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Messrs. Ziegenbald and Grindler, two others contend he only translated the Danish missionaries, published a trans- Gospels. We have certain books or lation of the New Testament in the parts of the Bible by several other Malabrian language, after which they translators; as, first, the Psalms, by proceeded to translate the Old Testa- || Adelm, bishop of Sherburn, cotempoment.
rary, with Bede, though by others this 13. BIBLE, Malayan. About 1670, version is attributed to king Alfred, Sir Robert Boyle procured a transla- who lived two hundred years later. tion of the New Testament into the Another version of the Psalms, in AnMalayan language, which he printed, || glo Saxon, was published by Spelman and sent the whole impression to the in 1640.—2. The evangelists, still exEast Indies.
tant, done from the ancient Vulgate, 14. BIBLE, Rhemish. See No. 23. before it was revised by St. Jerome, by 15. BIBLE, Samaritan. At the head an author unknown, and published by of the oriental versions of the Bible Matthew Parker in 1571. 'An old Sax. must be placed the Samaritan, as being on version of several books of the Bible the most ancient of all (though neither made by Elfric, abbot of Malmesbury, its age nor author have been yet ascer- several fragments of which were pubtained,) and admitting no more for the lished by Will. Lilly, 1638; the genuine Holy Scripture but the five books of copy by Edm. Thwaites, in 1699, at Moses. This translation is made from Oxford. the Samaritan Hebrew text, which is a 18. BIBLES, Arabic. In 1516, Aug. little different from the Hebrew text of Justinian, bishop of Nebio, printed at the Jews: this version has never been Genoa an Arabic version of the Psalter, printed alonc, nor any where but in the with the Hebrew text and Chaldee Polyglots of London and Paris. paraphrase, adding Latin interpreta
16. BIBLE, Swedish. In 1534, Olaus tions: there are also Arabic versions of and Laurence published a Swedish the whole Scripture in the Polyglots of Bible from the German version of Mar- London and Paris; and we have an tin Luther: it was revised in 1617 by | edition of the Old Testament entire, order of king Gustavus Adolphus, and printed at Rome, in 1671, by order of was afterwards almost universally re- the congregation de propaganda fide ; ceived.
but it is of little esteem, as having been 17. BIBLE, Anglo-Saxon.-If we en- || altered agreeably to the Vulgate ediquire into the versions of the Bible of tion. The Arabic Bibles among us are our own country, we shall find that not the same with those used with the Adelm, bishop of Sherburn, who lived Christians in the East. Some learned in 709, made an English Saxon version men take the Arabic version of the of the Psalms; and that Edfrid, or Ec- Old Testament printed in the Polybert, bishop of Lindisferne, who lived glots to be that of Saadias's, who lived about 730, translated several of the about A. D. 900: their reason is, that books of Scripture into the same lan- Aben Azer, a great antagonist of Saaguage. It is said, likewise, the vener- dias, quotes some passages of his verable Bede, who died in 785, translated sion, which are the same with those in the whole Bible into Saxon.—But Cuth- the Arabic version of the Polyglots; bert, Bede's disciple, in the enumera- yet others are of opinion that Saadias's tion of his master's works, speaks only version is not extant. In 1622, Erpeof his translation of the Gospel, and nius printed an Arabic Pentateuch callsays nothing of the rest of the Bible. ed also the Pentateuch of MauritaSome say that king Alfred, who lived nia, as being made by the Jews of Barabout 890, translated a great part of bary, and for their use. This version the Scriptures. We find an old ver- is very literal, and esteemed very exsion in the Anglo Saxon of several act. The four evangelists have also books of the Bible, made by Elfric, ab- | been published in Arabic, with a Latin bot of Malmesbury: it was published version, at Rome, in 1591, folio. These at Oxford in 1699. There is an old have been since reprinted in the PolyAnglo Saxon version of the four Gos- glots of London and Paris, with some pels, published by Matthew Parker, little alteration of Gabriel Sionita. Erarchbishop of Canterbury, in 1571, the penius published an Arabic New Tes. author whereof is unknown. Mr. Milltament entire, as he found it in his observes, that this version was made manuscript copy, at Leyden, 1616. from a Latin copy of the old Vulgate. There are some other Arabic versions The whole Scripture is said by some of later date mentioned by Walton in to have been translated into the Anglo his Prolegomena, particularly a version Saxon by Bede, about 701, though of the Psalms, preserved at Sion Col
lege, London, and another of the pro- | tament, and was revised and republishphets at Oxford; neither of which have ed by the same person in 1530. The been published. Proposals were issued prologues and prefaces added to it, refor printing a new edition of the Ara- ! Hect on the bishops and clergy ; but bic Bible, by Mr. Carlyle, chancellor of this edition was also suppressed, and the diocese of Carlisle, and professor of the copies burnt. In 1532, Tindal and Arabic in the university of Cambridge; his associates finished the whole Bible, but I am sorry to add that he has been except the Apocrypha, and printed it called away by death, without finish- | abroad: but, while he was afterwards ing it.
