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When Raphael and his school from Florence came,
Filling the land with splendor (129)-nor less oft
Watch'd her, declining, from a silent dell,
Not silent once, what time in rivalry
Tasso, Guarini, waved their wizard-wands,
Peopling the groves from Arcady, and lo,

Their doors seal'd up and silent as the night,
The dwellings of the illustrious dead-to turn
Toward Tiber, and, beyond the City-gate,
Pour out my unpremeditated verse,

Where on his mule I might have met so oft
Horace himself (132) or climb the Palatine,

Fair forms appear'd, murmuring melodious verse, (130) Dreaming of old Evander and his guest,
-Then, in their day, a sylvan theatre,
Mossy the seats, the stage a verdurous floor,
The scenery rock and shrub-wood, Nature's own;
Nature the Architect.

III.
ROME.

I AM in Rome! Oft as the morning-ray
Visits these eyes, waking at once I cry,
Whence this excess of joy? What has befallen me?
And from within a thrilling voice replies,
Thou art in Rome! A thousand busy thoughts
Rush on my mind, a thousand images;
And I spring up as girt to run a race!

Thou art in Rome! the City that so long
Reign'd absolute, the mistress of the world;
The mighty vision that the prophets saw,
And trembled; that from nothing, from the least,
The lowliest village (what but here and there
A reed-roof'd cabin by a river-side?)
Grew into everything; and, year by year,
Patiently, fearlessly working her way
O'er brook and field, o'er continent and sea,
Not like the merchant with his merchandise,
Or traveller with staff and scrip exploring,
But hand to hand and foot to foot, through hosts,
Through nations numberless in battle-array,
Each behind each, each, when the other fell,
Up and in arms, at length subdued them all.

Thou art in Rome! the City, where the Gauls,
Entering at sun-rise through her open gates,
And, through her streets silent and desolate,
Marching to slay, thought they saw Gods, not men;
The City that, by temperance, fortitude,
And love of glory, tower'd above the clouds,
Then fell-but, falling, kept the highest seat,
And in her loneliness, her pomp of woe,
Where now she dwells, withdrawn into the wild,
Still o'er the mind maintains, from age to age,
Her empire undiminish'd.

There, as though
Grandeur attracted Grandeur, are beheld
All things that strike, ennoble-from the depths
Of Egypt, from the classic fields of Greece,
Her groves, her temples-all things that inspire
Wonder, delight! Who would not say the Forms
Most perfect, most divine, had by consent
Flock'd thither to abide eternally,
Within those silent chambers where they dwell,
In happy intercourse?

And I am there!
Ah, little thought I, when in school I sate,
A school-boy on his bench, at early dawn
Glowing with Roman story, I should live
To tread the Appian, (131) once an avenue
Of monuments most glorious, palaces,

Dreaming and lost on that proud eminence,
Longwhile the seat of Rome, hereafter found
Less than enough (so monstrous was the brood
Engender'd there, so Titan-like) to lodge
One in his madness; and, the summit gain'd,
Inscribe my name on some broad aloe-leaf,
That shoots and spreads within those very walls
Where Virgil read aloud his tale divine,
Where his voice falter'd, (133) and a mother wept
Tears of delight!

But what a narrow space
Just underneath! In many a heap the ground
Heaves, as though Ruin in a frantic mood
Had done his utmost. Here and there appears,
As left to show his handy-work not ours,
An idle column, a half-buried arch,
A wall of some great temple.

It was once,
And long, the centre of their Universe, (134)
The Forum-whence a mandate, eagle-wing'd,
Went to the ends of the earth. Let us descend
Slowly. At every step much may be lost
The very dust we tread, stirs as with life;
And not the lightest breath that sends not up
Something of human grandeur.

We are come, Are now where once the mightiest spirits met In terrible conflict; this, while Rome was free, The noblest theatre on this side Heaven!

