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“ dead? No, but in great danger.” How Thus far we should be provided against are you concerned in those rumours ? Sup- those sudden excursions from his own king. pole he should meet some fatal stroke: you dom to Thermopylæ, to the Chersonesus, would foon raise up another Philip, if your to O'ynthus, to whatever places he thinks intereits are thus regarded. For it is not proper. For of this he should necessarily to his own Irength that he so much owes be persuaded, that possibly you may break his elevation, as to our supineness. And out from this immoderate indolence, and Mould some accident affcét him ; should fly to fome scene of action: as you did to fortune, who hath ever been more care- Eubea, and formerly, as we are told, to ful of the fate than we ourselves, now re- Haliartus, and, but now, to Thermopylæ. peat her favours (and may the thus crown But although we should not act with all them!) be afluired of this, that by being this vigour, (which yet I must regard as on the spot, ready to take advantage of the our indispensable duty) still the measures

, confusion, you will every where be abso- I propose will have their use: as his fears lute mallers; but in your prefent dispofi- may keep him quiet, when he knows we tion, even if a favourable juncture hould are prepared (and this he will know, for present you with Amphipolis, you could there are too too many among ourselves not take pofleffion of it, while this suspence who inform him of every thing): or, if he prevails in your designs and in your coun- should despise our armament, his security cils.

may prove fatal to him; as it will be ab. And now, as to the necessity of a ge- solutely in our power, at the first favourneral vigour and alacrity; of this you must able juncture, to make a descent upon

his be fully persuaded: this point therefore own coasts. I fall urge no further. But the nature These then are the resolutions I proof the armament, which, I think, will ex- pose; these the provisions it will become tricate you from the present difficulties, you to make. And I pronounce it still the numbers to be raised, the subsidies re. farther necessary to raise some other forces quired for their support, and all the other which may harrass him with perpetual innecesaries; how they may (in my opinion) cursions. Talk not of your ten thousands, be best and most expeditiouily provided; or twenty thousands of foreigners; of those these things I fall endeavour to explain. armies which appear fo magnificent on But here I make this request, Athenians! paper; but let them be the natural forces that you would not be precipitate, but of the state: and if you chuse a single perSuspend your judgment till you have heard fon, if a number, if this particular man, or me fully. And it, at first, I feem to pro- whomever you appoint as general, let them pose a new kind of armament, let it not be be entirely under his guidance and authothought that I am delaying your affairs. rity. I also move you that subsistence be For it is not they whocryout, “ Instantly!” provided for them. But as to the quality, “ This moment!” whose counsels suit the the numbers, the maintenance of this body: prefent juncture (as it is not poslible to how are these points to be settled? I now repel violences already committed by any proceed to speak of each of them distinctly. occasional detachment) but he who will The body of infantry therefore-But fhew you of what kind ihat armament mult here give me leave to warn you of an error be, how great, and how supported, which which hath often proved injurious to you. may {ubfist until we yield to peace, or till Think not that your preparations never our enemies fink beneath our arms; for can be too magnificent: great and terrible thus only can we be secured from future in your decrees; in execution weak and dangers. These things, I think, I can point contemptible. Let your preparations, let out; not that I would prevent any other your supplies at first be moderate, and add person from declaring his opinion: thus to these if you find them not sufficient. I far am I engaged. How I can acquit say then that the whole body of infantry myself, will immediately appear: to your should be two thousand; of these, that five judgments I appeal.

hundred should be Athenians, of such an Firit then, Athenians! I say that you age as you shall think proper; and with a Mould fit out fifty ships of war; and then stated time for service, not long, but such resolve, that on the first emergency you as that others may have their turn of duty. will embark yourselves. To these I insist Let the rest be formed of foreigners. To that you mui add transport, and other ne- these you are to add two hundred horse, cefiary vehels fufficient for half our horse. fifty of them at least Athenians, to serve


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in the same manner as the foot. For these not for service. My countrymen! should you are to provide transports. And now, not all these generals have been chosen what farther preparations ? Ten light gal from your own body; all these several lies. For as he hath a naval power, we officers from your own body, that our must be provided with light vesels, that force might be really Athenian? And yet, our troops may have a secure convoy. for an expedition in favour of Lemnos,