preparing a second edition, he was taken 19. BIBLES, Chaldee, are only the up and burnt for heresy in Flanders. glosses or expositions made by the Jews, On Tindal's death, his work was carat the time when they spoke the Chal- "ried on by Coverdale, and John Rogers, dee tongue: these they call by the superintendant of an English church in name of targumim, or paraphrases, as Germany, and the first Martyr, in the not being any strict version of the reign of queen Mary, who translated Scripture. They have been inserted the Apocrypha, and revised Tindals entire in the large Hebrew Bibles of translation, comparing it with the HeVenice and Basil; but are read more brew, Greek, Latin, and German, und commodiously in the Polyglots, being | adding prefaces and notes from Luthere attended with a Latin transla- ther's Bible. He dedicated the whole tion.
to Henry VIII. in 1537, under the bor20. Bibles, Coptic. There are se- || rowed name of Thomas Matthews; verai manuscript copies of the Coptic whence this has been usually called Bible in some of the great libraries, es- Matthew's Bible. It was printed at pecially in that of the late French Hamburgh, and license obtained for king. Dr. Wilkins published the Cop- publishing it in England, by the favour tic New Testament, in quarto, in 1716; 1 of archbishop Cranmer, and the bishops and the Pentateuch also in quarto, in Latimer and Shaxton. The first Bible 1731, with Latin translations. He printed by authority in England, and reckons these versions to have been publicly set up in churches, was the made in the end of the second or the same Tindal's version, revised and beginning of the third century.
compared with the Hebrew, and in 21. BIBLES, Danish. The first Da- many places amended by Miles Covernish Bible was published by Peter Pal- dale, afterwards bishop of Exeter; ladus, Olaus Chrysostom, John Synnin- and examined after him by archbishop gius, and John Maccabeus, in 1550, in Cranmer, who added a preface to it; which they followed Luther's first Ger- whence this was called Cranmer's man version. There are two other ver- Bible. It was printed by Grafton, of sions, the one by John Paul Resenius, the largest volume, and published in bishop of Zealand, in 1605; the other 1540; and, by a royal proclamation, of the New Testament only, by John every parish was obliged to set one of Michel, in 1524.
the copies in their church, under the 22. BIBLES, Dutch. See No. 26. penalty of forty shillings a month; yet, 23. BIBLES, East Indian. See No. two years after, the popish bishops ob12, 13, 44.
