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***The following additional particulars of our late worthy Correspondent are chiefly extracted from "The New Monthly Mag." MR. JOHN CARTER, F. S. A.

THE two Memoirs of Mr. CARTER, which appeared in the last volume of Gent. Mag. are both of them true; but, like the Eloges de l'Academie Françoise, they are merely panegyrical, and confined to his public works; but, while I subscribe to the truth of those accounts, I shall add such particulars from my own knowledge as it may be useful to make known, and which, I believe, the writers of those accounts were not acquainted with.

It has been said he was a Roman Catholic, which he certainly was not, if his own assertions, repeatedly made to me when that imputation was the subject of conversation between us, are to be credited; and he certainly was not an Irishman. He had a foolish and inveterate dislike to Ireland and every thing belonging to it; some of those with whom he was engaged in controversy knew this, and annoyed him by asserting that he was an Irishman who chose to deny his country. This greatly mortified him, for he certainly was born in his father's house in Piccadilly, and passed the early part of his life there; nor was he ever out of England, except once or twice that he went, professionally, into South Wales.

His education was very inferior even to what, in the time that he was educated, might have been given to qualify him for those pursuits in which he subsequently engaged. He knew no language but his own, and never could read or explain any inscription or epitaph that was not written in English. This threw him into a very unpleasant state of dependence in his subsequent pursuits, and was the cause of much uneasiness to him in the course of his life.

I was told by himself, that in early life he had been occasionally employed by Dixon and Holland; and since his death I have information from a person who knew him, forty years ago, in the employment of Mr. Wyatt, superintending the workmen in the buildings upon which that gentleman was engaged. At that time Carter was reckoned an odd, close man, and supposed to have saved some money. There can be no doubt that this was the occupation by which he supported himself; and I know, from his own mouth, that all his leisure time was employed in examining and drawing Westminster Abbey and all its parts, under every point of view. For many years he cultivated the acquaintance of every person who was employed about GENT. MAC. March, 1818.

that building: was intimate with all the inferior officers, and respectfully attentive to the superiors and dignitaries, who, seeing him continually about the place, investigated his talents, and finally introduced him into the world of Antiquaries, by whom he was afterwards employed and patronized.

I learned from himself, that the first money he earned as a draughtsman was by making drawings for booksellers: besides other things, he made all the designs for the Builder's Magazine, of which work he told me the following anecdote :

When it was determined to build a new Sessions House on Clerkenwell Green instead of the old Hicks's Hall, the persons in authority advertised for designs, and promised to adopt that which should be approved of. Carter sent in a design, which was rejected for reasons which were to him the cause of singular mortification. He had, in the Builder's Magazine, inserted a design for a Sessions House; this design was copied by some person from the Magazine, offered to the County, accepted, and is the design for that building which is now standing on Clerkenwell Green. Those who possess the book may ascertain their identity by comparison: the Magazine was published before the house was built, so that there is complete evidence that an artist of talents had his design for a building of consequence rejected, in favour of a design that was likewise his own, but which had been either artfully or luckily borrowed from an existing publication, without acknowledgment, by some person who thus obtained all the credit and emolument, while the real inventor never received more than two or three guineas for his design. As the evidence is complete, and the fact incontrovertible, I have much pleasure in mentioning the Sessions House on Clerkenwell Green as a farther proof of Carter's talents as an architect.

As booksellers in those days were not accustomed to pay such sums for the works of artists as are now paid by their successors, I shall mention the circumstance which, Carter told me, first induced him to project his "Specimens of Antient Sculpture, Architecture," &c. which was the first public step he made towards that eminence he afterwards acquired in his peculiar department.

He was employed to make a drawing or drawings for a bookseller, for which he expected to receive five or six guineas: he carried it home, the man examined, approved, and laid it aside; but threw him down a single guinea, and told him that was all he could give him for it. This treatment


treatment enraged poor Carter so much, that he vowed he would never do any thing more for a bookseller, but get into something that would set him above the power of such people. He then projected his "Specimens of Antient Sculpture, Painting," &c.; and, as it did not consist with his finances to employ engravers, he applied himself to etching, and acquired so much power as enabled him to execute that work.

