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sand; at Eaton Hall, 7 years planted, and 22 ft. high. In Durham, at Southend, 18 years planted, and 31 ft. high. In Herefordshire, at Eastnor Castle, 12 years planted, and 20 ft. high, in unprepared soil on dry limestone. In Lancashire, at Latham House, 14 years planted, and s5 ft. high, in loam on sand. In Leicestershire, at Elvaston Castle, 35 years planted, and 45 ft. high. In Norfolk, in Mackay's Nursery, Norwich, 50 years planted, and 50 nt. high, diameter of the trunk 2nt, and of the head 36 ft., in light soil on sand. In Oxfordshire, in the Oxford Botanic Garden, 60 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 3 in., and of the head 33 ft., in light loam on a shallow stratum of yellowish clay: the head is regular, and the trunk straight and free from branches to the height of from 20 ft. to 30 ft. In Radnorshire, at Maeslaugh Castle, S6 ft. high. In Staffordshire, in Teddesley Park, 14 years planted, and 28 ft. lighı ; at Trentham, 45 ft. high. In Suffolk, at Great Livemere, 40 years planted, and 53 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 3 1., and of the head 50 ft., in loose gravel, and in a situation somewhat sheltered; at Ampton Hall, 12 years planted, and 24 ft. high; at Finborough Hall, 70 years planted, and 70 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 8 in., and of the head 48 ft., in light loam on clay. In Warwickshire, at Messrs Pope's Nursery, near Birmingham, 10 years planted, and 16 ft, high. In Worcestershire, at Croome, 50 years planted, and 60 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 18 in., and of the head 50 it., with a clear trunk of 20 ft In Yorkshire, at Knedlington, 10 years from the seed, from 26 ft. to 28 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk from 6 in. to 1 in., and of the head 18 ft. ; also, at the same place, trees, 8 years from the seed, 23 ft. high, diameter of the trunk from 4 in. to 5 in., and of the head jo it. These trees were raised by Mr. Cobbett, in his nursery at Kensington, and sent to Knedlington at the age of one year; so that they have attained the large sizes mentioned after having been respectively 9 years and 7 years planted. The soil in which they grow is a kandy loam on clay or sand, and it was trenched, a short time previously to their being planted, to the depth of 3 it. (See Gard. Mag., vol. xi. p. 25.)

Robinia Pseud-Acàcia in the Environs of Edinburgh. At Hopetoun House, 30 ft. high. At Dalhousie Castle, 50 years planted, and 30 ft. high. At Gosford House, 30 years planted, and 30 ft. high. At Cramond House, 40 ft. high, in deep free red soil, in the kitchen-garden, the trunk nearly! ft. in diameter. At Grange House, above 30 ft. high. In Lawson's Nursery, 10 years planted, and 15 it. high, “The finest group of trees that we know of," Sir T. D. Lauder observes, “is at Niddrie Mareschal, near Edinburgh. One of them measures 9 ft. round, at 3 in. above the ground: it divides into two great limbs, which are respectively 5 ft. 4 in. and 4 ft. 4 in. in girth. A second tree in the same group, at 3 in. from the ground, measures 6 ft. 5 in. round, and its three limbs measure respectively 3 ft. 3 in., 3 ft. 7 in., and 3 ft. lin.; and a third acacia measures 6 ft. 3 in. in girt, at 3nt from the ground." (Lauder's Gilpin, 1. p. 144.)

Robinia Pseid. Acdcin South of Edinburgh. In Ayrshire, at Kilkerran, 1.30 years planted, and 45 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 11. 1in., and of the head 60 it. ; at Rozetle, 50 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft 5 in., and of the head 33 ft., in light sand on bog earth. In Kirkcudbrightshire, at St. Mary's Isle, 50 years, planted, and 46 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2ft, and of the head 42 ft., in a sandy soil on a stratum of sea shells. In Renfrewshire, at Erskine House, 50 ft. high. In Lanarkshire, in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, 12 years planterl, and 22 ft. high. In Tweeridale, at Dawick, there is a tree" which measures 5 ft. 10 in. in girt, at S ft. from the ground, and 6 ft. 6 in. close to the ground.” (Lauder's Gilpin, i. p. 144.)