Here the first Brutus stood, when o'er the corse
Of her so chaste all mourn'd, and from his cloud
Burst like a God. Here, holding up the knife
That ran with blood, the blood of his own child,
Virginius call'd down vengeance.-But whence spoke.
To the twelve tables, (135) now with lifted hands
They who harangued the people; turning now
To the Capitoline Jove, whose fulgent shape
In the unclouded azure shone far off,

And to the shepherd on the Alban mount (136)
Seem'd like a star new-risen? Where were ranged
In rough array as on their element,

2

The beaks of those old galleys, destined still
To brave the brunt of war-at last to know
A calm far worse, a silence as in death?
All spiritless; from that disastrous hour
When he, the bravest, gentlest of them all,'
Scorning the chains he could not hope to break,
Fell on his sword!

Along the Sacred Way
Hither the Triumph came, and, winding round
With acclamation, and the martial clang
Of instruments, and cars laden with spoil,
Stopt at the sacred stair that then appear'd,
Then through the darkness broke, ample, star-bright,
As though it led to heaven. "T was night; but now
A thousand torches, turning night to day, (137)
Blazed, and the victor, springing from his seat,

1 Nero. 2 The Rostra. 3 Marcus Junius Brutus.

Went up, and, kneeling as in fervent prayer,
Enter'd the Capitol. But what are they,
Who at the foot withdraw, a mournful train
In fetters? And who, yet incredulous,
Now gazing wildly round, now on his sons,
On those so young, well-pleased with all they see, (138)
Staggers along, the last-They are the fallen,
Those who were spared to grace the chariot-wheels;
And there they parted, where the road divides,
The victor and the vanquish'd-there withdrew;
He to the festal-board, and they to die.

Well might the great, the mighty of the world,
They who were wont to fare deliciously,
And war but for a kingdom more or less,
Shrink back, nor from their thrones endure to look,
To think that way! Well might they in their state
Humble themselves, and kneel and supplicate
To be delivered from a dream like this!

Here Cincinnatus pass'd, his plow the while
Left in the furrow, and how many more,
Whose laurels fade not, who still walk the earth,
Consuls, Dictators, still in Curule pomp
Sit and decide; and, as of old in Rome,
Name but their names, set every heart on fire!

Here, in his bonds, he whom the phalanx saved not,'
The last on Philip's throne; and the Numidian,2
So soon to say, stript of his cumbrous robe,
Stript to the skin, and in his nakedness
Thrust under-ground, "How cold this bath of yours!"
And thy proud queen, Palmyra, through the sands'
Pursued, o'ertaken on her dromedary;
Whose temples, palaces, a wondrous dream
That passes not away, for many a league
Illumine yet the desert. Some invoked
Death, and escaped; the Egyptian, when her asp
Came from his covert under the green leaf;*
And Hannibal himself; and she who said,
Taking the fatal cup between her hands,' (139)
"Tell him I would it had come yesterday;
For then it had not been his nuptial gift."

Now all is changed; and here, as in the wild,
The day is silent, dreary as the night;
None stirring, save the herdsman and his herd,
Savage alike; or they that would explore,
Discuss and learnedly; or they that come,
(And there are many who have cross'd the earth)
That they may give the hours to meditation,
And wander, often saying to themselves,

This was the Roman Forum!"

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Death, when we meet the spectre in our walks,
As we did yesterday, and shall to-morrow,
Soon grows familiar-like most other things,
Seen, not observed; but in a foreign clime,
Changing his shape to something new and strange,
(And through the world he changes as in sport,
Affect he greatness or humility)

Knocks at the heart. His form and fashion here
To me, I do confess, reflect a gloom,

IV.

A FUNERAL.

A sadness round; yet one I would not lose;
Being in unison with all things else

*WHENCE this delay?" "Along the crowded street In this, this land of shadows, where we live
A Funeral comes, and with unusual pomp."
More in past time than present, where the ground,
So I withdrew a little, and stood still,
League beyond league, like one great cemetery.
While it went by. "She died as she deserved," Is cover'd o'er with mouldering monuments;
Said an Abatè, gathering up his cloak,
And, let the living wander where they will,
And with a shrug retreating as the tide
They cannot leave the footsteps of the dead.
Flow'd more and more." But she was beautiful!”

