous; its lobes short, obtuse, entire. Stamens in two rows. (Dec. Prod., č. p. 638.) A shrub, a native of Japan and China ; growing to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft., and flowering the greater part of the year, more especially if supplied with water during the hottest months. It was introduced in 1815, and has spread rapidly throughout British gardens, in which it is generally known by the name of the Pyrus japonica. It is one of the most desirable deciduous shrubs in cultivation, whether as a bush in the open lawn, trained against a wall, or treated as an ornamental hedge plant. It has also been trained up with a single stem as a standard; and, in this character, its pendent branches
and numerous flowers, give it a rich and striking appearance, especially in early spring. It is difficult to unite with its congeners by grafting ; but, if it could be grafted standard high on the pear, the hawthorn, or even on the common quince, it would form a most delightful little tree. It has ripened fruit both as a bush, and against a wall; but the fruit, even when ripe, is unfit to eat, though it has so fragrant a smell as to induce some persons to keep it among
their clothes. The plant is readily propagated by layers or suckers, and it also grows by cuttings. In the Romance of Nature, a very elegant work on flowers, by Miss Twamley, the authoress, speaking of this shrub, calls its flowers “ fairy fires,"
“That gleam and glow amid the wintry scene,
Wreathed in deep crimson buds the fairy fires." Varieties. . C. j. 2 flore álbo has cream-coloured, or very pale red, flowers, and
forms a very distinct kind when in blossom.
are plants of this kind in the Kensington Nursery. Statistics. In the environs of London, trained against a wall, it is, in various places, from 12 ft. to 15 ft. high. In Worcestershire, at Croome, 20 years planted, it is 15 ft. high against a wall. In Scotland, it grows, and flowers freely, against a wall at Thainston, in Aberdeenshire; at Gordon Castle, in Banffshire; at Coul, in Ross and Cromarty; and at Dunrobiy Castle, in Sutherlandshire. It grows well, and flowers freely, in every part of Ireland.
App. i. Other Species of Cydònia. C. Sumbóshia Hamilt. in D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 237., and Don's Mill., 2. p. 650., is a native of Nepal, with cordate entire
leaves, and fruit attenuated at the base, like that of the Cydònia vulgaris.
App. I. Half-hardy Species of Rosacea, Pòmeæ, not belonging
to any of the Genera containing hardy Species. Raphiólepis (from raphis, a needle, and lepis, a scale; in reference to the narrow subulate bracteas, Lindl.) is a genus the species of which are evergreen trees or shrubs, natives of China, with crenulated, coriaceous, reticulated leaves, end terminal racemes of white flowers. Judging from the species already in the country, they are probably all tolerably hardy.
R. índica Livdl. in Lin. Trans, 13. p. 105., Dec. Prod., č. p. 630., and Don's Mill., ii. p. 601.; Cratæ'gus índica L., Bot. Mag., t. 1726., and our fig. 653.; is a native of India and China, introduced in 1806, which will stand in the open air, in warm sheltered situations, near London, as a bush; but which is safest when grown against a wall. In its native country it forms a low tree; but in British gardens it is an evergreen shrub, flowering from February to August. Dr. Sims considers it to bear considerable affinity in habit to Amelanchier vulgàris and A. Botryàpium. (Bot. Mag., t. 1726.) There are plants of it in the Botanic Garden at Kew, which have stood out since 1823; and in the Horticultural Society's Garden, which
653 were planted out in 1831,
R. salicifolia Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 651., and our fig. 654., is a native of China, with lanceolate leares, which
was introduced in 1824, and which has stood out in the Botanic Garden at Kew since 1823. R. rùbra Lindl. Coll., No. 3. t. 3., Don's Mill., 2. p. 602. ; Cratæ'gus rabra Lour. ; Méspilus sinépsis Poir.; is a native of China and Cochin-China, with ovate-lanceolate leaves, and reddish flowers. It is said to be a tree growing to the height of 30 ft. It was introduced in 1820, and is probably as hardy as the other species. A plant in the Horticultural Society's Garden has stood out against a wall since 1831.
