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of encouragement, to give to the mind a proper bias and direction.
"It is dangerous, then, to imagine, that the work of education consists entirely, or even principally, in applying means to unfold the powers of the human mind, or in giving an increased momentum to its natural activity. If nothing more than this were done, society would be left exposed to a formidable conflict between ungovernable spirits, each eager to exercise his strength and inclination in the pursuit of his own object and the accomplishment of his own purpose, without regard to any general bond of mutual affection, or of moral influence. Peace and happiness, truth and justice, religion and piety, would still remain undefined, and doubtful terms, or unsanctioned at least by any authority which could give them effectual sway.
"So far is it from being true, that by increasing the vigour and the expansion of the mental faculties, the necessity of systematic instruction in religion is superseded; that, on the contrary, in proportion as their power is thus increased, is this necessity rendered more urgent. It is not in the nature of such faculties, and so excited, to remain inactive, or to be cold and listless when an object of pursuit is offered. The first plausible theory, whether true or false, which is presented to their contemplation, will engage attention; and, if it have any captivating features, will probably take strong hold of the affections; more especially, if it partake of those qualities which most readily fall in with the solicitations of ap. petite or passion. The first and most essential point, therefore, is to satisfy the cravings of the mind with such knowledge as shall best conduce to its moral, as well as intellectual, strength. As the latter increases, the former must still be enabled to maintain its due ascendency: and better were it, that the one should be circumscribed, even within the narrowest limits, than that it should be suffered to range beyond the control of the other, under no guidance or direction but that of its own undisciplined propensities."
In the diocese of Calcutta, the Diocesan Committee at Calcutta appear, from their Report for the year 1820, to promote with great success the several designs of the Society. Early in the year, the Committee received a large consignment of the Society's Family
Bible, to the value of 5581. forty copies of which have been disposed of. The Committee having likewise received from the Society, in the course of the year, very large consignments of Bibles, Testaments, Common Prayer Books, and religious Tracts, have been enabled to furnish abundant supplies of those books and tracts to the several depôt stations, particularly to the depôts at Dinapore and Meerut, and to the depôt recently established at Dacca and Chittagong. Of Prayer-books, Tracts, and elementary books, the Committee have also continued to afford supplies, as they have been called for, to the Military Orphan Asylum, the Free School, the Female Orphan Asylum, and other charitable institutions, and wherever else occasions have been offered for distributing them to advantage. Upon a representation from T. C. Plowden, Esq. that he had found the books and tracts obtained from the stores of the Committee highly useful and acceptable to persons employed in his office, it was resolved to make known to the Christians employed as writers in the several principal public offices, the existence of these publications, which are very cheap, and calculated to do much good. Accordingly, a circular on the subject was addressed to the heads of departments. In this circular, the Com. mittee respectfully request, that catalogues of the books and tracts maybe circulated among the Christians employed in the several public offices; and, at the same time, give an assurance, that, upon the application of the head of each de. partment, they will have much pleasure in supplying from their stores, either at reduced prices or gratuitously, whatever may be required for the use of such persons. A great number of persons thankfully availed themselves of the offer; and a large quantity of books and tracts were furnished accordingly, the greater part being regularly paid for at the Society's prices. A small stock was also placed under the care of Dr. Willich, for the use of the apprentices and other Christians employed in the Botanical Gardens.
The Society state in their Tenth Report, that his Grace the Archbishop of Tuam has corresponded with them on the means of circulating their tracts in Ireland; and that his comm unication
have been very beneficial in the promotion of that desirable object. The Archbishop has expressed his cordial approbation of the tracts; and has added his name as a patron of the Society, to those of the Bishops of Gloucester, St. David's, and Elphin.
The lord Bishop of Bristol has also become a patron, and has accepted the office of president. His lordship states of the Society's publications, that he has never seen any tracts which appeared to him "better calculated to excite the attention of the lower classes, and to promote pious and devout feelings in their hearts;" and also "to excite a feeling of warm attachment to the Church of England."