3 Zenobia.

Replied a soldier of the Pontiff's guard.
"And innocent as beautiful!" exclaim'd
A Matron sitting in her stall, hung round
With garlands, holy pictures, and what not?
Her Alban grapes and Tusculan figs display'd
In rich profusion. From her heart she spoke;
And I accosted her to hear her story.
"The stab," she cried, " was given in jealousy;
But never fled a purer spirit to heaven,
As thou wilt say, or much my mind misleads,
When thou hast seen her face. Last night at dusk
When on her way from vespers-None were near,
None save her serving-boy, who knelt and wept,
But what could tears avail him, when she fell
Last night at dusk, the clock then striking nine,
Just by the fountain-that before the church,
The church she always used, St. Isidore's-
Alas, I knew her from her earliest youth,
That excellent lady. Ever would she say,
Good even, as she pass'd, and with a voice
Gentle as theirs in heaven!"-But now by fits
A dull and dismal noise assail'd the ear,
A wail, a chant, louder and louder yet;
And now a strange fantastic troop appear'd!
Thronging, they came-as from the shades below;
All of a ghostly white! "Oh say," I cried,
"Do not the living here bury the dead?
Do Spirits come and fetch them? What are these,
That seem not of this World, and mock the Day;
Each with a burning taper in his hand ?"—
"It is an ancient Brotherhood thou seest.
Such their apparel. Through the long, long line
Look where thou wilt, no likeness of a man;
The living mask'd, the dead alone uncover'd.
But mark"-And, lying on her funeral-couch,
Like one asleep, her eye-lids closed, her hands
Folded together on her modest breast,

As 't were her nightly posture, through the crowd
She came at last-and richly, gaily clad,

As for a birth-day feast! But breathes she not?
A glow is on her cheek-and her lips move!
And now a smile is there-how heavenly sweet!
"Oh no!" replied the Dame, wiping her tears,
But with an accent less of grief than anger,
"No, she will never, never wake again!"

Oft, where the burial-rite follows so fast
The agony, oft coming, nor from far,
Must a fond father meet his darling child,

(Him who at parting climb'd his knees and clung)
Clay-cold and wan, and to the bearers cry,
"Stand, I conjure ye!"

Seen thus destitute,
What are the greatest? They must speak beyond
A thousand homilies.
When Raphael went,
His heavenly face the mirror of his mind,
His mind a temple for all lovely things
To flock to and inhabit-when He went,
Wrapt in his sable cloak, the cloak he wore,
To sleep beneath the venerable Dome,'
By those attended, who in life had loved,
Had worshipp'd, following in his steps to Fame,
("Twas on an April-day, when Nature smiles)
All Rome was there. But, ere the march began,
Ere to receive their charge the bearers came,
Who had not sought him? And when all beheld
Him, where he lay, how changed from yesterday,
Him in that hour cut off, and at his head
His last great work; (140) when, entering in, they
look'd

Now on the dead, then on that master-piece,
Now on his face, lifeless and colorless,
Then on those forms divine that lived and breathed,
And would live on for ages—all were moved;
And sighs burst forth, and loudest lamentations.

V.

NATIONAL PREJUDICES.

"ANOTHER Assassination! This venerable City," I exclaimed, what is it, but as it began, a nest of robbers and murderers! We must away at sun-rise, Langi." But before sun-rise I had reflected a little, and in the soberest prose. My indignation was gone: and, when Laigi undrew my curtain, erving, Up, Signor, up! The horses are at the door."—" Luigi," I replied, "if thou lovest me, draw the curtain'

***

It would lessen very much the severity with which men judge of each other, if they would but trace ef. fects to their causes, and observe the progress of things in the moral as accurately as in the physical world. When we condemn millions in the mass as vindictive and sanguinary, we should remember that. wherever Justice is ill-administered, the injured will redress themselves. Robbery provokes to robbery; murder to assassination. Resentments become hereds sary, and what began in disorder, ends as it all Hell

at their excesses; remembering that nations are naturally patient and long-suffering, and seldom rise in rebellion till they are so degraded by a bad govern ment as to be almost incapable of a good one.

"Hate them, perhaps," you may say, “we should not; but despise them we must, if enslaved, like the people of Rome, in mind as well as body; if their religion be a gross and barbarous superstition."—I respect knowledge; but I do not despise ignorance. They think only as their fathers thought, worship as they worshipped. They do no more; and, if ours had not burst their bondage, braving imprisonment and death, might not we at this very moment have been exhibiting, in our streets and our churches, the same processions, ceremonials, and mortifications?