R. pheostèmon Lindl. Coll., No. 3., and Don's Mill., 2. p. 601. ; R. Indica Bot. Reg., t. 468.; is a native of China, with lanceolate leaves, white petals, and brown filaments. It is said to have been ntroduced in 1820; but we have not seen the plant,
R. Loureiri Spreng., Don's Mill., 2. p. 601. ; Cratæ'gus índica Lour. Coch., p. 319. ; is a native of Cochin-China, where it grows to the height of 30 ft., and produces edible fruit.
R. spiralis Don's Mill., 2. p. 602.; Méspilus spiralis Blume Bijdr., p. 1102. ; is a tree, a native of China, with cuneate-oblong leaves.
Eriobótrya (from erion, wool, and botrus, a bunch of grapes; in reference to the fruit and flowers, which are in bunches, and woolly) Lindl.; Dec. Prod., ij. p. 631.; Don's Mill., ii. p. 602. This is a genus of Japan trees, evergreen in their foliage, which is large; and, independently of their flowers, strikingly picturesque and ornamental. The species are all readily propagated by grafting on the common hawthorn, or on the pear or quince.
E. japónica Lindl.; Méspilus japonica Thunb. Jap., 206., N. Du Ham., iv. p. 146. t. 39.; Lou-Koet, Japan. (corrupted to Loquat, the common English name of the plant); Cratægus Bibas (Bibasis, the Portuguese name) Lour. Coch., p. 319., Bot. Reg., t. 654 365., and our figs. 655., and 656.) has long, broad, wrinkled, elliptic, serrated leaves, tomentose beneath; and terminal panicles of white flowers, which are
655 succeeded by pear-shaped, yellow,
downy fruit, about the size of large gooseberries. It is a native of China and Japan, where it is cultivated as a fruit tree, and also as being ornamental ; and where it grows to the height of 20 ft. or 30 ft. It was introduced into Europe in 1784, according to the Nouv. Du Hamel; and it is found, more especially when grafted on the common thorn, to stand the winters both of Paris and London against a wall, with very little pro
tection. It has also produced fruit at different places in England, under glass, which, when well ripened in a stove, is not much inferior in taste and flavour to an ordinary plum. At Blithe
field, in Staffordshire, the loquat was fruited in pots, which were removed from the stove to the open air, and kept there from July to the middle of October, in order to give them a period of repose equivalent to a winter in their native country. After this, the plants were replaced in the stove, where they began to show Aower about the end of December, and ripened their fruit in March or April. (See Hort. Trans., vol. 3. t. 11.,
and E. of G., edit. 1835, p. 981.) When the loquat 656
is to be grown for its fruit, it is suggested, in the Nouv. Du Hamel, that the Cydònia vulgaris would form a better stock for it than the Cratæ'gus Oxyacántha; because the nature of the wood of the former, and its rate of expansion, come nearer to those of the loquat than those of the latter do. If it were thought worth while to grow the plant for its fruit, the first step would be to procure a very superior variety either from China, or by raising and fruiting some hundreds of seedlings in the open air, in Italy or Spain, and selecting those plants which produced the largest and best-flavoured fruit. These could be perpetuated by grafting on the quince, or on seedlings of the species; and the plants might be trained against a wall or on a trellis under glass, or against a Aued wall in the warmer parts of the south of England, and treated as the orange tree is there. To cultivate, for its fruit, any variety that may accidentally have fallen into the hands of the
cultivator, or that he may procure from any British garden or nursery, is not to do justice to the loquat, since many of the plants to be procured in nurseries have been raised from seed in this country; and these seedlings, as in the case of seedlings of every other tree, doubtless differ considerably in the size and quality of their fruit, as well as they do in their leaves. It should not be forgotten, that even the common white beam tree (Pyrus A'ria), and the common mountain ash (P. aucuparia), in a wild state, differ exceedingly in the quality of their fruit; and that, while some trees produce such as are large, mild, mealy, or sweet, those produced by others are extremely harsh and austere. The same may be said of the fruit of all rosaceous plants, and, we believe, also of all others.