Robinia pseud-Acacia North of Edinburgh. In Aberdeenshire, at Thainston, the plant produces shoots 4 1t. in length in fine seasons; but they are almost always killed back in winter to within a few inches from the ground. In Angusshire, at Kinnaird Castle, 10 years planted, and 15 ft. high. In Argyllshire, at Toward Castle, 10 years planted, and 16 ft. high. In Banffshire, at Gordon Castle. 10 years planted, and 17 ft. high. In Clackmannanshire, in the garden of the Dollar Institution, 14 seara planted, and 90 ft. high. In Perthshire, at Kinfauns Castle, 10 years planted, and 12 st, high. In Rosshire, at Brahan Castle, 50 years planted, and 20 ft. high. In Stirlingshire, at Airthrey Castle, 45 years planted, and 62 it, high, diameter of the trunk 2 11., and of the head so ft., in light loam on gravel, and in a sheltered situation.

Robinia Pseid-Acòcia in the Environs of Dublin. At Cypress Grove, 60 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 22 in., and of the head 30 ft. At Terenure, 20 years planted, and 25 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 61 in., and of the head 9 ft.

Robinia Pseid. Acacia South of Dublin. In King's County, at Charleville Forest, 35 years planted and 50 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 6in., and of the head 33 ft. In Wicklow, at Shelton Abbey, 50 years planted, and 65 ft. high, the trunk 2 11. lin. in diameter.

Robinia Pseud. Acàcia North of Dublin. In Downshire, at Ballyleady, 25 years planted, and 35 ft. high, trunk 9 in, in diameter, and the head 30 ft. ; at Mount Stewart, 25 years planted, and 40 ft. high, the trunk 1 ft. in diameter, and the head 23 ft.

Robinia Pseid. Acàcia in France. At Paris, in the Jardin des Plantes, the remains of the parent tree (planted by Vespasian Robin) 78 ft. high. At Villers, 20 years planted, and 60 ft. high. At Toulon, in the Botanic Garden, 50 years planted, and 600. high. At Barres, 14 years planted, and Ss it high. At Nantes, in the nursery of M. De Nerrières, 60 years planted, and 50 ft, high. At Metz, in the garden of the Baron Charles De Tschoudi, 60 years planted, and 60 ft. high.

Rollaia Pseud-Acàcia in Holland and the Netherlands. At Ghent, in the Botanic Garden, between 50 ft. and fic ft high. At Brussels, in the park at Läcken, 50 it. high. In the Botanic Garden at Leyden, the remains of an old tree, 30 ft. high.

Robinia Pseid. Acàcia in Germany. In Hanover, at Schwöbber, the remains of an old tree, which has been 120 years planted. In Saxony, at Wörlitz, 64 years planted, and 60 ft. high. In Austria, at Vienna, in the University Botanic Garden, 8 years planted, and 18 ft, high; in the park, at Laxenburg, 16 years planted, and 18 ft. high; at Kopenzel, 20 years planted, and 30 ft. high ; in Rosenthal's Nursery 20 years planted, and 40 ft. high. In Prussia, at Berlin, in the Botanic Garden, 10 years planted, and 15 ft. bigh ; at Sans Souci, 50 years planted, and 50 ft. high; in the Pfauen Insel, 40 years planted, and 50 ft. high. In Bavaria, at Munich, in the Botanic Garden, 24 years planted, and 40 ft. high.