The Committee have opened a communication with "The Religious Tract and Book Society for Ireland," from which they have been led to anticipate very important results; and have already received an order for 50,000 tracts.The Church Tract Society for Sheffield and its vicinity; the Durham Church Tract Society, under the patronage of its venerable Bishop; the Cork Religious Tract Society; the Religious Tract Society, established at York; and the Bath Religious Tract Society have continued to assist the funds of the institution, and to make demands for its tracts. The Committee are likewise indebted to the continued exertions of their corresponding members in various parts of England and Wales.
A Society has been formed at Glo. cester, under the Bishop of the diocese, for the circulation of such religious tracts as are on the list of the Bristol Tract Society, the Cheap Repository tracts, and any other tracts which shall be approved after due examination. The Committee are very desirous of promoting parochial associations wherever they can be formed, and of receiving donations and subscriptions, however inconsiderable.
A "Prayer-book and Church-of-England Tract Society," has been formed at Dudley. By means of this association, the Society's tracts are in active circulation through a very populous district, where they are held in high estimation.
The following new tracts have issued since the last anniversary :— Good-Friday Intercession; or, the Churchman's Duty to pray for all Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Heretics. The Decalogue; or, the Churchman's
Making a total of.... 123,504 Several pleasing testimonies of benefit resulting from these tracts, have been received from different clergymen : one, whose neighbourhood had been greatly infected with a deistical spirit, writes,"This year we have circulated more Bibles than in any preceding one; and particularly in those hamlets where Deists have abounded. The eagerness of all classes to procure Bibles, and their care to use them, are very pleasing circumstances; and we attribute them to the distribution of your and other tracts."
The Clergyman of a large town writes:
"I have heard of many instances of good resulting from your tracts. About four months ago, I put one or two of the tracts, on the Warning before the Communion, into every pew of my church, on a Sunday on which I had to give notice of the celebration of the Lord's supper. This was done before the congregation assembled. On the following Sunday the number of communicants was larger than it had ever been before, and it has been increasing ever since. My desire and prayer to God is, that, by such and other means, sinners may be brought to the saving knowledge of Christ, the members of our church be edified, and God be glorified among us."
The chaplain of the garrison at Halifax, in Nova Scotia states, “that the tracts had excited great attention among the sick soldiers in the hospital, who had them continually in their hands."
The Committee are in expectation of receiving one or more valuable tracts on the subject of Popery. They wish also to enlarge their list of tracts for children. They strongly recommend the formation of local associations; and the assistance of the clergy in every
part of the kingdom to promote their important undertaking. We need not add how cordially we again recommend this excellent institution to the prayers and liberality of our readers.
PRAYER-BOOK AND HOMILY SOCIETY.
At the late annual meeting of this Society, it was stated that the issues of Prayer-books and Homilies during the last year had increased (the increase in the issue of the latter amounting to 30,000), and that its cause is more warmly espoused, and its utility more generally acknowledged, than in former years. The Book of Homilies previously to the formation of this Society, was considered by too many persons as almost antiquated and obsolete; but by means of this institution, these valuable compositions have become extensively known and valued.
Besides the Homilies already circulated, measures have been taken to translate several more into the French and Italian languages, and nothing is wanting but enlarged funds for disseminating these instructive composi. tions over the greater part of the Continent,where theyare thankfully received, and in some cases highly esteemed.
The Morning and Evening Prayers, the Psalter, and the First Homily, have been translated into Chinese, and distributed in various places, not indeed actually in China, but in places where persons who understand the Chinese language reside. In China itself, the Court decides, without any toleration, in what manner the people shall worship; but in the Chinese colonies, no such opposition is encountered. A Chinese servant, resident in this country, was present with a Prayer-book, which had been trauslated into the Chinese language by Dr. Morrison, whose name was perfectly familiar to him; for upon hearing it, and seeing the book, he exclaimed, “Good man! good book?"-This poor heathen had
previously to his receiving the Prayerbook, been in the habit of burning a piece of paper as an act of worship, being probably an adorer of fire.
On the shores of the Mediterranean, the demands for religious information are loud and numerous. In Italy many prejudices against our English creed are stated to have been removed simply through reading our Prayer-book. A version of the Liturgy into pure Biblical Hebrew has been strongly advised for the use of the Jews. Homilies in the Manks language have been circu, lated among the people of the Isle of Man. The Report, in conclusion, re commended fervent prayers to God for his blessing upon the labours of the Society, without which all human effort is unavailing.