His talents as a draughtsman were quite equal to that part of the work; but he could not draw up the descriptions to his own satisfaction, and therefore solicited the assistance of gentlemen whose knowledge enabled them to perform the task in a way that greatly enhanced the value of the works. This placed him in situations that first converted some of his friends into enemies, and procured for him the character of a quarrelsome man ; and as a knowledge of the facts may af. ford useful cautions to others, I shall mention some of them.

In the choir of Westminster Abbey was, at that time, a whole-length portrait of Richard II. which is believed to be authentic. Carter made a finished drawing from this picture, and engraved it to be inserted in his "Specimens," &c. A gentleman agreed to purchase this drawing, and in consequence the plate was inscribed to, esq. from the drawing in his possession. Whether this honour satisfied the gentleman, or whether more money was asked for the drawing than he chose to give, I know not; but, after the plate was published, he refused to take the drawing, which remained in Carter's hands *.

Soon afterwards Harding, a printseller, undertook to publish a collection of the most authentic portraits that he could procure of Shakespeare's Characters, or of persons mentioned in, or connected with, Shakspeare's Plays. The inscription upon Carter's plate led him to ask Mr. permission to engrave the head of Richard II. from the drawing in his possession. The permission was graciously granted; but he was told it would answer the same purpose, and save the trouble of bringing the drawing to town, if he made his drawing from the book, which was lent him for that purpose. Carter, seeing his plate so unceremoniously copied, sued Harding for the piracy: this led to an explanation, from which it evidently appeared that Harding was not to blame-because the gentleman, when applied to, did not choose to acknowledge that he had not a right to grant what was asked of him; and, when the fact was discovered, very dictatorially required that, because he had chosen to do this, and, in

It was purchased at Mr. Carter's sale by Mr. Nichols.

consequence of occasionally purchasing some of Carter's works, called himself his patron, he should abandon his suit. This he refused; Harding made the best compromise that he could, and Carter lost his patron, who, to save his own credit, told the story as much to the Artist's disadvantage as he could make it appear.

A needy Author collected some scraps of information upon a particular subject from various books; and, by the help of wide printing, large paper, and, without leave, copying one of Carter's most curious plates, constructed a book, which he chose to sell for a guinea, although the ' original matter it contained would not have produced the odd shilling. Our Artist, knowing that the Author was not worth powder, sued the bookseller, who, having no defence, suffered judgment to go by default, and was compelled to pay such damages as compensated for the injury sustained. These and some other circumstances of less notoriety induced persons who found they could not make free with his property with impunity, to misrepresent his motives and his actions, when his only object was to enjoy unmolested that which his industry had acquired.

Of the trouble and expence it cost him to execute this work, none but his confidential acquaintance can judge. I shall mention one fact among others that I know, and which will convey some idea of them.

He learned that the Corporation of Lynn-Regis, in Norfolk, possessed a valuable cup, that was given to them by King John, at the same time that he granted their charter. Conceiving that this would be a desirable article for his work, he procured some introductions, and went down to make a drawing from it. The Corporation at that time could not comprehend the motives which should induce a stranger to go so far only to take a picture as they called it; they probably sus pected that he intended to steal, or otherwise injure their palladium, and abruptly refused the permission' required. After repeated applications, however, they consented-but on condition that he should be confined to a room in company with a person chosen by themselves, but paid by him, whose business was to see that no improper liberties were taken with the valuable cup; and under these circumstances he actually made that drawing from which he engraved the plate that is in the Specimens of Sculpture," &c.