Robinia Pseid- Acàcia in Denmark, Sweden, and Russia. At Dronengaard, near Copenhagen, 40 years planted, and 60 ft. high. In Sweden, at Lund, 56 ft. high, diameter of the trunk, 18 in., and of the head 30 ft. In Russia, at Moscow, the tree does not attain any considerable size, but it thrives in the Crimea, according to Desemet, in all its varieties. “A hedge of acacia is planted upon the foundations of the Palace of Yalomensk, in the neighbourhood of Moscow, in such a manner as to indicate the plan of the building. This palace was built by Peter the Great, and át a short distance from it is a tree, surrounded by a table and benches, under which young Peter received his lessons." (Leitch Ritchie's Journey to St. Petersburgh and Moscow, 1836, p. 243.)

Robinia Pseud. Acacia in Switzerland and Italy. At Geneva, in the Botanic Garden, 30f1. high; at Bourdigny, and in the grounds of many villas in the environs of the city, from 50 ft. to 70 ft.

8

high. In Lombardy, in the palace gardens at Monza, there is a noble tree, only 29 years planted which is 75 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 40 ft.

Statistics of the varieties. -R. P. inermis. In England, in Cheshire, at Eaton Hall, 4 years planted and 15 ft. high. In Ireland, at Cullenswood Nursery, 30 years planted, and 50 nt. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 48 ft.

R. P. umbraculifera. In England, at the Duke of Devonshire's Villa at Chiswick, are the oldest specimens in the neighbourhood of London : they are 'grafted from 6 ft. to 8 ft. high on the species; and, after being about 15 years planted, have pendulous parasol-like heads, from 8 ft. to 12 ft. in diameter, and from 3 ft. to 5 st. in height; a plant, in the garden of the Horticultural Society, grefted within 1 ft. of the ground, forms a bush 10 ft. high, and 12 ft. in diameter. In France, particularly in the neighbourhood of Paris, there are many fine specimens. In Austria, in the University Botanic Garden at Vienna, a plant, 25 years planted, is 20 ft. high. We have received the dimensions of many other specimens of this variety from different parts of Germany; but, as they all seem to have increased at about the same rate of growth, and none to have attained a greater height than 20 ft., we consider it unnecessary to enumerate them.

R. P. tortuosa. In England, in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, 10 years planted, and 15 ft. high; in the arboretum of the Messrs. Loddiges, in 1830, 20 ft. high, since cut down; in Sussex, at West Dean, 8 years planted, and 17 ft. high; in Cheshire, at Eaton Hall, 12 years planted, and 18 ft. high ; in Essex, at Hylands, 10 years planted, and 20 ft. high ; in Hertford, shire, at Cheshunt, 6 years planted, and 13 ft. high; in Staffordshire, at Alton Towers, 10 years planted, and 16 ft. high ; at Trentham, 6 years planted, and 8 ft. high ; in Suffolk, in the Bury Botanic Garden, 6 years planted, and 7 ft. high. In the Isle of Jersey, in Saunders's Nursery, 10 years planted, and 18 ft. high. In France, at Villers, 10 years planted, and 18 ft. high. In Austria, in the University Botanic Garden at Vienna, 20 years planted, and so ft. high ; at Laxenburg, 20 years planted, and 10 ft. high ; at Hadersdorf, 12 years planted, and 18 ft. high. In Hanover, at Harbëcke, 8 years planted, and 10 ft. high.

R. P. sophoræfolia. In England, in the garden of the Horticultural Society, in 1884, 10 years planted, and 20 it. high; in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, in 1830, 10 years planted, and 27 ft. high ; in Devonshire, at Kenton, 35 ft. high. In Scotland, in Haddingtonshire, at Tyningham, 73 years planted, and 33 ft. high. In France, at Rouen, in the Botanic Garden, 10 years planted, and 25 it high. In Austria, in the University Botanic Garden at Vienna, 35 years planted, and s6 ft, high. In Bavaria, at Munich, in the Botanic Garden, it has been 12 years planted, but is generally killed back every year to the ground.