LONDON HIBERNIAN SOCIETY,
The Report, read at the late anniver. sary, stated, that the number of the Society's schools in Ireland had increased in the last year from 534 to 575, and that the number of scholars was 53,233 thirty-five of the schools were under the superintendance of Catholic priests. The Society had received 1000 Bibles and 10,000 Testaments from the British and Foreign Bible Society, and had distributed upwards of 80,000 Bibles and Testaments. The progress of the Society had been slow, but sure; it extends now to 23 counties out of 32, and the conduc tors look with confidence to complete success, as the cause is not that of a party, but truly catholic. The Society deserves extensive patronage in the present afflicted state of Ireland. Its object is simply to teach all classes of the people to read the holy Scriptures, which are not only "able to make them wise unto salvation," but to render, them, in every respect, good men, good subjects, good citizens; industrious in their habits, contented with their lot, and a blessing to themselves and mankind.
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
FRANCE. The internal tranquillity of this country continues to be partially disturbed; as appears, among other
circumstances, from the recurrence of various conflagrations, of which the incendiaries cannot be traced, or their object ascertained, except that it seems
to be connected with political animosities. The unpopularity of the present ministry is indicated by the character of the elections for the new members of the chamber of deputies, in lieu of those who have gone out by rotation, in those places where public feeling is most strongly expressed. In the department of the Seine, especially, which includes the capital, the Liberals have obtained a triumph, the whole of the members returned being of that party.
Some discussions have taken place on the subject of the Slave Trade, both in the chamber of peers and in the chamber of deputies. In the former, the Duc de Broglie made a motion for adopting severer measures of repression against the Slave Trade. He prefaced his motion by a speech of extraordinary talent, conveying a most luminous view of the whole subject, and urging his proposition of it by a most powerful appeal to all the high principles and feelings involved in the question. The motion was unsuccessful: the French ministers declared that they saw no necessity for any further legislative measures, the existing laws being, in their view, sufficient. Can any thing mark more clearly than such a declaration, after all the uncontroverted facts which have been brought before the French government, a determination not to disturb the slave-trader in his nefarious and destructive_career? The speech of the Duc de Broglie, we are happy to find, has been printed, and is now widely circulating in France. We have seen nothing which is more admirably calculated to enlighten the public mind in that country on this important subject; and it is now evidently to the influence of public opinion, and not to the honour and good faith of the French government, that the appeal must be made, as it is upon this alone that our hopes must now rest, We shall not, however, pursue the matter further at present, as we expect soon to have an opportunity of laying before our readers a variety of afflicting particulars respecting the illicit French Slave-trade, and the state of that trade generally,drawn from that Report of the African Institution, read at the annual meeting announced in our last Number; and from papers recently laid before the British Parliament, embracing a mass of painfully interesting information.
TURKEY.-The ports of the last
month are generally favourable to the progress of the Greeks in procuring their emancipation from the oppression of the Turks. The insurgent party obtained possession of the isle of Scio; but it has been reconquered by the Turks, and dreadful massacres have followed. The Greek Peasantry, in the north of Thessaly and Upper Macedonia, are reported to have formed a body of 7000 men, warm with patriotic ardour, who have occupied the defiles of Mount Olympus, the Valley of Tempe, and the banks of the Peneus, and have traversed the country towards the sea-coast, increasing their numbers, and obtaining new successes, throughout their progress. Russia, by retaining her armies on the frontiers of Turkey, and thus drawing the Ottoman forces northward to be ready to repel invasion, is effectually, though silently, fighting the battle of the Greeks before she strikes a single blow. Her thus suffering the Greeks to acquire strength and cohesion, would lead us to hope, independently of other considerations arising out of the general policy of the great powers of Europe, that in the event of subjugating Turkey, Russia may not be unwilling to allow the Greeks to form themselves into an independent state; a course which might materially counteract, in the general opinion, any supposed evils likely to result from an accession to the strength and territory of Russia, in the southeast of Europe, of countries so favourably placed for purposes of aggression and aggrandisement as are the peninsula and archipelago of Greece. We should view the probable enfranchisement of the Greeks with more unmixed satisfaction, were it not for the torrents of blood with which it is likely to be cemented, in addition to those which have already flowed in this implacable contest. But even these horrors are probably light, when put in competition with those which Greece would have to endure, were she once more subjected to the Turkish yoke. May a merciful God speedily terminate these murderous conflicts!