But whence are these forces to be subo the general must be a citizen, while troops, filted ? This I shall explain, when I have engaged in defence of our own territories, fift given my reasons why I think tuch are commanded by Menelaus. I say not numbers suficient, and why I have ad- this to detract from his merit ; but to vised that we should serve in person. As whomsoever this command hath been into the numbers, Athenians ! my reason is trufted, surely he should have derived it this : it is not at present in our power to from your voices. provide a force able to meet him in the Perhaps you are fully fenfible of these open field ; but we must harrafs him by truths; but would rather hear me upon depredations : thus the war muit be car- another point ; that of the supplies ; what ried on at first. We therefore cannot we are to raise, and from what funds. To think of railing a prodigious army (for this I now proceed. The sum therefore such we have neither pay nor provisions), necessary for the maintenance of thele nor muft our forces be absolutely mean. forces, that the soldiers may be fupplied And I have proposed, that citizens should with grain, is somewhat above ninety tajoin in the service, and help to man our lents. To the ten gallies, forty talents, feet ; because I am informed, that some that each vefiel may have a monthly altime since, che state maintained a body of lowance of twenty minæ. To the two auxiliaries at Corinth, which Polystratus thoufand foot the same fum, that each folcommanded, and Iphicrates, and Chabrias, dier may receive ten drachmæ a month and some others; that you yourselves served for corn. To the two hundred horse, for with them; and that the united efforts of a monthly allowance of thirty drachmæ these auxiliary and domestic forces gained each, twelve talents. And let it not be a considerable victory over the Lacedemo. thought a small convenience, that the folnians. But, ever since our armies have diers are supplied with grain : for I am been formed of foreigners alone, their vic- clearly satisfied, that it iuch a provision tories have been over our allies and con- be made, the war itself will supply them federates, while our enemies bave arifen with every thing else, so as to complete to an extravagance of power. And these their appointment, and this without an inarmies, with scarcely the slightest attention jury to the Greeks or allies : and I myself to the service of the state, sail off to fight am ready to fail with them, and to answer for Artabazus, or any other person ; and for the consequence with my life, should it their general follows them: nor should we prove otherwise. From what funds the wonder at it; for he cannot command, who sum which I propose may be supplied, shall cannot pay his soldiers. What then do I now be explained. recommend ? That you should take away [Here the secretary of the assembly all pretences both from generals and from reads a scheme for raising the supsoldiers, by a regular payment of the army, plies, and proposes it to the people and by incorporating domestic forces with in form, in the name of the orator.) the auxiliaries, to be as it were inspectors These are the supplies, Athenians ! in into the conduct of the commanders. For our power to raise. And, when you come at present our manner of acting is even to give your voices, determine

upon some ridiculous. If a man should ask, “ Are effectual provision, that you may oppose

you at peace, Athenians ?” the answer Philip, not by decrees and letters only, would immediately be, “ By no means ! but by actions. And, in my opinion, your “ we are at war with Philip. Have not plan of operation, and every thing relat“ we chosen the usual generals and officers ing to your armament, will be much more « both of horse and foot ?" And of what happily adjusted, if the situation of the use are all these, except the fingle person country, which is to be the scene of action, whom you send to the field ? The reit at- be taken into the account; and if you retend your priests in their processions. So Aečt, that the winds and seasons have that, as if you formed so many men of greatly contributed to the rapidity of Phiclay, you make your officers for thew, and lip's conquests; that he watches the blowing of the Etesians, and the severity of the sure than is usually expended upon a whole winter, and forms his sieges when it is im- navy; and more numbers and greater prepollible for us to bring up our forces. It parations, than any one perhaps ever cost) is your part then to consider this, and not while your expeditions have been all too to carry on the war by occasional detach- late, as that to Methonè, that to Pegafæ, ments, (they will ever arrive too late) but that to Potidæa. The reason is this: every by a regular army constantly kept up. And thing relating to the former is ascertained for winter-quarters you may command by law; and every one of you knows long Lemnos, and Thassus, and Sciathus, and before, who is to conduct the several enthe adjacent islands ; in which there are tertainments in each cribe ; what he is to ports and provisions, and all things neceí- receive, when, and from whom, and what fary for the soldiery in abundance. As to to perform Not one of these things is left the season of the year, in which we may uncertain, not one undetermined. But in land our forces with the greatest ease, and affairs of war, and warlike preparations, be in no danger from the winds, either up- there is no order, no certainty, no reguon the coast to which we are bound, or at lation. So that, when any accident alarms the entrance of those harbours where we us, first, we appoint our trierarcns; then may put in for provisions--this will be ea- we allow them the exchange ; then the fily discovered. In what manner, and at supplies are conuderid. Theie points once what time our forces are to act, their gene- tettled, we resoive to man cur feet with ral will determine, according to the junc- strangers and foreigners ; then find it netures of affairs. What you are to perform, ceffary to supply their place ourselves. In on your part, is contained in the decree I the midst of these delays, what we are failhave now proposed. And if you will be ing to defend, the enemy is already master persuaded, Athenians! first, to raise these of: for the time of action we spend in prefupplies which I have recommended, then paring: and the junctures of affairs will not to proceed to your other preparations, your wait our now and irresolute measures. infantry, navy, and cavalry; and, lastly, to These forces too, which we think may be confine your forces, by a law, to that ser- depended on, until the new levies are vice which is appointed to them; reserving railed, when put to the proof plainly difthe care and distribution of their money to cover their insufficiency. By thete means yourselves, and ftri&tly examining into the hath ne arrived at lucha pitch of infolence, conduct of the general ; then, your time as to send a letter to the Eubeans, conwill be no longer wasted in continual de- ceived in such terms as there : bates upon the same subject, and scarcely to any purpose; then, you will deprive