R. P. amorphæfdlia. In England, in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, in 1854, 10 years planted, and 27 ft. high; and about the same height in the arboretum of the Messrs, Lod. diges ; at Kenwooul, 40 years planted, and 35 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 20 in., and of the head 30 ft. ; in Surrey, at Bagshot Park, 16 ycars planted, and 30 ft. high ; in the Goldworth Arboretum, 4 years planted, and 12 ft. high. In Prussia, at Sans Souci, 11 years planted, and so ft. high; at the

Pfauen Insel, 10 years planted, and 32 ft. high. R. P. procèra. In England, in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, 10 years planted, and 30 ft. high; and there was one still higher in Loddiges's arboretum in 1830 ; in Devonshire, at Endsleigh Cottage, 12 years planted, and 30 ft. high, diameter of the trunk, at 1 ft. from the ground, 12 in., and of the head 20 ft.

R. P. péndula. In Germany, in Austria, at Brück on the Leytha, 15 years planted, and 12 ft. high.

R. P. monstrdsa. In England, in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, in 1834, 10 years planted, and 12 it, high; and about the same height in Loddiges's arboretum in 1830; in Sussex, at West Dean, 14 years planted, and 32 ft. high.

R. P. macrophýlla. In England, in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, in 1834, 10 years planted, and 35 ft. high, and it was about the same height in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges in 1830 ; in Sussex, at West Dean, 14 years planted, and 27 ft. high ; in Suffolk, at Ampton Hall, 13 years planted, and 34 ft. high ; in Staffordshire, at Trentham, 6 years planted, and is it. high.

R. P. microphúlla. In England, this variety grows as rapidly as the species; and there are handsome trees of it in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, upwards of 30 ft. high. In Austria, at Vienna, in Rosenthal's Nursery, 16 years planted, and '15 ft. high ; at Brück on the Leytha, 25 years planted, and 12 ft. high. R. P. spectábilis. In France, at Villers, 10 years planted, and 36 ft. high.

Commercial Statistics. In London, plants of the species are 15s. a thousand for seedlings, and 40s. a thousand for transplanted plants, from 3 ft. to 4 ft. high ; American seeds, 58. per lb., and European seeds, 28. per lb. Plants of the varieties are Is. 6d. each, with the exception of R. P. umbraculífera ; plants of which, grafted standard high, are from 55. to 78. each. At Bollwyller, transplanted plants of the species are 50 cents each; and of the different varieties, from 1 franc to 2 francs each. R. P. péndula, and R. P. umbraculifera are 2 francs each. At New York plants of the species are from 12 cents to 37} cents each, according to their size; and of the varieties, from 37} cents to 50 cents. Seeds were, in 1825, 2 dollars per lb., probably on account of the great demand created for them in England by the writings of Mr. Cobbett : at present they are 3s. 6d.

per

Ib. 2. R. (P.) visco'sa Vent. The clammy-barked Robinia. Identification. Vent. Hort. Cels., t. 4. ; Michaux, 2. p. 131. ; N. Du Ham., 2. t. 17.; Dec. Prod., 2. The 3 lower teeth of the calyx acuminated. Roots

p. 262. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 238. Synonymes. R. glutinosa Curt. Bot. Mag:, 560.;, R. montàna Bartram ; the Rose-flowering Locust. Engravings. Vent. Hort. Cels., t. 4 ; N. Du Ham., 2. t. 17. ; Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 560., as R. glu.

tinosa ; our fig. 306. ; and the plate in our Second Volume. Spec. Char., fc. Branches and legumes glandular and clammy. Racemes

crowded, erect. Bracteas concave, deciduous, each ending in a long bristle.

