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bees, carry them to a distance, and then let them fly; each takes the straight line towards the nest or hive, and by observing these lines the hive may be found, in the direction where they cross each other. Sometimes bees stray away and build their hives in the trunks of hollow trees. There was a large tree cut down in a certain place, and near the root a great many layers of honey were found; the bees had probably deposited their honey in it for many years. Bees are industrious insects, and will not permit any drones-those bees which will not work to live with them, but they all assist each other.
The spider and many other insects exhibit a kind of singular instinct. If you touch a spider with your finger, he will run away as swiftly as he can; but if he finds that he cannot run in any direction, he draws his feet together, and lies perfectly motionless, feigning to be dead; and if he be even torn by pins, he will not show the slightest degree of suffering.
Ants generally make their nests on the ground; but in Siam they build them on trees, because that country is often flooded with water, and people are obliged to build their houses on long poles.
There are some birds that always move to a warm climate as soon as winter approaches. They go at a particular time, and return again at a particular season. When birds have liberty to do as they please, they always build their nests of the same material-the same mud and straw, and in the same spot, year after year. Sometimes they wholly change their mode of building, especially in those countries where snakes abound. The bird hangs its nest on the branch of the tree, and makes the opening to it at the bottom, so that should the snake crawl up the tree to the limb, it could not get into the nest to take the eggs. There is a certain bird that has been seen to catch grasshoppers, and fasten them to the twigs of trees where the little birds were accustomed to come. Why do you think she did this? for she never eats them herself. The reason was this: her instinct taught her that little birds were fond of grasshoppers; and as she was very fond of little birds, she put them there for a bait to decoy and bring them to that place, so that she might catch
and eat them. A swallow once slipped its foot into the noose of a cord, and by endeavouring to escape, drew the knot tight, so that he could not get away. He raised a most piteous cry, which drew a large flock of swallows around him. When they perceived his condition, each one struck the cord with his beak till it was broken, and their companion was freed.
When two goats meet on a narrow ledge of rock over a precipice, and see that there is no room to pass each other, after stopping a moment, one crouches down, and permits the other to walk gently over his back; then each one continues his journey along the narrow and dangerous path. Certainly they show a more accommodating spirit than some men do.
There was a certain cat, which frequently went into a closet, the door or which was fastened by a common iron latch. When the door was closed, and she wished to come out, she mounted on the bench of the window, which was near the door, and with her paw lifted the latch, and came out. This she did for many years. Another cat, which lived with a friend of mine, was accustomed to come to the kitchen door every morning, at precisely five o'clock, open the door with her paw, and come into the house.
Dogs possess a remarkable degree of instinct, sagacity, or understanding. In Switzerland there are high mountains, the tops of which are always covered by snow. Sometimes the snow falls from them suddenly, in such large masses that houses and travellers are buried. At the convent among the mountains, called the St. Bernard, the monks keep a particular kind of dog that they send out after a snowstorm, in search of travellers, whom they frequently dig out of large banks of snow, and save their lives.
There are hunting dogs in Mexico, which assist in catching and killing deer. The weight of the deer is generally six times as great as their own, so that if they should attack them in front they might be killed, or have their backs broken. Instead of this they attack them at the side, or at the back, and when the deer starts to run, the dog throws him Some dogs will take a basket, and go every day to market to get their dinner. They can always find their master by
smelling his tracks along the ground, even if he is at a great distance; and, if possible, will never leave him.
Many interesting anecdotes are related by different writers about the sagacity of the elephant. When tamed, it becomes the most gentle and obedient of all animals. It can be taught to kneel, to have a chariot or any load put on its back, which it carries easily. They sometimes exhibit shame and ambition. They were formerly used to assist in launching ships. A certain one was employed to take a large vessel into the water, but it was too heavy for him. When his master saw that he was incapable to perform his task, he said, "Take away the lazy beast, and bring another." The creature heard this, and made another effort, but broke his skull, and died on the spot.
An artist in France wished to paint the elephant with his trunk raised in the air, and his mouth open. So a boy was employed to throw fruit into his mouth, to keep him in this position, but, as he frequently deceived him, he at last became angry, and one day took some dirty water in his trunk, and threw it all over the painter's picture, as if he knew that this was the most effectual way by which he could vent his spite.