* The LETTER is read. hiin of the most considerable of his revenues. For his arnis are now supported, What hath now been read, is for the by feizing and making prizes of those whó molt part true, Athenians! too true! but pass the seas.---but is this all ? -No.—You perhaps not very agreeable in the recital. shall also be secure from his attempts: not But if, by suppiefing things ungrateful to as when some time since he fell on Lem- the ear, the things themselves could be prenos and Imbrus, and carried away your vented, then the tole concern of a public citizens in chains: not as when he sur-speaker should be to please. If, on the conprized your vessels at Geraftus, and spoiled trary, thele unteatonably pleasing speeches them of an unspeakable quantity of riches: be really injurious, it is thameful, Athenot as when lately he made a descent on nians, to deceive yourselves, and, by dethe coast of Marathon, and carried off our ferring the consideration of every thing sacred galley : while you could neither op- disagreeable, never once to move until it pose these insults, nor detach your forces be too late ; and not to apprehend that at such junctures as were thought conve- they who conduct a war with prudence, nient.

are not to follow, but to direct events ; And now, Athenians! what is the reason to direct them with the same absolute au(think ye) that the public festivals in ho- thority, with which a general leads on his nour of Minerva and of Bacchus are al forces : that the courle of affairs may be ways celebrated at the appointed time, whe. determined by them, and not determine ther the direction of them falls to the lot their measures. But you, Athenians, al. of men of eminence, or of persons lefs di- though polfeiled of the greatest power of ftinguished: (festivals which cost more trea- all kinds, thips, infantry, cavalry, and



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treasure; yet, to this day, have never em- tors; we cannot expect, no, not the leatt ployed any of them seasonably, but are success, in any one particular. Wherever a ever last in the field. Just as barbarians part of our city is detached, although the engage at boxing, so you make war with whole be not present, the favour of the Philip : for, when one of them receives a gods and the kindness of fortune attend to blow, that blow engages him : if struck light upon our side ; but when we send out in another part, to that part his hands are a general, and an insignificant decree, and fhifted : but to ward of the blow, or to the hopes of our speakers, misfortune and watch his antagonift--for this, he hath disappointment must ensue. Such expedineither skill nor spirit. Even so, if you tions are to our enemies a sport, but itrike hear that Philip is in the Chersonesus, you: our allies with deadly apprehensions. For resolve to fend forces thither ; if in Ther- it is not, it is not potlible for any one man to nopy!æ, thither ; if in any other place, perform every thing you defire. He may you hurry up and down, you follow his promise, and harangue, and accuse this or itandard. But no useful scheme for car- that person: but to such proceedings we rying on the war, no wise provisions are owe the ruin of our affairs. For, when a ever thought of, until you hear of some general who commanded a wretched colenterprise in execution, or already crowned letion of unpaid foreigners, hath been dewir a success. This might have formerly feated; when there are persons here, who, been pardonable, but now is the very cri- in arraigning his conduct, dare to advance tical moment, when it can by no means be falsehoods, and when you lightly engage admitted.

in any determination, just from their sugIt seems to me, Athenians, that some gestions ; what must be the consequence? divinity, who, from a regard to Athens, How then shall thele abuses be removed? looks down upon our conduct with indig- --By offering yourselves, Athenians, to dation, hath inspired Philip with this reit- execute the commands of your general, to less ambition. For were he to fit down be witnesses of his conduct in the field, in the quiet enjoyment of his conquests and his judges at your return : so as not and acquisitions, without proceeding to any only to hear how your affairs are transacted, new attempts, there are men among you, but to inspect them. But now, so thamewho, I think, would be unmoved at those fully are we degenerated, that each of our uansactions, which have branded our state commanders is twice or thrice called bewith the odious marks of infamy, cow- fore you to answer for his life, though ardice, and all that is base. But as he not one of them dared to hazard that life, till pursues his conquests, as he is still by once engaging his enemy. No; they extending his ambitious views, possibly, he chuse the death of robbers and pilferers, may at laft call you forth, unleis you have rather than to fall as becomes them. Such renounced the name of Athenians. To me malefactors thould die by the sentence of it is altonithing, that none of you look the law. Generals should meet their fate back to the beginning of this war, and bravely in the field. consider that we engaged in it to chastise Then, as to your own conduct some the infolence of Philip; but that now it wander about, crying, Philip hath joined is become a defenlive war, to secure us with the Lacedemonians, and they are confrom his attempts. And that he will ever certing the deitruction of Thebes, and be repeating these attempts is manifeft, un- the diilolution of some free states. Others less fome power rises to oppose him. But, assure us he hath sent an embaisy to the if we wait in expectation of this, if we king; others, that he is fortifying places send out armaments composed of empty in Illyria. Thus we all go