306 creeping. (Dec. Prod., č. p. 262.) This kind of robinia is a native of South Carolina and Georgia, near rivers. It usually grows to the height of 30 ft. or 40 ft., and was introduced in 1797. The flowers are scentless, and are generally of a pale pink, mixed with white; though there are varieties, or, perhaps, only variations arising from difference of soil, with the flowers of a pale purple or violet colour. The bark, particularly that of the young shoots, which is of a duli red, is covered with a clammy substance, which, when touched, sticks to the fingers. In every other respect, this tree strongly resembles the common R. Pseud-Acàcia, of which we believe it to be only a variety; though so distinct, from the clamminess of its bark, and the colour and want of scent in its flowers, that we have kept it apart. The clammy matter exuded from the bark of the young shoots is said to have been examined by Vauquelin, and found to be a new vegetable substance. In England, we have observed that this clamminess differs much in different trees, and in some is almost wanting.

Properties and Uses, fc. This tree, being of less magnitude and duration than the common locust, arrives sooner at perfection, and, consequently comes sooner into bloom. It also flowers a second time in some seasons, both in its native country and in England. As its flowers are large, and conspicuous from their colour, the tree well deserves a place in every ornamental plantation. The wood resembles that of the common locust; but the tree, even when full grown, is seldom found with a trunk above 10 in. or 1 ft. in diameter. In all other respects but those which have been mentioned, the tree is, and may be, treated like the common locust.

Statistics. In the neighbourhood of London, there are no very large trees; those in the Horti. cultural Society's Garden, and in the arboretum of the Messrs. Loddiges, being only about 30 ft. high. The rate of growth, in different situations and circumstances, is nearly the same as that of R. PseudAcacia, for the first 5 or 6 years. In Surrey, at Bagshot Park, 20 years planted, it is 20 ft. high; at St. Anne's Hill, 30 years planted, it is 33 tt. high; in Sussex, at West Dean, 14 years planted, it is 31 ft. high ; in Berkshire, at White Knights, 34 years planted, it is 33 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 9 in., and of the head 24 ft.; in Cheshire, at Eaton Hall, 12 years planted, it is 18 ft. high ; in Worcestershire, at Croome, 30 years planted, it is 45 ft. high. In Scotland, at Perth, in the Perth Nursery, 35 years planted, it is so ft. high, diameter of the trunk 11 in., and of the head 22 ft. In Ire. land, in the Glasnevin Garden, 20 years planted, and 24 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 8 in., and of the head 14 ft.

Commercial Statistics. Plants, in London, are from Is. to ls. 6d., and American seeds are ls. an oz.; at Bollwyller, plants are from 1 franc to I franc 50 cents each ; at New York, 374 cents a plant.

* 3. R. DU'BIA Fouc. The doubtful Robinia, or False Acacia. Identification. Fouc. in Desv. Journ. Bot., 4. p. 204., but not of Poir. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 261.; Don's

Mill., 2. p. 238.
Synonymes. R. hýbrida Audib.; R. ambigua Poir. Suppl., 4. p. 690.; and, perhaps, R. echinata

Miú. Dict., No. 2. ; R. intermédia Soulange-Bodin in Ann. d'Hort. de Paris, 2. p. 43.
Spec. Char., &c. Spines very short. Branches, petioles, peduncles, and calyxes furnished with a
few glands, rarely clammy. Leaflets ovate, Racemes loose and pendulous. Bracteas concave,
caducous, ending each in a long bristle. Flowers sweet-scented, pale rose-coloured.

The pods, according to Miller, are thickly beset with short prickles. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 238.) This kind is said to be a hybrid between R. Pseud-Acàcia and R. viscosa.

