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in the supply beforehand of these by working people. But at such vital qualifications.

times public sympathy in the form This view of the matter may be of liberal and timely help has been summed up as regards force by tak- a bright feature, which will be ening Mr Giffen's recently published tirely absent if a hostile course figures in his book on the growth of action is pursued. Then to of capital in Great Britain. He the employer belong all those says ten thousand million pounds mechanical producers, machinmay be taken as the sum total ery, which do the work of 50 of our industrial capital. De- millions of hands, at least, in Engducting working men's savings land alone, and whose powers inin banks and clubs as a mere flea- crease at a greater ratio than bite, he tells us 200 millions is those of workmen—than all animal added yearly. Therefore we get power; and over and above the a sum amounting to about half of visible form of wealth in which the gross yearly wages saved, and property is seen in this country, reinvested by the capitalists. No

No there is the shipping at sea and figures could more strikingly ex- abroad, and the foreign investhibit the disparity subsisting in ments belonging to our countryforce.

men, which are not tabulated in Resources. The resources of any reliable form, but are known employers are, then, all stores to bring in at the least 85 millions of accumulated and invested cap- of pounds a-year. Let


workital, which comprises all the ing man compare a railway map stocks of everything material of Great Britain with that of any which the earth produces at the other country, and see how close a cost and will of man. Law and network of lines intersects every customs surround the holders of bit of our country, far beyond any these necessaries and luxuries of such provision elsewhere, and he life with a power of possession must feel how much this country which is practically brought home has grown into one huge workshop to us by every policeman's uni- specially equipped with these its form. The penniless workman rapid means of communication, knows very well he can get none and all brought about by voluntary of his wants supplied for long on enterprise under force of circumcredit: the smallest comfort of stances, for these roads are none life is soon withheld from him by of them contrivances of State, but the small capitalist, a shopkeeper, all the outcome of capitalist enterwho in his turn gets but limited prise. Now, let the worker also amount of credit from a whole- remember that some of these roads sale dealer, and he again has his pay no profit at all to their owners, credit account with the import and never have done so; that to all merchant or manufacturer. And of their owners there are but two if a disruption of the course or pay-days in the year, and that what current is brought about by the they are to receive they seldom penniless working-man consumer know beforehand,—and this is but at bottom, it speedily reaches the a type of the prevailing system top and supplies are stopped. This among capitalist employers. He happens on rather a large scale will understand in this manner the in slack times; and in some locali- powers of resistance of his new ties, as in Lancashire and Coven- giant masters, and take care, let try, it is well understood and has us hope, how he picks a quarrel been keenly felt by all, but most with them.



“METHINKS,” says George Her- which the author or the poet first iot to Sir Mungo Malagrowther, encounters in his descent from the in the ‘Fortunes of Nigel,' “it spiritual ether to the grosser munwere unseemly that I, who have dane atmosphere. Mind is confurnished half the cupboards in fronted with matter; sordid realibroad Britain, should have my ties are weighed against intellecown covered with paltry pewter.” tual ideas, and the lead almost It would have been equally un- shakes the quicksilver out of the seemly if John Murray, who had balance; there is a shock and a in his lifetime published so many disillusion. The publisher arroexcellent biographies, should have gates to himself the attributes of been denied a good memoir to Justice, and we willingly concede himself. The career of a man him the bandage. We have only whom Lord Byron had dubbed too many precedents for impugnthe "Anax of Publishers, the ing his verdict; literary history Anak of Stationers,” and whom teems with examples of his fallihis fellow-publishers hailed with bility and his rapacity. The acclamation as the “Emperor of Curlls and the Griffithses have the West,” must necessarily form given a character to their craft an important chapter in literary which their more righteous suchistory, full of interesting recol- cessors have with difficulty lived lections of mighty authors, and down. And even such a work recording the inner history of our as lies before usa plain tale closest friends, the standard vol- of honourable and generous dealumes on our library shelves. ing in literary wares,