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He expended considerable sums on other occasions to obtain materials for that work, the value of which was greatly increased by the written contributions of his antiquarian friends: but as these (except what he received from one person), were gratuitous, it was necessary to wait their leisure before he could receive them. This,

This, and other circumstances not necessary to mention, induced him to terminate that work when two volumes were complete, and begin the "Specimens of Antient Architecture," which is entirely his


By this time his reputation for correctly drawing those objects to which he directed his attention was firmly established. By investigating those objects, sometimes in comjunction with, and sometimes in opposition to, persons eminent for their skill in British Antiquities, he acquired much knowledge in other departments, as well as those to which he first directed his attention. He now formed opinions of his own upon these subjects, which in general were correct; but, when he was mistaken, it was very seldom that he could be brought to acknowledge his mistake; and having contracted a liking for all subjects of Antiquity that were connected with the people whose buildings he admired, he was not without credulity upon subjects of which he had no knowledge, when they happened to fall in with his own prejudices.

The same pertinacity pervaded all his actions, particularly where his professional pursuits were concerned. Those who remember the Stage when Garrick and Smith performed Macbeth, and Barry Othello, dressed in the laced scarlet uniforms of the Generals of that day, may justly estimate the extent of the improvements that have been made in every department of the dresses and decorations that are now used in theatrical representations, and for the greater part of which we are indebted to the exertions of Mr. Kemble. When that gentleman was engaged upon those subjects, he consulted Carter, who readily gave the information that was asked of him; and, if it had been possible to comply with his suggestions, he would have willingly dedicated his whole time gratuitously to render the representations of all our old plays what he called perfect in point of scenery and dresses; his notion was, that every play, particularly those of Shakspeare, should have scenes exactly representing all the places, and dresses in every particular adapted to each of the characters, which should be kept sacred to the play and character intended, and not to make shift, as he called it, by shuffling dresses and scenes backward and forward from one play to another, and thus never truly representing any. However desirable such a scheme, if executed, might be in some respects, it is easy to perceive that, in practice, it would be impossible, without abandoning all just ideas of œconomy which should pervade all theatrical as well as all other transactions. Mr. Kemble received what information was communicated, and made that use of it which he

thought proper. Raymond, the late manager of Drury Lane, consulted him upon the same subjects, and with the same


The merit for which Carter deserves to be remembered, is the scrupulous accuracy with which he represented those objects that he saw; here he was always to be depended upon, but beyond this point he was to be followed with caution: his knowledge of what he had not seen was obtained from books, through the information of others; and in combining information thus received with his own observations, he sometimes drew conclusions which were by no means warranted by the facts. His bigotry to his own opinions rendered him impatient of contradiction, and sometimes prompted him to persevere in errors which others have detected still this is no impeachment of his integrity, which was free from any wilful blemish.

As a companion, he was blameless, pleasing, and had nothing that those who associated with him could have reason to be afraid of.

He continually represented himself as a solitary being, existing in life without any natural connexions from whom he could expect any assistance when age and imbecility came upon him; and even in his last illness he had no person with him but a common servant, and some old acquaintances upon whom he had no natural claim, but who chose to see that his servant did her duty, and that he had every assistance which he chose should be given to him. Such being the fact, it was with astonishment that, since his death, I have learned that he has a sister living who is nearly of his own age, and a brother who has several children. That near relations should quarrel and keep separate from each other, is an occurrence too common to be surprizing; but in all probability that was not the case here. I remember his niece living with him in the capacity of a servant about two years: she was evidently superior to that station, and there was a mystery in the business I could not penetrate: she disappeared; and when I asked why he parted with a person who seemed so proper to be in his family, his answer was evasive; he could not make her conform to all his peculiarities, and therefore put her away in hopes he might find one that would a sort of proof that there was no dissention between them more than what arose from his oddities, which surmounted the patience of relations, who had the additional strong and natural motive of hoping to succeed to his property, to stimulate them to conform to his wishes.

Astonishment will be excited when I' say it has been discovered, since his death, that he had purchased an annuity, for his


own life, of four hundred pounds, and did not live to receive the first quarter; thus annihilating that property which he had passed a life of industry to acquire, submitted to a life of privation to preserve, and which he might have given to his own relations who wanted it, or to any common acquaintance to whom it might have been useful, and who could not, by any possibility, have made a worse use of it than he has made himself!

