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illy-adapted for the purpose for which they are employed. They afford but little protection from the extreme heat of this season. The thermometer in the officers' quarters has indicated a heat of 102° for hours at a time. This extreme heat has had a prostrating influence upon the prisoners, increased the sick list, but every care has been taken to prevent epidemic. The barracks and surrounding grounds are now kept clean, policed every day.

The rations supplied the prisoners are good and wholesome. The amount furnished ample. Vegetables in sufficient quantities have been obtained by exchanging a portion of the Government ration issued them for such vegetables as they desired. There is nothing to indicate that they have suffered for a want of antiscorbutics. Their food generally has been well cooked. No fault can be found with their subsistence. Many of the prisoners are suffering for want of clothing; all need some. Many are sadly deficient, not having a change, while some are really suffering very much and cannot be employed at fatigue on this account. The health of the prisoners I consider good under the circumstances. Many came here sick, others broken down by the hardships of service; many are unaccustomed to camp and to the fatigues of a soldier's life. The change from the fatiguing and exposed life of the soldier to their confined and indolent life as prisoners, together with the change of climate, has contributed to increase the sick list. There are seven hospitals for prisoners of war, each under the charge of one of their own physicians, the whole under the medical superintendence of Dr. J. C. McKee, U. S. Army. Their present condition is very favorable and reflects credit upon all connected with their management. The sick are treated with the utmost kindness. The beds are comfortable; blankets, bed-covers, sheets, mosquito bars, &c., are now provided. A change of shirts and drawers for the sick has been supplied. Every care has been taken by the enforcement of cleanliness, the use of deodorizing agents, ventilation, drainage, &c., to render these hospitals comfortable and pleasant. The number of sick in hospital was 185, quite one-half of which were chronic cases of long standing.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Captain, Third Infantry.


Detroit, Mich., July 22, 1862.

Col. J. H. TUCKER, Commanding Camp Douglas, Chicago, Ill.
COLONEL: I am directed by the commissary-general of prisoners to
inform you that among the articles already enumerated to be purchased
for the use of the prisoners vegetables have been omitted.
This was
through mistake and the commissary-general requests that they be
purchased from the prisoners' fund in such quantities as may be deemed
expedient for their wants, consulting of course both economy and their

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Capt., Eighth Infty., Assistant Commissary-General of Prisoners.

Columbus, Ohio, July 22, 1862.


Acting Assistant Commissary-General of Prisoners. CAPTAIN: I am directed by the commissary-general of prisoners to inform you that after you have complied with the instructions contained in my letter to you of the 20th instant addressed to you at Springfield, Ill., relative to duties at Alton, in that State, he requires that you proceed without delay to Saint Louis, Mo., and confer with the provostmarshal-general at that place upon all matters embraced in the printed regulations of the commissary-general's office and upon all general instructions already given you not applicable to particular prison camps. You will fully communicate to the provost-marshal-general the views of the commissary-general of prisoners relative to their care, discipline and safety.

You will ascertain from him the number and location of all camps at which prisoners are confined in his department, the number of prisoners at each camp and the method pursued by him for their control and to secure their safety. Ascertain the particular measures adopted for this purpose, whether the prisoners are concentrated; if so at what points and in what numbers. You will not attempt to impose upon him the means concerning the care of prisoners detailed to you for your government in special cases, as the introduction of Farmer's boilers, &c. You will, however, report the advantage or disadvantage of such applications wherever they may be made.

You will fully and minutely instruct him respecting the returns, reports and other papers required by the commissary-general, and that the records kept at the various prison camps should be uniform in character and such as will furnish in the simplest manner possible all data required at the office of the commissary-general of prisoners. This will be best done by adopting the forms already in use at that office.

Having performed this duty you will immediately return to Detroit, Mich., and personally submit in writing a full report of the result of your investigations.

With highest respect, I am, captain, your obedient servant, H. M. LAZELLE, Capt., Eighth Infty., Assistant Commissary-General of Prisoners.



Detroit, Mich., July 22, 1862.

Assistant Commissary-General of Prisoners, Springfield, Ill. CAPTAIN: I am directed by the commissary-general of prisoners to inform you that among the articles to be purchased from the fund of the prisoners for their use are vegetables, and he requests that they be supplied in such quantities as may be deemed expedient, consulting of course both economy and their health.

With the highest respect, I am, captain, your obedient servant, H. M. LAZELLE, Capt., Eighth Infty., Assistant Commissary-General of Prisoners.

FORT DELAWARE, July 22, 1862.

Capt. A. J. PERRY, Assistant Quartermaster, Washington City.

DEAR SANDY: As you know I and several others were sent to Richmond on parole to effect exchanges. The Confederate States Government declined to make any special exchanges and I returned. I was sent from Fort Warren and expected to return there in case of failure. I have left there various things belonging to me and all my special friends. All the others who came with me except myself were allowed to return from here to that place, they paying their own expenses. I have many other important reasons for desiring to go there and request that as a favor you will endeavor to have me sent there in a similar manner to Colonels Hanson, Jackson, Baldwin, whose cases are precisely similar. If possible I should also like when a general exchange goes into effect (I understand it has been agreed upon) to be paroled so that I can see my family and to take my wife South with me. I could meet her in Baltimore, and if allowed to go South on parole instead of with a crowd this could be effected. If you could accomplish these matters for me you would confer a great favor upon your old friend. Please remember me to Mrs. Perry and the phenomenons.

Yours, truly,

[First indorsement.]

[G. B.] COSBY.