SOUTH AMERICA.-The new Republics in Spanish South America are firmly entrenching themselves in their recently acquired liberties, and are proceeding with the consolidation and improvement of their laws and constitutions. They at present amount to five; Buenos Ayres, Chili, Mexico, Co2 U
lumbia, and Peru. Their independency, as Sovereign States, has for some time been virtually, and is now openly and authoritatively, recognized by the Government of the United States of America, who, from the circumstances of their own history, and republican constitution, as well as from their proximity, and from the deep commercial interest they have in cultívating a good understanding with their southern neighbours, might naturally be expected to take the lead in this recognition. A bill is now passing through our own parliament which is intended to regulate our commercial intercourse with these states, and to admit their ships freely into our ports, the effect of which will be a real and substantial, if not a formal, acknowledgment of their independent sovereignty. -It is gratifying to find, that among these infant republics there prevails, to a considerable extent, a spirit of humane and enlightened legislation. In Columbia, in particular, which is constituted nearly after the model of the United States of America,-General Bolivar, like General Washington, being the first President,--the House of Representatives have adopted many provisions of a most praiseworthy character;-among others, the removal of every vestige of the inquisition; the decreeing of toleration and equal civil rights to all members of the community who have not forfeited their citizenship by their crimes; the declaring every man free to write, print, and publish his opinions, but being responsible for the abuse of this privilege; the making provision for trial by jury, as soon and extensively as the feelings and habits of the people may allow of this regulation; the allotting specific funds for the education of all classes of the people on the system of mutual instruction; and lastly, what involves no trifling sacrifice in slaveholders, the decreeing the early aboli. tion of slavery, not only by declaring all free who shall be born within, the limits of the republic, but by appropriating large funds for the gradual manumission of the adults who are now in bondage. Nor has this measure of Christian benevolence and true policy been confined to Columbia. It has been adopted likewise by the other Independent States, who have also, with a magnanimity which it would be well if Europeans could be induced to imitate, abolished all dis-tiuctions arising from Colour, and admitted the Indian and the Negro to a
common and equal participation of all civil and political rights with the White. Every Christian mind must hail with delight, and with fervent gratitude to God, the opening thus made for the diffusion of freedom, and for the admission of the sacred Scriptures and religious instruction, in regions where hitherto "the true light" has either never shone, or has been lost in the thick gloom of papal bigotry and superstition. The example may well make the parliament of Great Britain itself to blush when it contemplates the cruel and unmitigated bondage in which so many of her subjects still groan in our colonies, and the inidnight darkness as to all moral and religious improvement in which their successive generations are permitted to live and die. Fifteen years have elapsed since the abolition of the slave trade was decreed by the British parliament; and to this hour not one effective law has yet been adopted by it, or by any of the colonial legislatures, for raising the civil condition of the slave, or for paving the way for his future emancipation.
The parliamentary proceedings of the last few weeks have been very various and important. We can only glance at a few of the chief occurrences.
The state of the agricultural interest has undergone several animated discussions, the result of which has been the adoption of the chief measure suggested in the late report of the agricultural committee of the house of commons. The first proposition of the committee; namely, to grant the sum of one million to be laid out in corn to be warehoused, in order to secure the growers against being compelled to carry their produce to an over-stocked market, was clearly so unwise and futile a scheme, and was so generally and strongly disapproved by the house of commons, that after a brief discussion, it was abandoned. The principal feature of the regula tions now intended to be adopted is to repeal the law which prohibits the importation of wheat (we omit the details respecting the other species of corn, all of which however are included in the regulations, according to their relative value,) till it rises to the average price of 80s. per quarter; and also to rescind the permission to import freely for three months from the period of its so rising; and to substi