A child that could not walk was left to the care of an elephant; as soon as the child crawled to the extent of the elephant's chain, he would quietly lift it with his trunk, and replace it in the spot where it was first left. They formerly went to the battle-field with the Burmans to help them carry on their war. When an extra task was to be performed, some favourite dainty was held out to the elephant before the time; and he, as if aware that his success would be rewarded, made double exertions to earn it, and please his master.
The beaver is also a very remarkable animal. In countries where they abound, they gather together in large companies, and in the summer make excursions into the woods to choose the trees they wish to use in building their huts. They select a spot in a lake or river, and then gnaw down the trees; and they always gnaw them in such a manner that the trees will fall into the river. They build their houses large enough to contain from fifteen to thirty beavers. Each cabin has two doors-one
on the side of the land, and one leading to the water, so that they can either go ashore or swim in the water. They plaster their cabins with a strong cement of mud, using their flat tails to smooth it. Their houses are very strongly built, and can resist strong winds, and currents in the streams. Sometimes they have paths under the ground, where they can retreat when any danger approaches.
The ostrich is the tallest and swiftest of all animals. When it is chased it throws stones and gravel with its feet at its pur
Oysters throw water out of their shells when they are attacked, as if to vent their spite against their enemy.
A certain pony would open the latch of the stable door, and raise the lid of the corn-crib, which he learned to do himself.
Monkeys possess a high degree of instinct, and resemble man more than any other animal. The teeth and paws are very much like our teeth, hands, and feet. In their wild state they live in the woods, on the trees, and feed on fruits, leaves, and insects. They live together in companies, and never go alone when they wish to rob an orchard, or find their food. It seems as if they laid regular plans; for, as has been remarked, part of them stand to watch the approach of enemies, and part enter the field. They form a straight line, reaching from those within, to some place beyond which is a retreat for them. When they are all arranged in due order, those in the orchard, near the trees, throw the fruit to those outside as fast as they can gather it. These pass it over to those nearest to them till the fruit is all nicely lodged in their hut or retreat. If the one who acts as sentinel perceives any one coming, he makes a loud noise, and they all run away; yet, even then, they will take some fruit under each of their arms or fore-paws, and also in their mouths. They are mischievous animals, and annoy travellers exceedingly by throwing stones and sticks at them; and they will frequently follow them for some distance, when they are passing through the woods, by leaping from tree to tree. They are capable of forming strong attachments even with other animals, and then exhibit mildness, affection, and do
cility. Monkeys and orang-outangs can be taught to do almost anything that we can. They ride on ponies, feed themselves with a spoon, and appear to understand what is said to them. The great naturalist, Buffon, speaks of one ourang-outang which would present his hand when any one came to see him, and would walk along with great composure. He would sit down at the table, unfold his napkin, wipe his lips, and use a spoon or a fork to convey the food to his mouth. When he was asked to drink tea, he took a cup and saucer, placed them on the table, put in the sugar, poured out the tea, and allowed it to cool before he drank it; all of which he performed by the signs or orders of his Another would, by signs, make the servant understand what he desired; if his wishes were not granted, he would bite him and throw him down. When he was sick he was bled, and ever afterward, when at all unwell, would hold out his arm to be bled, just as if he understood that he had been relieved by such operation before. They sometimes carry water from the river in pitchers placed on their heads. Frequently when the pitchers are not taken off, they fall and break, at which the ourang-outang moans greatly. I might tell you many more interesting facts and anecdotes about the habits of animals. We find they seem almost to possess the intellect of human beings. This appearance of intelligence has been called, by nearly all physiologists, instinct; and wonderful indeed is this gift of the beneficent Creator.
WARMTH OF FUR.-It is commonly thought that warmth would be best obtained by wearing fur with the hair inwards, and that the practice of wearing it outwards has been adopted from its ornamental richness. Such, however, is not the case; for fur garments have been found by experience to be much warmer in cold weather when worn with the hair outwards, than when it is turned inwards. Hence the disadvantage of lining cloaks and gloves with fur. The above is alleged as a proof that we are kept warm by our clothing, not so much by confining the heat of our bodies, as by repelling those frigorific rays which tend to cool us..