* 4. R. Hi'spida Lin. The hispid Robinia, or Rose Acacia. Identification. Lin. Mant, 101. ; Mill. Ic., t. 244. ; Curt. Bot. Mag.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 262. , Don's

Mið., 2. p. 238. Synonymes. R. rosea N. Du Ham., 1. t. 18.; R. montàna Bartr. Voy., 2. p 128.; Æschynómene

hispida Roxb. Engravings. Mill. Ic., t. 244. ; Curt. Bot. Mag., 311. ; N. Du Ham., 1. t. 18., as R. rosea; and our

fig. 307. Spec. Char., fc. Spines wanting. Leaflets obovate. Branches and legumes

hispid. Racemes loose; the 3 lower teeth of the calyx acuminated. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 262.) A shrub, or low tree, growing, in its native country (Carolina), to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft. according to Marshall, and as high as 20 ft. according to other authors. It was 307 introduced into British gardens in 1758, and produces its large and beautiful dark rosecoloured flowers in June, often continuing in

[graphic]

flower till October.
Varieties.
+ R.h. 2 nàna Dec. Prod., ii.p. 262., is a plant

hardly a foot high, which is a native of
pine woods in Carolina.
R. h. 3 rosea Pursh has the leaflets, for

the most part, alternate, and the branches
smoothish. In its native habitats, on
the high mountains of Virginia and Ca-
rolina, it grows, according to Pursh, to
a considerable shrub; whereas the spe-

cies is a low straggling plant. (Fl. Amer. Sept., ii. p. 488.)
# R. h. 4 macrophylla Dec., R. grandiflora Hort., figured in our Second

Volume, has the leaflets large, and ovate-roundish; and the branches

and peduncles glabrous, and without prickles. Description, &c. The species, and the different varieties, are shrubs, or low trees, with tortuous and very brittle branches; and leaves and flowers nearly twice the size of those of Robinia Pseùd-Acàcia. They form singularly ornamental shrubs for gardens; but, as standards or bushes, they can be only planted with safety in the most sheltered situations. A very good mode is, to train them against an espalier rail ; and, on a lawn, this espalier may form some kind of regular or symmetrical figure: for example, the ground plan of of the espalier may be the letters Sor X, or a cross, or a star; which last is, perhaps, the best form of all, the different radii of the star diminishing to a point at the top. Such a star, in order to produce an immediate effect, would require to have three plants placed close together in the centre, from which the branches should be trained outwards and upwards. R. híspida is often grafted about 1 ft. above the surface of the ground; and, when the plant is not trained to a wall, or to some kind of support, it is almost certain, after it has grown 2 or 3 years, to be broken over at the graft. A preferable mode, therefore, for dwarfs, is to graft them on the root, or under the surface of the soil. In purchasing plants, this ought always to be borne in mind. In consequence of the liability of this shrub to be injured by the weather, it is comparatively neglected in British gardens; but, wherever a magnificent display of fine flowers is an object, it better deserves a wall than many other species; and it is worthy of being associated there with Piptánthus nepalensis, Wistària sinensis, and other splendid Leguminàceæ. When grafted standard high, and trained to a wire parasol-like frame, supported on a rod, or post, 6 ft. or 8 ft. high, few plants are equal to it in point of brilliant display. At White Knights, there is a wall of some length covered with trellis-work, over which this species is trained; and the flowers hanging down from the roof present a fine appearance; though, as in the case of the covered walks of laburnum at White Knights, and at West Dean, the flowers are of a much paler hue than when fully exposed to the light and air.

Statistics. In England, in the neighbourhood of London, are various plants, from 6 n. to 10 ft. or 12 ft. high ; in Sussex, at Kidbrooke, there is one 15 ft. high; in Buckinghamshire, at Temple House, one, 12 years planted, is 20 ft. high ; in Suffolk, in the Bury Botanic Garden, 12 years planted, and 13'ft, high, against a wall; in Worcestershire, at Croome, 30 years planted, 15 it. high; in Cumberland, at Ponsonby Hall, 12 ft. high.-In Scotland, at Daníbrisile Park, 16 ft. high; in Aberdeenshire, at Thainston, it barely exists, even against a wall ; in Argyllshire, at Hafton, 6 years planted, it is 9 ft. high ; in Perthshire, at Kinfauns Castle, 8 years planted, it is 5 ft. high; in Forfarshire, at Airley Castle, it is 12 ft. high, against a wall.-In Ireland, in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, 12 years planted, it is only 4 ft. high; but the diameter of the trunk is 4 in., and of the head 9 ft. ; in Galway, at Coole, it is 7ft, high.