_will only The history of literature from go a certain length in vindicatthe publisher's—that is, from the ing the “trade” in the auctorial practical-point of view, has been imagination. There is a good reamuch less illustrated than is advan- son for it: the number of successtageous. The life of the author is ful authors is small, very small; a debt claimed by the world, and the crowd of ambitious and disonly too readily paid even when appointed writers is numberless the obligation is not overwhelm- as the sands on the sea-shore. ing. Naturally in such a record The former may complaisantly the publisher, indispensable as are allow the publisher to be a Mæhis functions, does not always fig- cenas; the latter will assuredly ure in the best light. It is he revile him as a Shylock. who subjects genius to base me- The position of a publisher, chanical measurement; who keeps while it exposes him to extravathe key of the gate between it and gant and unreasonable expectaa public eager to greet it with tions, also lays upon him obligaopen arms; and who will by no tions from which all other classes means allow it to pass without tak- of traders are happily exempt. ing toll of its effects. The pub- We may dismiss the idea that it lisher is the sharp point of contact is his duty to recognise genius in

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A Publisher and his Friends: Memoir and Correspondence of the late John Murray. By Samuel Smiles, LL.D. Two volumes. London : Murray, 1891. VOL. CXLIX.- -NO. DCCCCVII.

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Church; and here for twenty-five welcoming genuine and spontaneyears he carried on a solid busi

ous appreciation, he resents nothness, publishing a number of works ing more than flattery from such of which scarcely the names linger a source. Murray understood this in our literature, except Isaac well, and his letters were undoubtD’Israeli's Curiosities of Litera- edly as pleasant as valuable to the ture, Whitaker's Manchester,' recipients. Writing to him on Mitford's "Greece,' and Lavater's one occasion, Isaac D’Israeli thus

Physiognomy,' his last and worst compliments him :enterprise, over which he lost

“Your letter is one of the repeated £3900 for the engraving of the

specimens I have seen of your happy plates. He also made some essays art of giving interest even to commonin periodical publication, an annual place correspondence; and I, who am London Mercury,' written mostly so feelingly alive to the pains and by himself, and the English Re- penalties of postage, must acknowview,' in which he had the doubt- ledge that such letters, ten times ful assistance for some time of the repeated, would please me as often." notorious and unfortunate Gilbert Lord Byron's appreciation of Stuart. Lieutenant Murray was Murray's letters had long ago still a young man when he died, made us familiar with their merits, and his son, who was to succeed and in the volumes before us we him in the business, was only fif- find even fair and fashionable teen at the time.

dames like Lady Caroline Lamb Although the heir to an estab- and Mrs Norton hanging on his lished house, John Murray II. accents, or rather on his pen. was far from finding smooth water The two great facts in John under him when he was launched Murray's career, which, by their into business. He had a partner, importance and wide-spreading conMr Highley, whom he felt to be sequences, throw into the shade all an incubus upon his views, and his other literary acts, important as he early showed his firmness and they are intrinsically when viewed decision by getting rid of him. by themselves, were his association His earlier letters indicate a re- with Byron and his publication markable grasp of business, enter- of the Quarterly Review'; and prise, determination, and great con- naturally both these subjects ocsistency of purpose and principle, cupy a large portion of Dr Smiles's which were the dominant charac- volumes. Those who expected imteristics of his successful life. He portant additions to our Byronhad had a fair education at Driana” will, however, feel considBurney's and other good private erable disappointment. We are schools; and he had that discrim- merely again led over the same inative literary instinct and taste old ground that we have already which, whether the product of traversed with Moore. This is education or a natural gift, is the not surprising; for the great bulk note of all great publishers. His of Moore's materials, including all correspondence from the beginning the letters from poet to publisher, proves how readily he had mas- were supplied by Murray, who, in tered his position. The author a jocular balancing of accounts looks to his publisher for a plain, with Moore, credits himself with matter-of-fact, sensible opinion; £2000, for "contributing one-half he will not tolerate the language of the work myself by Lord Byron's of superior criticism; and while letters to his publisher.” It is in

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