BREEDING OF SILKWORMS IN
THE breeding of silkworms is becoming an important branch of industry in Germany; and it is so in the northern as well as in the southern parts, though the general impression is that silkworms cannot thrive in a northern temperature The first attempts to establish this branch of industry in the north were made by French Protestant refugees in the district of Wurzburg, in 1594, and they were encouraged by the Prussian sovereigns.
In about the middle of the seventeenth century, the ramparts of Peiz and the environs of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, were planted with mulberry trees, and in the following century Frederick the Great caused plantations to be made at Copnik, Potsdam, and in the immediate vicinity of Berlin.
Since 1821, the production of silk has become considerable, not only in Prussia, but in the other states of the Zollverein; the annual production is at present several thousand pounds. In quality it is remarkably white, and finer than that in the southern countries: and Berlin manufacturers say that if enough of it could be obtained, they would not apply to the producers of Lombardy.
From Berlin and Potsdam the cultiva. tion of mulberry trees gradually extended to Silesia and Hanover. It is schoolmasters who chiefly occupy themselves with it-one of their body having in the eighteenth century commenced it as a means of adding to his income; and some of these persons now gain from 20 to 80 thalers (75f. to 300f) annually. Several of the German governments encourage the production of silk by granting premiums, and causing societies o patronage to be formed.
A short time ago, the Minister of Commerce recommended that the sides of all the railways should be planted with mulberry trees; the king of Wurtemburg has caused the French translation of the Chinese treatise on the breeding of silkworms to be translated into German, and to be extensively circulated; at Dresden, Mr. de Carlowitz, one of the ministers, has published a work on the subject; and at Munich, the Queen, the Royal
Princesses, and the principal ladies of the aristocracy, patronise societies for encouraging it.
In the Grand Duchy of Baden, the roads and sides of the railways have been planted with mulberry trees; and in the village of St. Ilgen, near Heidelberg, the breeding of worms has been carried on, during the last twelve years, on an extensive scale. Austria, on its part, is sparing no pains to increase its production, which already amounts to about 100,000,000f. annually-one-half coming from Lombardy
On the military frontier of Turkey, a garden of mulberry trees has been established in every village, and the military colonists are encouraged to extend the cultivation.
At Prague, the fosses of the fortifications have been planted with mulberry trees, and orders have been given that such trees shall also be planted by the side of all the railways in the monarchy.
A FEMALE PHYSICIAN.-A correspondent of a New York paper, writing from a village in the interior of the Union, says:-"A lady practitioner of medicine, in the same village, is in advance of the recent movement, for she has been a professor of the healing art for twenty years. She studied with her husband, who is a physician of established repute, and commenced practice under his auspices, having her own set of patients. Their number rapidly increased, in part owing to her success, and in part, it is supposed, that her charges were rather more moderate than those of the doctor. He is above feeling any jealousy, however, of the rising reputation of his wife, and they continue to ride their respective rounds in attendance on the sick. The lady is employed chiefly by the suffering of her own sex, and for children, and possesses the entire confidence of all who know her. It is to be supposed that consultations are held in difficult cases. Mrs. G. is a woman of admirable energy, and has reared a large family of children, seeing to the concerns of her own household, as well as attending to her professional duties.
THE DUTIES OF EDUCATED WOMEN.
THE education of women, like that of men, should tend to prepare them for their duties; the difference of their employments will of course render their studies different. It is the duty of a woman to educate her children, the boys until a certain age, and girls until they are married. How much wisdom is requisite to manage the mind and disposition of each child, so as to guide their intellects, manage their humours, to anticipate the effects of their growing passions, and to rectify their errors! How much prudence should a mother have in order to maintain her authority over them, without losing their friendship and their confidence! Surely the mother of a family ought to possess a religious, mature, firm mind, acquainted with the human heart. St. Paul attaches such importance to the education of children, that he says, it is by "mothers the souls of children are saved."