tained its suppression by the king. It 24. BIBLES, English. The first was restored under Edward VI., supEnglish Bible we read of was that trans- pressed again under queen Mary's lated by J. Wickliffe, about the year reign, and restored again in the first 1360, but never printed, though there year of queen Elizabeth, and a new are manuscript copies of it in several edition of it given in 1562. Some Engof the public libraries. A translation, lish exiles at Geneva, in queen Mary's howeier, of the New Testament by freigh, viz. Coverdale, Goodman, GilWickliffe was printed by Mr. Lewis, bie, Sampson, Cole, Wittingham, and about 1731. J. de Trevisa, who died ! Knox, made a new translation, printed about 1598, is also said to have trans- l there in 1560, the New Testament lated the whole Bible; but whether having been printed in 1557 ; hence any copies of it are remaining does not called the Geneva Bible, containing appear. The first printed Bible in our the variations of readings, marginal language was that translated by W., annotations, &c. on account of which it Tindal, assisted by Miles Coverdale,' was much valueil by the puritan party printed abroad in 1526; but most of in that and the following reigns. Abp. the copies were bought up and burnt Parker resolved on a new translation by bishop Tunstal and Sir Thomas for the public use of the church; and More. It only contained the New Tes- cngaged the bish", s, and other learned men, to take each a share or portion : 1 puce, pasche, &c.; however, many of these, being afterwards joined together the copies were seized by the queen's and printed, with short annotations, in searchers, and confiscated; and Thomas 1568, in large folio, made what was Cartwright was solicited by secretary afterwards called the Great English Walsingham to refute it; but, after a Bible, and commonly the Bishops' good progress made therein, archbishop Bible. In 1589, it was also published Whitgift prohibited his further proin octavo, in a small but fine black let-|| ceeding, as judging it improper that ter; and here the chapters were di- | the doctrine of the church of England vided into verses, but without any should be committed to the defence of breaks for them, in which the method a puritan; and appointed Dr. Fulke in of the Geneva Bible was followed, his place, who refuted the Rhemists which was the first English Bible where with great spirit and learning. Cartany distinction of verses was made. It wright's refutation was also afterwards was afterwards printed in large folio, published in 1618, under archbishop with corrections, and several prolego- Abbot. About thirty years after their mena in 1572: this is called Matthew New Testament, the Roman Catholics Parker's Bible. The initial letters of published a translation of the Old at each translator's name were put at the Douay, 1609, and 1610, from the Vulend of his part; e. gr. at the end of the gate, with annotations, so that the Pentateuch, W. E. for William Exon; English Roman Catholics have now that is, William, bishop of Exeter, the whole Bible in their mother tongue; whose allotment ended there: at the though, it is to be observed, they are end -f Samuel, R. M. for Richard Me-forbidden to read it without a license nevensis; or bishop of St. David's, to from their superiors. The last English whom the second allotment fell: and Bible was that which proceeded from the like of the rest. The archbishop the Hampton Court conference, in oversaw, directed, examined, and fin- 1603; where, many exceptions being ished the whole. This translation was made to the Bishops' Bible, king James used in the churches for forty years, gave order for a new one; not, as the though the Geneva Bible was more preface expresses it, for a translation read in private houses, being printed altogether new, nor yet to make a good above twenty times in as many years. one better; or, of many good ones, one King James bore it an inveterate hatred, best. Fifty-four learned men were apon account of the notes, which, at the pointed to this office by the king, as Hampton Court conference, he charged appears by his letter to the archbishop, as partial, untrue, seditious, &c. The dated 1604; which being three years Bishops' Bible, too, had its faults. before the translation was entered upon, The king frankly owned that he had it is probable seven of them were either seen no good translation of the Bible in dead, or had declined the task; since English; but he thought that of Ge- Fuller's list of the translators makes neva the worst of all. After the trans- but forty-seven, who, being ranged un-. lation of the Bible by the bishops, two der six divisions, entered on their proother private versions had been made vince in 1607. It was published in of the New Testament; the first by || 1613, with a dedication to James, and Laurence Thompson, from Beza's Latin a learned preface; and is commonly edition, with the notes of Beza, publish- called king James's Bible. After this, ed in 1582, in quarto, and afterwards all