Nor should we require from those who are in an earlier stage of society, what belongs to a later! They are only where we once were; and why hold them in derision? It is their business to cultivate the inferior arts before they think of the more refined ; and in many of the last what are we as a nation, when compared to others that have passed away! Unfortunately, it is too much the practice of govern ments to nurse and keep alive in the governed their national prejudices. It withdraws their attention from what is passing at home, and makes them better tools in the hands of Ambition. Hence next-door neighbors are held up to us from our childhood as natural enemies; and we are urged on like curs to worry each other.

In like manner we should learn to be just to individuals. Who can say, "In such circumstances I should have done otherwise?" Who, did he but reflect by what slow gradations, often by how many strange concurrences, we are led astray; with how much reluctance, how much agony, how many efforts to escape, how many self-accusations, how many sighs, how many tears-Who, did he but reflect for a mo ment, would have the heart to cast a stone? For tunately, these things are known to Him, from whơn no secrets are hidden; and let us rest in the assu rance that his judgments are not as ours are.

VI.

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THE CAMPAGNA OF ROME.
None since They went as though it still were theirs,
HAVE none appear'd as tillers of the ground, (141)
Was the last plow a Roman's!
And they might come and claim their own again!

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Laws create a habit of selfrestraint, not only by the mence of war, dat by regulanag in its exercise the From this Seat, (142) passion of revenge. If they overwe the bad by the Sacred for ages, whence, as Virgil sings, prospect of a punishment cerum and well deed. The Queen of Heaven, alighting from the sky, they consule the mured by the inch of the Lok down and saw the armies in array, punishment, and, as the inhere is a pubbe act, it exces and ens no Y The laws are adèrded: and the murely, for is own sen puses and preceive the deader, often without the cut rence of the sudderen, someone has wishes

Now those who were not barn. Die ouetes such advantages we should surely rather wit than how, and when at length they realize to turn again their rulers' we should be, mal wieder

Can it be believed that there are many among us, who, from a desee ought superior to common piace sentiments and vulgar wings aft an morference to their cause! "If the Greeks." that ar "Bad De gevoity of other nations-but they are false use cure of circumstances. Free, he has the quali30s provech *And is no sehood the characteristic of slaves!

bus at a reettaa ensinved, those of a slave.

1Cor generosity, how rare are they in the world; and tow much s 30 be depiered the want of them! When a minis and our sachament consents at last to a measure, which, for many vashes zertags exsting no anger, he had before refused U my here show be no exuitation as over the fallen, no

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Let us contemplate; and, where dreams from Jove And reaping-hook, among their household-things
Descended on the sleeper, where perhaps
Some inspirations may be lingering still,
Some glimmerings of the future or the past,
Await their influence; silently revolving
The changes from that hour, when He from Troy
Went up the Tiber; when refulgent shields,
No strangers to the iron-hail of war,
Stream'd far and wide, and dashing oars were heard
Among those woods where Silvia's stag was lying,
His antlers gay with flowers; among those woods
Where, by the Moon, that saw and yet withdrew not,
Two were so soon to wander and be slain, (143)
Two lovely in their lives, nor in their death
Divided

Duly transmitted? In the hands of men
Made captive; while the master and his guests,
Reclining, quaff in gold, and roses swim,
Summer and winter, through the circling year,
On their Falernian-in the hands of men
Dragg'd into slavery, with how many more
Spared but to die, a public spectacle,
In combat with each other, and required
To fall with grace, with dignity to sink,
While life is gushing, and the plaudits ring
Faint and yet fainter on their failing ear,
As models for the sculptor.

Then, and hence to be discern'd,
How many realms, pastoral and warlike, lay (144)
Along this plain, each with its schemes of power,
Its little rivalships! What various turns
Of fortune there; what moving accidents
From ambuscade and open violence!
Mingling, the sounds came up; and hence how oft
We might have caught among the trees below,
Glittering with helm and shield, the men of Tibur;'
Or in Greek vesture, Greek their origin,
Some embassy, ascending to Præneste;2
How oft descried, without thy gates, Aricia,
Entering the solemn grove for sacrifice,
Senate and People!-Each a busy hive,
Glowing with life!

