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Magnitudini Pori adjicere videbatur beliua qua vehebatur, tantum inter cæteras eminens, quanto aliis ipse pracftabat.

1. 8. cap. 14.

It is still a greater deviation from congruity, to af. fect not only variety in the words, but also in the construction. Describing Thermopylæ, Titus Livin us says,

id jugum, ficut Apennini dorso Italia dividitur, ita mediam Græciam diremit.

1. 36. $ 150

Speaking of Shakespear.

There may remain a fufpicion that we over-sate the greatness of his genius, in the same manner as bodies appear more gigantic on account of their being disproportion. ed and misihapen.

History of G. Britain, vil. I. p. 138.

This is studying variety in a period where the beau. ty lies in uniformity. Better thus :

There may remain a suspicion that we over-rate the igrcainess of his genius, in the same manner as we over-rate the greatness of bodies that are disproportioned and milShapen.

Next as to the length of the members that fignify the resembling objects. To produce a resemblance between fuch members, they ought not only to be constructed in the same manner, but as nearly as pollible be equal in length. By neglecting this cita cumstance, the following example is deleclive in. neatness.


As the performance of all other religious duties will not avail in the fight of God, without charity : fo neither will the discharge of all other ministerial duties avail in the sight of men, without a faithful discharge of this principal duty.

Dissertation upon parties, Dedication.

In the following passage are accumulated all the errors that a period exprelling a resemblance can well admit.

Ministers are answerable for every thing done to the prejudice of the constitution, in the same proportion as the preservation of the constitution in its purity and vigour, or the perverting and weakening it, are of greater consequence to the nation, than any other instances of good or bad government.

Difertation upon parties, Dedication, Next of a comparison where things are opposed to each other.' And here it must be obvious, that if resemblance ought to be studied in the words which express two resembling objects, there is equal reason for studying opposition in the words which express contrasted objects. This rule will be best illustrated by examples of deviations from it :

A friend exaggerates a man's virtues, an enemy inflames his crimes.

Spettator, No. 399.

Here the opposition in the thought is neglected in the words, which at first view seem to import, that the friend and the enemy are employed in different matters, without any relation to each other, whether of resemblance or of opposition. And therefore the contrast or opposition will be better marked by expressing the thought as follows.

A friend exaggerates a man's virtues, an enemy his crimes.


The following are examples of the fame kind :

The wise man is happy when he gains his own approbation ; the fool when he recominen is himself to the app plause of those about him.

Ibid. No. 73

Better :


The wise man is happy when he gains his Own

approbation ; the fool, when he gains that of others.

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Sicut in frugibus pecudibusque, non tantum semina ad fervandum indolem i alent, quantum terræ proprietas colique, sub quo aluntur, mutat.

Livy, lib. 38. $ 17.1

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We proceed to a rule of a different kind. During the course of a period, the scene ought to be contin ued without variation: the changing from person to perfon, from fubject to subject, or from person ta subject, within the bounds of a single period, distracts the mind, and affords no time for a solid impreffione I illustrate this rule by giving examples of deviaticas from it.

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Hongs alit artes, omnesque incenduntur ad ftudia gloria, jacenique ea semper quæ apud quosque improbantur.

Cicero, Tujcul. queft. I. L.

Speaking of the distemper contracted by Alexan. der bathing in the river Cydnus, and of the cure fered by Philip the physician:

Inter hæc à Parmenione fidillimo purpuratorum, literas accipit, quibus ei denunciabat, ne falutem fuam Philipro committcret.

Quintus Curtius, t. 3. cap. 6.

Hook, in his Roman history, speaking of Eumenes, who had been beat to the ground with a stone, says,


After a short time he came to himself; and the next day, they put hiin on board his thip, which conveyed him first to Corinth, and thence to the island of Egina. I give another example of a period which is unplealant, even by a very night deviation froin the rule:

That sort of instruction which is acquired by inculcating an important moral truth, &c. This expresion includes two perfons, one acquiring, and one inculcating; and the scene is changed without neceility. To avoid this blemish, the thought may be expressed thus :

That sort of instruction which is afforded by inculcat

ing, &c.

The bad effect of such change of person is remarkable in the following passage.

The Britons, daily harassed by cruel inroads from the Picts, were forced to call in the Saxons for their defence, who consequently reduced the greatest part of the ifand to their own power, drove the Britons into the most remote and mountainous parts, and the rest of the country, in cula toms, religion, and language, becaine wholly Saxons.

Letter to the Lord High Treasurer. Swift.

The following paílage has a change from subject to person.

This profitution of praise is not only a deceit upon the gross of mankind, who take their notion of characters Irom the learned ; but also the better fort must by this means lose some part at least of that desire of fame which is the incentive to generous actions, when they find it proDiscuoully beltowed on the meritorious and undeserving.

Guardian, No. 4.

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Even so flight a change as to vary the construction in the same period, is unpleasant

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Annibal luce prima, Balearibus levique alia armatura præmiffa, tranfgreffus flumen, ut quofque traduxerat, ita in acie locabat ; Gallos Hispanosque equites prope ripam lavo in cornu adversus Romanum equitatum ; dextrun cornu Numidis equitibus datum.,:

Tit. Liv. I. 22. 46.

Speaking of Hannibal's elephants drove back by the enemy upon his own army :

Eo magis ruere in fuos belluæ, tantoque majorem stragem edere quam inter hoftes ediderant, quanto acrius pavor conIternataın agit, quam insidentis magistri imperio regitur.

Livil. 27. $ 14.

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This passage is also faulty in a different respect, that there is no resemblance between the members of the sentence, though they express á fimile

The present head, which relates to the choice of materials, shall be closed with a rule concerning the use of copulatives. Longinus, obferves, that it animates a period to drop the copulatives; and he gives the following example from -Xenophon.

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Closing their shields together, they were puth'd, they fought, they slew, they were flain.

Treatise of the Sublime, cap. 16.

The reason I take to be what follows. A continued found, if not loud, tends to lay us asleep: an interrupted sound rouses and animates by its repeated impulses. Thus feet composed of syllables, being pronounced with a sensible interval between each, make more lively impressions than can be made by a contin

ued VOL. II.

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