about framing gallies, and those hopes with which some our several tales. I do believe indee1, speaker may have flattered you ; can you Athenians ! he is intoxicated with bis then think your intereits well secured ? thall greatness, and does entertain his imaginawe not embark? Thall we not fail, with at tion with many such visionary prospects, least a part of our domestic force, now, as he fees no power riGng to oppose him, fince we have not hitherto ? -But where and is elated with his success. But I canshall we make our descent ? Let us but not be persuaded that he hath so taken his engage in the enterprise, and the war itself, measures, that the weakest among us know Athenians, will thew us where he is weakest. what he is next to do: (for it is the weaket But if we fit at home, listening to the mu- among us who spread these rumours) Let tual invectives and accusations of our ora- us disregard them : let us be persuaded of


this, that he is our enemy, that he hath tions which he had long entertained spoiled us of our dominions, that we have secretly against the Olynthians. long been subject to his infolence, that Olynthius (a city of Thrace pofseffed by whatever we expected to be done for us by Greeks originally from Chalcis,-a others, hath proved against us, that all the cown of Eubea and colony of Athens) sesource left is in ourselves, that, if we commanded a large tract called the are not inclined to carry our arms abroad, Chalcidian region, in which there we may be forced to engage here–let us be. were thirty-two cities. It had arisen persuaded of this, and then we Mall come by degrees to such a pitch of granto a proper determination, then shall we be deur, as to have frequent and refreed from those idle tales. For we are not

markable contests both with Athens to be solicitous to know what particular and Lacedemon. Nor did the Olynevents will happen ; we need but be con- thians shew great regard to the vinced nothing good can happen, unless friendship of Philip when he first came you grant the due attention to affairs, and to the throne, and was taking all be ready to act as becomes Athenians. measures to secure the possession of it.

I, on my part, have never upon any oc- For they did not scruple to receive cafionchosen to court your favour, by speak. two of his brothers by another maring any thing but what I was convinced riage, who had fled to avoid the efwould serve you. And, on this occafion, I fects of his jealousy; and endeahave freely declared my sentiments, with- voured to conclude an alliance with out art, and without reserve. It would have Athens, against him, which he, by pleased me indeed, that, as it is for your ad- secret practices, found means vantage to have your true interest laid be- defeat. But as he was yet scarcely fore you, so I might be assured that he who secure upon his throne, instead of exlayeth it before you, would share the ad- prelling his resentment, he courted, vantages: for then I had spoken with greater or rather purchased, the alliance of alacrity. However, uncertain as is the con- the Olynthians, by the ceflion of Anfequence with respect to me, I yet deter- themus, a city which the kings of mined to speak, because I was convinced Macedon had long disputed with that these measures, if pursued, must have them, and afterwards, by that of their use. And, of all those opinions which Pydna and Potidæa ; which their are offered to your acceptance, may that be joint forces had besieged and taken chofen, which will best advance the general from the Athenians. But the Olynweal!


thians could not be influenced by gra

titude towards such a benefactor. The $ 2. The first Olynthiac Oration : pronounced rapid progress of his arms, and his feur Years after the first Philippic, in the

glaring acts of perfidy, alarmed them Archonship of Callimachus, the fourth Year

exceedingly. He had already made of the Hundred and Seventh Olympiad, and some inroads on their territories, and ihe twelfth of Philip's Reign.

now began to act against them with INTRODUCTION.

less reserve. They therefore dirThe former Oration doth not appear patched ambassadors to Athens to

to have had any confiderable effect. propose an alliance, and request af. Philip had his creatures in the Athe. liftance againit a power which they nian assembly, who probably recom- were equally concerned to oppose. mended less vigorous measures, and Philip affected the highest resentment were but too favourably heard. In at this step; alledged their mutual the mean time, this prince pursued engagements to adhere to each other his ambitious designs. When he in war and peace; inveighed against found himself shut out of Greece, he their harbouring his brothers, whom turned his arms to such remote parts, he called the conspirators; and, under as he might reduce without alarming pretence of punishing their infracthe Itates of Greece. And, at the tions, pursued his hoftilities with dou. same time, he revenged himself upon ble vigour, made himself master of the Athenians, by making himself some of their cities, and threatened master of some places which they laid the capital with a fiege. claim to.

At length his success em- In the mean time, the Olynthians prefboldened him to declare those inten- fed the Athenians for immediate suc.


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