Besides this, he is said to have left about fourteen hundred pounds, and his drawings, plates, &c. &c. to two gentlemen whom he has made his executors, and taken no notice of any of his relations.

I have written more than I intended, and shall conclude with recommending JOHN CARTER as a proper example to be imitated by those young artists who enter life under, untoward circumstances, to shew how effectually they may, by due exertion, acquire reputation, property, and rank in their profession; and to instil into every man a conviction, that industry to acquire property in early life, and economy to preserve it, is highly praiseworthy; but that, after it is acquired, the best plan is to use it rationally for his own comfort, and then to give it to those to whom it may be useful.

Copy of Inscription on a Tombstone placed on the South side of Hampstead Church. Sacred

to the Memory of

Mr. JOHN CARTER, Antiquarian Draughtsman and Architect, and

Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries
of London.

He was distinguished
for his superior Knowledge
in Antient English Architecture;
in which, as a Profession,
he pre-eminently excelled.
His zeal for the preservation of
Antient Buildings

and Remains of Antiquity was equal to his Judgment and Science ; and he had the high satisfaction of knowing that his active and steady Perseverance had been the means of saving from Destruction several Antient Structures, valuable Monuments of the skill of our Aneestors. He died 8th September 1817, in the 70th year of his age; and was interred, at his own desire, near the grave of his honoured Mother.

An Account of Mr. CARTER'S Sale in our next.


March 7. Died, at his house in Paradiserow, Chelsea, in his 85th year, Samuel Cotes, esq.

This excellent and venerable old man was son of Robert Cotes and Elizabeth his wife. Robert Cotes was a native of Galway in Ireland, of which town he was Mayor in his 22d year, when, having fallen under the censure of the Irish House of Commons relative to a political dispute which then agitated the Corporation of Galway, he came to London to lay his case before the Queen (Anne) in Council, in which appeal his conduct was honourably borne out. Disgusted with the political animosities of his native Country, Robert Cotes determined to settle in the British Capital, in the practice of Medicine, and there, about the year 1720, married Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Lynn, esq. Chief Secretary of the Royal African Company, by whom he had two sons, Francis, and Samuel (the subject of this memoir); the former was one of the greatest English painters of his day, and would, in all probability, have successfully rivalled Sir Joshua Reynolds, had he not been cut off in the meridian of life and professional fame. Francis Cotes was called the Rosalba of Englaud-he chiefly painted in crayons, and carried that branch of the art to its last point of excellence-a fine specimen of this Master is now in the Council-room in the apartments of the Royal Academy at Somerset-house, close by the portrait of Sir Joshua Reynolds. The picture in question is a portrait of the painter's father, Robert Cotes. Francis was one of the three Artists who received his present Majesty's commands to form the Royal Academy. Stimulated by the fame and success of his elder brother, Samuel was induced to abandon the profession of physic, to which he had been educated, and to solicit the instructions of his brother in the noble art of painting. The result answered his friends' expectations and his own-if he did not rival bis fraternal master, it was because the talents of the latter were of that superior character, which Nature, husbanding her resources, refrains from putting forth more than once in the same age and country. The works of Samuel Cotes in crayons were deservedly and highly esteemed, and he became the first miniature-painter of his time. He was twice married: his first wife was a daughter of Mr. Creswick, an East India Director; his second, Miss Sarah Sheppard, whose talents as an amateur painter, elegance, virtues, and lamented death, we have recorded in our Magazine for the month of Oct. 1814. By the former he had one daughter only, who died an infant; by the latter, none. A better

A better son, husband, and friend, nor a more honourable, kind-hearted, and single-minded man, never lived. From bis early youth, Samuel Cotes was honoured with the friendship of the noble families of Grafton and Harrington, and others in the same rank of life; but it was one of the juster sources of pride to him, that he was the kinsman of Roger Cotes, the illustrious Mathematician, of Trinity College, Cambridge-the friend of Newton, and editor of his Principia.