E. elliptica Lindl. Lin. Trans., 13. p. 102., Dec. Prod., 2. p. 631., Don's Mill., 2. p. 603. ; Més pilus Caúla Hamilt. MS. in D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 238.; is a native of Nepal, and has leaves flat and elliptic, and downy yellow fruit. It was introduced in 1823; but we have not seen the plant.
E. cordata Lindl., E. obtusifolia Dec., and E. chinensis G. Don., are species not yet introduced (See Don's Mill., 2. p. 605.)
Kagenéckia (in honour of F. De Kageneck, ambassador from Holland to Spain) Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Per. Prod., t. 37., Don's Mill., ii. p. 522., is a genus of South American trees or shrubs, of which only one species is as yet introduced,
K. cratægöides D. Don; K. cratægifòlia Lind!. Bot. Reg., t. 1836., and our fig. 657.; is an evergreen shrub, with oval-lanceolate, smooth, glaucous green leaves, and cratæguslike flowers; the male and female flowers being produced separately on the same plant. The leaves are intensely bitter; and they are used by the inhabitants of Chili to cure intermittent fevers. The tree is said to grow to the height of 60 ft. in its native country, and to produce a valuable timber. A plant of this species, in the Horticultural Society's Garden, has stood against a wall since 1831 ; and its foliage has not been in the slightest degree injured by the late 657 severe winter; and it is now (May 1. 1836) coming into flower, In all probability, this plant will soon be added to our hardy evergreen shrubs or trees. It strikes readily by cuttings, and it may probably be grafted on the common hawthorn.
K. oblonga Ruiz et Pav., and K. lanceolata and K. glutinosa of the same authors, are species from the mountains of Chili and Peru, which have not yet been introduced. If they prove as hardy as K. cratægðides seems likely to do, they will be valuable additions in an ornamental point of view, and perhaps, also, as supplying a medicinal bitter. App. II. Half-hardy Species of Rosacea, belonging to the
Súborder Sanguisorbeæ. Margyricarpus setdsus Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Per., 1. p. 28. t. 8. f. d., Don's Mill., 2. p. 592.; E'mpetrum pinnatum Lam. Dict.; Ancistrum barbatum Lam. II.; is a native of Brazil, and other parts of South America, on arid hills, with white pearl-like fruit, esembling that of the mistletoe; but differing from it in having a grateful and acid taste. It is commonly kept in green-houses, and has ripened fruit in the
658 Cambridge Botanic Garden. It might possibly pass the winter in the garders in the neighbourhood of London, on con. servative rockwork.
Cercocarpus fothergillöldes H. B. et Kunth, Nov. Gen. Amer., 6. t. 559., Don's Mill., 2. p. 590.; Bertoldnia guieröldes Moc. et Sesse, Fl. Mer. Icon. Ined.; is a tree, a native of Mexico, with elliptic, coriaceous, glabrous leaves, growing, to the height of 12 ft. Flowers and fruit inconspicuous. It has not yet been introduced.
Aca na Vahl is a genus of which there are some species, natives of Mexico, which grow in situations at a low temperature; but, though they are technically considered ligne. ous, as they do not grow above half a foot or a foot in height, they do not appear to merit more than this general potice. (See Don's Mill., 2. p. 592.)
Potèrium spindsum L. (Moris. Oron , sect. 8. t. 8. f. 5.) is a shrub introduced in 1595, and growing to the height of 3 ft. The leaves are small, the flowers greenish, the fruit baccate, and the specics branched It is a native of the islands in the Archipelago, about Constantinople; and, though an old in.