Respectfully referred to Brig. Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General, with the request if not inconsistent with the interests of the Government that Major or Colonel Cosby's wishes in the matter may be gratified. ALEX. J. PERRY, Assistant Quartermaster.

[Second indorsement.]

DEAR GENERAL: I don't know if it be in your power, but if it is please do what you can to gratify Cosby for whom I have always had a special regard.

Yours, truly,


Camp near Harrison's Bar, July 23, 1862.

Maj. Gen. JOHN A. DIX.
GENERAL: The commanding general has received from General R. E.
Lee, of the Confederate service, a communication of which the inclosed
is a copy.* He desires your attention called to the allegations of the
first two paragraphs with a view to ascertain how far they are sustained
by actual occurrences.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General.

FORT MONROE, July 23, 1862.

Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

I have just arrived from Haxall's Landing. General Hill and I came to an agreement yesterday. The articles agreed on are those presented by him with the alterations submitted to you and three of those

* Omitted here; Lee to McClellan, July 21, p. 251.

prepared by me. I will send a copy by this evening's mail. It is very important that we should get the prisoners of the insurgents off our hands without the loss of a day unnecessarily as they are paroling and delivering our sick and wounded. Large numbers of our men die after delivery and are counted in the exchange, while theirs who die before the delivery are not counted; so we lose both ways.



HEADQUARTERS, Fort Monroe, Va., July 23, 1862.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War.

SIR: I have the honor to inclose the articles of agreement entered into by Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill and myself for a general exchange of prisoners of war.

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The undersigned having been commissioned by the authorities they respectively represent to make arrangements for a general exchange of prisoners of war have agreed to the following articles:

ARTICLE 1. It is hereby agreed and stipulated that all prisoners of war held by either party including those taken on private armed vessels known as privateers shall be discharged upon the conditions and terms following:

Prisoners to be exchanged man for man and officer for officer; privateers to be placed upon the footing of officers and men of the Navy.

Men and officers of lower grades may be exchanged for officers of a higher grade, and men and officers of different services may be exchanged according to the following scale of equivalents:

A general commanding in chief or an admiral shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank, or for sixty privates or common seamen.

A flag officer or major-general shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank, or for forty privates or common seamen.

A commodore carrying a broad pennant or a brigadier-general shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank, or twenty privates or common


A captain in the Navy or a colonel shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank, or for fifteen privates or common seamen.

A lieutenant-colonel or a commander in the Navy shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank, or for ten privates or common seamen.

A lieutenant-commander or a major shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank, or eight privates or common seamen.

A lieutenant or a master in the Navy or a captain in the Army or marines shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank, or six privates or

common seamen.

Masters' mates in the Navy or lieutenants and ensigns in the Army shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank, or four privates or com

mon seamen.

Midshipmen, warrant officers in the Navy, masters of merchant vessels and commanders of privateers shall be exchanged for officers of equal rank, or three privates or common seamen.

Second captains, lieutenants or mates of merchant vessels or privateers and all petty officers in the Navy and all non-commissioned offi

cers in the Army or marines shall be severally exchanged for persons of equal rank, or for two privates or common seamen, and private soldiers or common seamen shall be exchanged for each other, man for


ART. 2. Local, State, civil and militia rank held by persons not in actual military service will not be recognized, the basis of exchange being the grade actually held in the naval and military service of the respective parties.

ART. 3. Îf citizens held by either party on charges of disloyalty or any alleged civil offense are exchanged it shall only be for citizens. Captured sutlers, teamsters and all civilians in the actual service of either party to be exchanged for persons in similar position.

ART. 4. All prisoners of war to be discharged on parole in ten days after their capture, and the prisoners now held and those hereafter taken to be transported to the points mutually agreed upon at the expense of the capturing party. The surplus prisoners not exchanged shall not be permitted to take up arms again, nor to serve as military police or constabulary force in any fort, garrison or field-work held by either of the respective parties, nor as guards of prisons, depots or stores, nor to discharge any duty usually performed by soldiers, until exchanged under the provisions of this cartel. The exchange is not to be considered complete until the officer or soldier exchanged for has been actually restored to the lines to which he belongs.

ART. 5. Each party upon the discharge of prisoners of the other party is authorized to discharge an equal number of their own officers or men from parole, furnishing at the same time to the other party a list of their prisoners discharged and of their own officers and men relieved from parole, thus enabling each party to relieve from parole such of their own officers and men as the party may choose. The lists thus mutually furnished will keep both parties advised of the true condition of the exchange of prisoners.

ART. 6. The stipulations and provisions above mentioned to be of binding obligation during the continuance of the war, it matters not which party may have the surplus of prisoners, the great principles involved being, first, an equitable exchange of prisoners, man for man, officer for officer, or officers of higher grade exchanged for officers of lower grade or for privates, according to the scale of equivalents; second, that privateers and officers and men of different services may be exchanged according to the same scale of equivalents; third, that all prisoners, of whatever arm of service, are to be exchanged or paroled in ten days from the time of their capture, if it be practicable to transfer them to their own lines in that time; if not, as soon thereafter as practicable; fourth, that no officer, soldier or employee, in the service of either party, is to be considered as exchanged and absolved from his parole until his equivalent has actually reached the lines of his friends; fifth, that the parole forbids the performance of field, garrison, police, or guard, or constabulary duty.


Major-General, C. S. Army.


ART. 7. All prisoners of war now held on either side and all prisoners hereafter taken shall be sent with all reasonable dispatch to A. M. Aiken's, below Dutch Gap, on the James River, Va., or to Vicksburg, on the Mississippi River, in the State of Mississippi, and there

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