Sir Richard Croft was descended from a very antient and distinguished family in Herefordshire, in which there has been the title of Baronet since the year 1671 *, and at one time a considerable estate. The entail of the estate was cut off about 60 years ago, and the family became considerably reduced in their circumstances.

Herbert Croft, the father of Sir Richard, was bred to the Law, was one of the 60 Clerks in the Court of Chancery, and was for some years Receiver of the Charterhouse. He married for his first wife Miss Young, a lady of considerable fortune, near Midhurst in Sussex, and had by her six children. Richard, who was the youngest, was born the 9th of January, 1762. For his second wife he married Miss Mary Chawner, sister of Mr. Chawner, a surgeon and apothecary of respectability at Burton-upon-Trent.

Richard was first sent to a school in the neighbourhood of London, and was afterwards for several years at Mr. Manlove's school at Derby. At a proper age he became apprentice to Mr. Chawner, and when his apprenticeship was finished he attended the Anatomical aud Medical Lectures in London for two or three seasons, and was a pupil at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, during which time he lived with his father in the Charterhouse. When his education was finished, he became the partner of Mr. Chawner, his former master, at Tutbury in Staffordshire, and succeeded him in his business there, when Mr. Chawner removed to Burton-upon-Trent. He continued at Tutbury in considerable practice for four or five years, much respected and beloved by all ranks of people. He afterwards settled for a short time as a surgeon at Oxford, upon the supposition that Sir Charles Nourse was about to retire from business. In this idea he was mistaken, and he soon left Oxford with the view of settling in London. While he was at Tutbury he became ac

*Croft Castle was in possession of the family before the Norman Conquest; and many of them have been knighted for their faithful services to the Crown in the course of the English History.

quainted with Dr. Joseph Denman, a physician of considerable eminence at Buxton, who was pleased with his manners, with his active mind, and his honourable principles; and he gave him a letter of introduction to his brother, Dr. Deuman, of London. Before that time Mr. Croft had no acquaintance with Dr. Denman†; but this introduction naturally led to occasional visiting at his house, and in a few months afterwards to Mr. Croft's marriage with the eldest of his twin daughters, which had the entire approbation of her parents. In this place it may not be improper to correct some misrepresentations which have lately been published respecting Dr. Denman's situation in London. Dr. Denman never was an apothecary; but, after having served nine years as a surgeon in the Navy, he settled in London as an accoucheur. He never kept a boarding-house; but had occasionally one or two pupils resident in his house, in the same manner as has been usual with surgeons even after they have arrived at eminence; and the number of his house pupils, throughout the whole of his life, amounted only to six: three of these gentlemen have risen to distinction in their profession.' Dr. Denman never went abroad with the Duchess of Newcastle; and it is believed that he never even had any acquaintance with her Grace.

Mr. Croft, soon after his marriage with Miss Denman, was sent to Paris, to attend the late Duchess of Devonshire, when she was brought to bed of the present Duke. In this affair a most foul calumny has been oftener than once circulated against the memory of the Duchess and of Mr. Croft. In that report the Duchess is stated to have been brought to bed of a girl, and to have changed it for a boy with a noble female friend, who was brought to bed at the same time. story was ever more untrue, or more absurd. There are still alive several persons of most respectable character, who were present when the Duchess was delivered of a boy; and the other lady was at that time not with child.


Mr. Croft's successful attendance upon the Duchess of Devonshire naturally led to a great increase of his business when he returned to London; and Dr. Denman very naturally promoted Mr. Croft's interest as much as he could, but never officiously nor improperly. This interest, however, when Dr. Denman had for some years in a great measure retired, must. have been very much diminished, or, in

It was about this period that Mr. Croft and Dr. Baillie first became acquainted: they were previously known to each other only by sight, as fellow students in Medicine.


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