the other versions dropped, and fell in 1589, varying very little from the into disuse, except the epistles and Geneva Bible; the second by the Pa- Gospels in the Common Prayer Book, pists at Rheims, in 1584, called the which were still continued according to Rhemish Bible, or Rhemish translation. the Bishops' translation till the alteraThese, finding it impossible to keep tion of the liturgy, in 1661, and the the people from having the Scriptures psalms and hymns, which are to this in their vulgar tongue, resolved to give day continued as in the old version. a version of their own, as favourable to The judicious Selden, in his Tabletheir cause as might be. It was printed talk, speaking of the Bible, says, “The on a large paper, with a fair letter and English translation of the Bible is the margin: one complaint against it was, best translation in the world, and renits retaining a multitude of Hebrew ders the sense of the original best; and Greek words untranslated, for taking in for the English translation the want, as the editors express it, of Bishops' Bible, as well as king James's. proper and adequate terms in the The translators in king James's time English to render them by; as the took an excellent way. That part of words azymes, curilke, holocaust, pre- che Bible was given to him wlio was
most excellent in such a tongue (as the || published in 1672, with explanations of Apocrypha to Andrew Downs :) and the literal and spiritual meaning of the then they met together, and one read ' text; which was received with wonthe translation, the rest holding in their derful applause, and has often been rehands some Bible, either of the learned printed. Of the New Testaments in tongues, or French, or Spanish, or French, which have been printed seItalian, &c. If they found any fault, parately, one of the most remarkable they spoke; if not, he read on.” [King is that of F. Amelotte, of the Oratory, James's Bible is that now read by au-composed by the direction of some thority in all the churches in Britain.) French prelates, and printed with anNotwithstanding, however, the excel- notations in 1666, 1667, and 1670. The lency of this translation, it must be ac- author pretends he had searched all knowledged that our increasing ac- the libraries in Europe, and collated quaintance with oriental customs and the oldest manuscripts: but, in examinmanners, and the changes our language ing his work, it appears that he has has undergone since king James's time, produced no considerable various readare very powerful arguments for a new ings which had not before been taken translation, or at least a correction of notice of either in the London Polyglot, the old one. There have been various or elsewhere. The New Testament English Bibles with marginal refer- of Mons, printed in 1665, with the ences by Canne, Hayes, Barker, Scat- archbishop of Cambray's permission, tergood, Field, Tennison, Lloyd, Blay- and the king of Spain's license, made ney, Wilson, &c.; but the best we 'great noise in the world. It was conhave, perhaps, of this kind, are Brown's demned by pope Clement IX. in 1668 ; and Scott's.
by pope Innocent XI. in 1669; and in 25. BIBLES, Ethiopic. The Ethio- several bishoprics of France at several pians have also translated the Bible times. The New Testament, publishinto their language. There have been ed at Trevoux, in 1702, by M. Simon, printed separately the Psalms, Canti- with literal and critical' annotations cles, some chapters of Genesis, Ruth, upon difficult passages, was condemned Joel
, Jonah, Zephaniah, Malachi, and by the bishops of Paris and Meaux in the New Testament, all which have 1702. F. Bohours, a Jesuit, with the been since reprinted in the Polyglot of assistance of F. F. Michael Tellier London. As to the Ethiopic New and Peter Bernier, Jesuits, likewise Testament, which was first printed at published a translation of the New Rome in 1548, it is a very inaccurate Testament in 1697 ; but this translation work, and is reprinted in the English | is for the most part harsh and obscure, Polyglot with all its faults.
which was owing to the author's adhe26. BIBLES, Flemish. The Flemish ring too strictly to the Latin text. Bibles of the Romanists are very nu- There are likewise French translamerous, and for the most part have no tions published by Protestant authors; .author's name prefixed to them, till one by Robert Peter Olivetan, printed that of Nicholas Vinck, printed at in 1535, and often reprinted with the Louvain in 1548. The Flemish ver-corrections of John Calvin and others; sions made use of by the Calvinists till another by Sebastian Castalio, re1637, were copied principally from that markable for particular ways of ex. of Luther. But the Synod of Dort pression never used by good judges of having, in 1618, appointed a new trans- the language. John Diodati likewise lation of the Bible into Flemish, depu- published a French Bible at Geneva in ties were named for the work, which 1644; but some find fault with his was not finished till 1637.