But all ere-long are lost
In one. We look, and where the river rolls
Southward its shining labyrinth, in her strength
A City, girt with battlements and towers,
On seven small hills is rising. Round about,
At rural work, the Citizens are seen,
None unemploy'd; the noblest of them all
Binding their sheaves or on their threshing-floors,
As though they had not conquer'd. Everywhere
Some trace of valor or heroic virtue!
Here is the sacred field of the Horatii, (145)
There are the Quintian meadows. (146) Here the hill"
How holy, where a generous, people, twice,
Twice going forth, in terrible anger sate
Arm'd; and, their wrongs redress'd, at once gave way,
Helmet and shield, and sword and spear thrown down,
And every hand uplifted, every heart
Pour'd out in thanks to Heaven.

Once again
We look; and, lo, the sea is white with sails
Innumerable, wafting to the shore
Treasures untold; the vale, the promontories,
A dream of glory; temples, palaces,
Call'd up as by enchantment; aqueducts
Among the groves and glades rolling along
Rivers, on many an arch high over-head;
And in the centre, like a burning-sun,
The Imperial City! They have now subdued
All nations. But where they who led them forth;
Who, when at length released by victory,
(Buckler and spear hung up-but not to rust)
Held poverty no evil, no reproach,
Living on little with a cheerful mind,
The Decii, the Fabricii? Where the spade

1 Tivoli.

2 Palestrina. 3 La Riccia. 4 Mons Sacer.

But their days,
Their hours are number'd. Hark, a yell, a shriek,
A barbarous dissonance, loud and yet louder,
That echoes from the mountains to the sea!
And mark, beneath us, like a bursting cloud,
The battle moving onward! Had they slain
All, that the Earth should from her womb bring forth
New nations to destroy them? From the depth
Of forests, from what none had dared explore,
Regions of thrilling ice, as though in ice
Engender'd, multiplied, they pour along,
Shaggy and huge! Host after host, they come;
The Goth, the Vandal; and again the Goth!

Once more we look, and all is still as night,
All desolate! Groves, temples, palaces,
Swept from the sight, and nothing visible,
Amid the sulphurous vapors that exhale
As from a land accurst, save here and there
An empty tomb, a fragment like the limb
Of some dismember'd giant. In the midst
A City stands, her domes and turrets crown'd
With many a cross; but they, that issue forth,
Wander like strangers who had built among
The mighty ruins, silent, spiritless;

And on the road, where once we might have met
Cæsar and Cato, and men more than kings,
We meet, none else, the pilgrim and the beggar.

VII.

THE ROMAN PONTIFFS.

THOSE ancient men, what were they, who achieved
A sway beyond the greatest conquerors;
Setting their feet upon the necks of kings,
And, through the world, subduing, chaining down
The free immortal spirit? Were they not
Mighty magicians? Theirs a wondrous spell,
Where true and false were with infernal art
Close-interwoven; where together met
Blessings and curses, threats and promises;
And with the terrors of Futurity
Mingled whate'er enchants and fascinates,
Music and painting, sculpture, rhetoric (147)
And architectural pomp, such as none else;
And dazzling light, and darkness visible! (148)
What in his day the Syracusan sought,
Another world to plant his engines on,
They had; and, having it, like gods, not men,
Moved this world at their pleasure. Ere they
came, (149)

Their shadows, stretching far and wide, were known
And Two, that look'd beyond the visible sphere,
Gave notice of their coming-he who saw

The Apocalypse; and he of elder time,
Who in an awful vision of the night
Saw the Four Kingdoms. Distant as they were,
Well might those holy men be fill'd with fear!

VIII.

Yet was it sad as sweet, and, ere it closed,
Came like a dirge. When her fair head was shorn,
And the long tresses in her hands were laid,
That she might fling them from her, saying, "Thus
Thus I renounce the world and worldly things!"
When, as she stood, her bridal ornaments

CAIUS CESTIUS.