Commercial Statistics. Plants, in the London nurseries, of the species, and all the varieties, are 1s. 6d. each, except R. h. macrophylla, which is 2s.6d.; at Bollwyller, the species and varieties are all i franc 50 cents each; at New York, plants of the species are 37} cents each.

[graphic]

GENUS XII.

p. 243.

CARAGANA Lam. THE CARAGANA, or SIBERIAN PEA TREE.

Lin. Syst. Diadelphia Decándria. Identification. Lam. Dict., 1. p. 611., and II., t. 607. f. 1, 2.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 208.; Don's Mill, Synonyme. Robinia sp. L. Derivation. Caragan is the name of C. arboréscens among the Mongul Tartars.

Description, fc. Trees or shrubs, natives of Siberia and of the East; their leaves abruptly pinnate, the leaflets mucronate, and the petioles either with a bristly or a spiny point; their flowers axillary, each on a distinct pedicel, usually several together, pale yellow, except in C. jubàta, in which they are white tinged with red; their stipules usually become spines. (Dec. Prod., ii, p. 268.) They are all ornamental or curious. Some of them, being natives of Siberia, like most other Siberian plants, vegetate early in spring; and their delicate pinnated foliage, of a yellowish green, independently altogether of their flowers, makes a fine appearance about the middle of April; or, in mild seasons, even as early as the middle of March. The flowers, which are of a bright yellow, appear about the end of April, in the earliest Siberian species ; and those which flower latest are also latest in coming into leaf. Thus, in a group consisting of the different species of this genus, in the climate of London, some plants may be seen, in the month of May, covered with leaves and flowers; and others in which the buds have just begun to expand. The yellow colour prevails in every part of the plants of this genus, even to the roots; and, were it not that this colour is so abundant in common productions of the vegetable kingdom, there can be no doubt that the caragana would afford a yellow dye. The larger sorts are easily propagated by seeds, or cuttings of the root, and the more curious by grafting on C. arboréscens. The dwarf and pendulous-growing species, when grafted standard high on C. arboréscens, form very singular trees; and, though such trees cannot be recommended for general introduction into gardens or pleasure-grounds (for no kind of impression sooner fatigues the mind than that produced by excessive singularity), yet the occasional introduction of what is singular or unique, among

what is natural or general, produces, by contrast, a striking effect; interrupts the ordinary train of iinpressions; and recalls the mind of the spectator from the beauties of nature to those of art. * 1. C. ARBORE'SCENS Lam. The arborescent Caragana, or Siberian

Pea Tree. Identification. Lam. Dict., 1. p. 615. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 268. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 243. Synonymes. Robinia Caragana Lin. Sp., 1044., N. Du Ham., 2. t. 19., Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. t. 42. ;

Caragàna sibirica Ray; fausse Acacie de Sibérie, Robinie de Sibérie, Arbre aux Pois des Russes,

Fr. ; Sibirische Erbsenbaum, Ger.; Gorochoik, Russ. Engravings. N. Du Ham., 2. t. 19. ; Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. t. 42., middle figure; and our plate of this

species in our Volume II. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves with 4–6 pairs of oval-oblong villous leaflets.

Petiole unarmed. Stipules spinescent. Pedicels in fascicles. (Don's

Mill., ii. p. 243.) Variety. 1 C. a. 2 inérmis Hort. has the branches without spines.

There are plants of this variety in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in

the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges. Descriptivn, &c. A low tree, a native of Siberia, found in woods, and upon the banks of rivers. In the latter situation, Pallas informs us, it grows to the height of 18 ft. or more; but in arid places it is only a small shrub; in the latter state, forming, as we think, the varieties C. (a.) Altagàna, and C. (a.) microphylla. C. arboréscens forms an erect stiff tree, with numerous upright

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