method, in that he rather paraphrases 27. BIBLES, French. The oldest | the text than translates it. * Faber StaFrench Bible we hear of is the version palensis translated the New Testament of Peter de Vaux, chief of the Wal- | into French, which was revised and denses, who lived about the year 1160. | accommodated to the use of the reforRaoul de Preste translated the Bible med churches in Piedmont, and printinto French in the reign of kinged in 1534. Lastly, John le Clerc pubCharles V. of France, about A. D. lished a New Testament in French at 1383. Besides these, there are several Amsterdam, in 1703, with annotations old French translations of particular taken chiefly from Grotius and Hamparts of the Scripture. The doctors mond; but the use of this version was of Louvain published the Bible in prohibited by order of the states-geneFrench at Louvain, by order of the ral, as tending to revive the errors of emperor Charles V. in 1550. There Sabellius and Socinus. is a version by Isaac le Maitre de Sacy, 28. BIBLES, German. The first and most ancient translation of the Bible in blus's Bible. The second Greek Bible the German language is that of Ulphi- is that of Venice, printed by Aldus in las, bishop of the Goths, in the year 1518. Here the Greek text of the 360. An imperfect manuscript of this Septuagint is reprinted just as it stood version was found in the abbey of Ver- in the manuscript, full of faults of the den, near Cologne, written in letters of copyists, but easily amended. This silver, for which reason it is called edition was reprinted at Strasburg in Codex Argenteus; and it was published 1526, at Basil in 1545, at Frankfort in by Francis Junius in 1665. The oldest 1597, and other places, with some German printed Bible extant is that of alterations, to bring it nearer the HeNuremburg, in 1447 ; but who was the brew. The most commodious is that author of it is uncertain. John Emzer, of Frankfort, there being added to this chaplain to George duke of Saxony, little scholia, which shew the different published a version of the New Testa- | interpretations of the old Greek transment in opposition to Luther. There lators. The author of this collection is a German Bible of John Ekeus in has not added his name, but it is com1537, with Emzer's New Testament monly ascribed to Junius. The third added to it; and one by Ulemburgius Greek Bible is that of Rome, or the of Westphalia, procured by Ferdinand Vatican, in 1587, with Greek scholia, duke of Bavaria, and printed in 1630. collected from the manuscripts in the Martin Luther having employed ele- Roman libraries by Peter Morin. It ven years in translating the Old and was first set on foot by cardinal MonNew Testaments, published the Penta-talbo, afterwards pope Sixtus V. This teuch and the New Testament in 1522, fine edition has been reprinted at Paris the historical books and the Psalms in in 1628, by J. Morin, priest of the 1524, the books of Solomon in 1527, || Oratory, who has added the Latin Isaiah in 1529, the Prophets in 1531, translation, which in the Roman was and the other books in 1530. The printed separately with scholia. The learned agree that his language is pure, Greek edition of Rome has been printand the version clear and free from in-ed in the Polyglot Bible of London, to tricacies. It was revised by several which are added at the bottom the persons of quality, who were masters various readings of the Alexandrian of all the delicacies of the German lan- manuscript. This has been also reguage. The German Bibles which printed in England, in 4to. and 12mo. have been printed at Saxony, Switzer- with some alterations. It was again land, and elsewhere, are, for the most published at Franeker, in 1709, by Bos, part, the same as that of Luther, with who has added all the various readlittle variation. In 1604, John Piscator ings he could find. The fourth Greek published a version of the Bible in Bible is that done from the AlexanGerman taken from that of Junius and drian manuscript begun at Oxford by Tremellius; but his turn of expression | Grabe in 1707. In this the Alexanis purely Latin, and not at all agree-drian manuscript is not printed such able to the genius of the German lan- as it is, but such as it was thought it guage. The Anabaptists have a Ger- should be, i. e. it is altered wherever man Bible printed at Worms in 1529. there appeared any fault of the copyJohn Crellius published his version of ists, or any word inserted from any parthe New Testament at Racovia in ticular diálect: this some think an ex1650, and Felbinger his at Amsterdam cellence, but others a fault, urging that in 1660.
the manuscript should have been given 29. BIBLES, Greek. There are absolutely and entirely of itself, and all many editions of the Bible in Greek, conjectures as to the readings should but they may be all reduced to three have been thrown into the notes. We or four principal ones; viz. that of have many editions of the Greek TesComplutum, or Alcala de Henares; tament by Erasmus, Stephens, Beza; that of Venice, that of Roine, and that that in the Complutensian Polyglot, of Oxford. The first was published in the Elzevirs, &c.; and with various 1515 by cardinal Ximenes, and inserted readings by Mill, Bengelius, Wetstein, in the Polyglot Bible, usually called the &c. Those of Wetstein and Griesbach, Complutensian Bible: this edition is are thought by some to exceed all the not just, the Greek of the LXX being rest. altered in many places according to 30. BIBLES, Hebrew, are either mathe Hebrew text. It has, however, 'nuscript or printed. The best manubeen reprinted in the Polyglot Bible of script Bibles are those copied by the Antwerp, in that of Paris, and in the Jews of Spain: those copied by the quarto Bible commonly called Vata- | Jews of Germany are less exact, but