Were, one by one, removed, even to the last,
That she might say, flinging them from her, "Thus,

WHEN I am inclined to be serious, I love to wan-Thus I renounce the world!" when all was changed der up and down before the tomb of Caius Cestius. And, as a nun, in homeliest guise she knelt, The Protestant burial-ground is there; and most of Veil'd in her veil, crown'd with her silver crown, the little monuments are erected to the young; young Her crown of lilies as the spouse of Christ, men of promise, cut off when on their travels, full Well might her strength forsake her, and her knees of enthusiasm, full of enjoyment; brides, in the bloom Fail in that hour! Well might the holy man, of their beauty, on their first journey; or children, He, at whose feet she knelt, give as by stealth borne from home in search of health. This stone was ("T was in her utmost need; nor, while she lives, (151) placed by his fellow-travellers, young as himself, who Will it go from her, fleeting as it was) will return to the house of his parents without him; That faint but fatherly smile, that smile of love that, by a husband or a father, now in his native And pity! country. His heart is buried in that grave.

Like a dream the whole is fled;
It is a quiet and sheltered nook, covered in the And they, that came in idleness to gaze
winter with violets; and the Pyramid, that over- Upon the victim dress'd for sacrifice,
shadows it, gives it a classical and singularly solemn Are mingling in the world; thou in thy cell
air. You feel an interest there, a sympathy you Forgot, Teresa. Yet, among them all,
were not prepared for. You are yourself in a foreign None were so form'd to love and to be loved,
land; and they are for the most part your country- None to delight, adorn; and on thee now
men. They call upon you in your mother-tongue-A curtain, blacker than the night, is dropp'd
in English-in words unknown to a native, known For ever! In thy gentle bosom sleep
only to yourselves: and the tomb of Cestius, that old Feelings, affections, destined now to die,
majestic pile, has this also in common with them. It To wither like the blossom in the bud,
is itself a stranger, among strangers. It has stood Those of a wife, a mother; leaving there
there till the language spoken round about it has A cheerless void, a chill as of the grave,
changed; and the shepherd, born at the foot, can read A languor and a lethargy of soul,
its inscription no longer.

Death-like, and gathering more and more, till Death
Comes to release thee. Ah, what now to thee,
What now to thee the treasure of thy Youth?
As nothing!

IX.
THE NUN.

"TIS over; and her lovely cheek is now
On her hard pillow-there, alas, to be
Nightly, through many and many a dreary hour,
Wan, often wet with tears, and (ere at length
Her place is empty, and another comes)
In anguish, in the ghastliness of death;
Hers never more to leave those mournful walls,
Even on her bier.

"Tis over; and the rite,
With all its pomp and harmony, is now
Floating before her. She arose at home,
To be the show, the idol of the day;
Her vesture gorgeous, and her starry head-
No rocket, bursting in the midnight-sky,
So dazzling. When to-morrow she awakes,
She will awake as though she still was there,
Still in her father's house; and lo, a cell
Narrow and dark, nought through the gloom discern'd,
Nought save the crucifix, the rosary,
And the grey habit lying by to shroud
Her beauty and grace.

But thou canst not yet reflect
Calmly; so many things, strange and perverse,
That meet, recoil, and go but to return,
The monstrous birth of one eventful day,
Troubling thy spirit-from the first, at dawn,
The rich arraying for the nuptial feast,
To the black pall, the requiem. (152)

All in turn

Revisit thee, and round thy lowly bed
Hover, uncall'd. The young and innocent heart,
How is it beating? Has it no regrets?
Discoverest thou no weakness lurking there?
But thine exhausted frame has sunk to rest.
Peace to thy slumbers!

X.

THE FIRE-FLY.

THERE is an Insect, that, when Evening comes, Small though he be and scarce distinguishable, Like Evening clad in soberest livery,

When on her knees she fell, Unsheathes his wings, (153) and through the woods Entering the solemn place of consecration, And from the latticed gallery came a chaunt Of psalms, most saint-like, most angelical, (150) Verse after verse sung out, how bolily! The strain returning, and still, still returning, Methought it acted like a spell upon her, And she was casting off her earthly dross;

and glades

Scatters a marvellous splendor On he wheels,
Blazing by fits as from excess of joy, (154)
Each gush of light a gush of ecstacy;
Nor unaccompanied; thousands that fling
A radiance all their own, not of the day,
Thousands as bright as he, from dusk till dawn,

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