I shall not attempt to specify all that they ought to know, in order to educate their children well. To do this, it would be necessary to enter into an entire detail of their studies; but we must not omit the subject of economy. Women in general are apt to neglect it, and think it proper only for the lower classes; those women especially, who are brought up in idleness and indolence, disdain the details of domestic life. It is nevertheless from ignorance that the science of economy is despised. The polished Greeks and Romans took care to instruct themselves in this art. That mind is of a low order which can only speak well, and cannot act well; we often meet with women who utter wise maxims, yet nevertheless are very frivolous in their conduct.-Fenelon. }
A CHEERFUL PHILOSOPHY.-The following truthful passage occurs in one of the Frederika Bremer books :-" There is much goodness in the world, although at a superficial glance one is disposed to doubt it. What is bad is noised abroad, is echoed back from side to side, and newspapers and the social circles find much to say about it; whilst what is good goes at best, like sunshine, quietly through the world."
FIRST OPERATIONS IN A GARDEN.* Whether a man undertakes to make a new garden, or to restore an old one, the first thing he should attend to is the drainage of the ground. He must not persuade himself that because his ground lies high, or on a good slope, it is therefore dry, for in some places the springs may be found at the top, or high up the side of a hill, and the ground may be, a large portion of the year, a complete swamp. It is always better to employ a man used to the work than to do this ourselves, as he will in an instant see which is the best part of the garden whereat to get rid of the water that may drain from the land, and in what direction the drains had better be made. If, however, a man be determined to drain it himself, in most cases, but not in all, the lowest part of the ground will be the best place at which to carry off the water, and the drains may be dug accordingly, that they may relieve every part of the ground. There are many ways of draining; some use drain tiles, which are laid at the bottom, and go into one another; others, stones or faggots. However, where drainage is of the most importance, it is easiest managed, that is in stiff clayey land. A trench must be dug with a trenching spade, two feet six inches to three feet deep, narrow at the bottom; this should have eight inches deep of large stones (if they can be had) at the bottom; but if they cannot be had, use the clippings of hedges or faggots, and cover in with the soil. With regard to the direction of the trenches, that must depend on circumstances; they must have a fall, however slight. If the ground be level, or you must get rid of the water at a higher instead of the lower part of the ground, the trench must be deeper as it approaches the place where the water is to run off. If it happen that one end or one side of the ground is bounded by a ditch, it may be sufficient to run three or four trenches across the ground into such ditch; or if there be none, it may be necessary to make one; but, if possible, get some outlet for
* From an excellent little work, which we recommend to our readers, entitled "Gardening for the Million," published by Houlston and Stoneman, London.
the water: though if there be none, the ditch must be large enough to take it. If one corner happen to be the lowest, or the place where it must run off, there may be one main drain from the highest point to the lowest, and other drains at proper distances, to communicate with it; and however unwilling we may feel to undertake such a job on entering a concern, it is a fact easily demonstrated, that onehalf the gardens which are said to be worn out or unproductive, require nothing but draining, dressing, and trenching two spits deep, turning the bottom soil to the top, to make them all that can be desired. The reason why a drain must be two feet six inches to three feet deep is because, in all ordinary trenching, the ground is turned up eighteen inches and disturbed another six by loosening the bottom. If, as is sometimes the case, the soil is not good below the first eight or ten inches, trenching will do mischief. In such cases, although trenching may be recommended as a general operation, it must not be done. In like manner, although we recommend draining, there are circumstances under which it can do no good; but these are exceptions, and the owner will soon find them out if they exist. Generally speaking, if it had not been already done, draining and trenching are the first and best operations in a new or neglected garden.
FLOWERS NOT IN CHARACTER.-As fruit trees do not adjust themselves to bearing until the root and the head have settled down into a sort of mutual agreement as to demand and supply, so also flowers never come to the proper characters until the root and the plant, after being disturbed in their proportions by removal, recover their relative positions. For example, let us take a half-rooted offset of auricula, throwing up a bloom, it will be found no more like the proper character than any other sort. Or take the weakly struck cutting of a pansy, and you will, perhaps, see a flower no more like the original than a cabbage is like a potato; or take the premature blossoms of the dahlia, and you would not kuow what it was meant for, even if it condescended to come double at all, which is more than it will always.