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XIV. Ia like manner, the same apostle argues, Rom. iii. 19, 20, 21, &c. Where he lays it down as a fundamental truth, that the whole world is subject to condemnation before God. Whence he infers, that none can be justified by the works of the law. ri And from that concludes, that we can be justified no other way but by the blood of Christ, which is, doubtless, a very trilling way of arguing, if God, by his mercy alone, by his bare nod, can take away sin, and adjudge the singer to life. For the Jews, would very readily answer, that there is another far more compendious way of justification, in the infinite mercy of God, and in the most free act of his power, without exposing the Messiah to reproach. And, to mention it once more, we are not to have recourse to the most free disposition of the divine will, as if that was the alone cause of this necessity. For if the apostle makes any
such supposition, there is an end of all further reasoning. He would bave gained his point, just by mentioning that disposia tion. And if he does not suppose this, his argument is of no force. Which is far from being the case.
XV. We must not here omit that expression of the apostle, by which he cuts off those who have sinped against the Holy Ghost from all hope of salvation by this argument: because, having rejected Christ's expiation, there remaineth no more som crifice for sin, Heb. x. 46. For when he would intimate, that there remained no more sacrifice, laying it down as an undoubt ed truth, that the offering of a sacrifice necessarily goes before pardon. If this was not the case, why might not man, who wanted a sacrifice, hope for pardon, without any satisfaction, from the infinite mercy of God?
XVI. To the same purpose is what the apostle says, Heb. yi. 6. " it is impossible to renew those again unto repentance who crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame." Which last words are vas riously explained by divines. But doubtless are intended to give a reason why those who have made the crucifixion of Christ of no use to themselves, are excluded from all hopes of salvation : because, without that, it is impossible to obtain salvation. The very learned Moses Amyraldus, in Despat tat de peccata in spiritum sanctum, $ 40. thus expounds it; namely, since those apostates have no further interest in the sacrifice already offered, because they have "rejected it, and therefore if they would be saved, they must look out for another. And because none could offer a true expiatory sacrifice, besides that of Christ alone ; if they will be saved, it is necessary they give up Christ to be crucified afresh, and
again exposed to open shame. But it is impious to desiga such a thing, which, on no account, can be obtained of God, Rom. vi..9, 10. If this exposition be admitted, it présents us with a very strong argument for our opinion; because it sup. poses such an absolute necessity for the satisfaction of Christ, that if what he has already done be of no avail, a new satisfaca tion must be made before ever the sinner can have any hopes of mercy....
XVII. Moreover, our sentiment tends to display the glory of the divine perfections. It sets off his holinest, by reason of which he can in no respect become like a sinner, or without due satisfaction, allow him to have communion with himself, and the inhabitation of his Spirit. It explos tre juss tie of God, which is implacably inclined to punish sin. It preserves inviolable the majesty of God, which, as zealous for his honour, can suffer no contempt to be put upon it, as all sip does to go unpunished. It glorifies the unsearchable wisdom of God, which found out a way, above the reach of all created understanding, by which justice and mercy might be happily reconciled, and the honour of them both maintained pure. In a word, it magnifies the inestimable grace, and love of our God, who, when there were no other means of our salvation, spared not his own Son, but gave up him for us all And who would not heartily embrace an opinion, that displays, in such an eminent manner, the glory of God ?
XVIII. Nor is it less subservient to the promotion of piety It teacheth us to tremble before the majesty of the wet high God, who, from his being God, cannot clear the guilty. It heightens the horror of sin, which it becomes us to believe is of so atrocious a nature, that nothing short of the blood of a-most holy, and truly divine sacrifice, could wash it away. It sets before us the unspotted holiness of God for our pattern, that, like him, we may entertain a mortal hatred to sin, and' have no wander of fellowship with it. In a word, it in: flames our hearts with the most deserved returns of love, willingly to devote ourselves to his service, who, out of pure grace, delivered up his Son for us unto death, without which we should have remained miserable through eternity, And thus our opinion is that true doctrine, which is according to godliness.com
XIX. And it does not deragate in the least from any of the divine perfections: not from his absolute power; because doubtless, God cannot deny himself and his own perfections nor, by his actions, testify sin not to be contrary to his Deture; nor ever behave, as if he took pleasure in it, by communicating himself to the sinner; not from his most free will; as God neither wills, nor can will any thing but what tends to his glory, which requires his appearing as unlike the sipner as possible. Senece, spoke well, quest. Nat. lib. 1. God is not hereby less free, or less poroerful. For he is his own necessity. Nor does it derogate from the liberty of those actions of God, which are wiled ad eotra, or without him. For though he is, by no necessity of nature, constrained to external operations, considered in the gross, or together : yet, supposing the existence of one operation without him, many others necessarily follow. For instance, God was at liberty to create a world out of nothing: but having done it, it became necessary that he should govern the same in a way agreeable to his justice, holiness, wisdom, and goodnessa. In like manner, here God was at liberty to permit sin; but then having permitted it, his essential justice requires it to be punished. He was also at liberty to save some sinners; yet, having declared his will with respect to this, there was a nescessity for a suitable satisfaction to intervene, on account of
those immutable divine perfections, which he cannot in any of his actions disavow. As little does this derogate from the wise counsel of God, in ordering the punishment of it, as to the time, the degree, and the persons. For though we do not think that God inflicts punishment from his nature in such a manner as fire burns (though even in this respect, he compares himself to fire, Isa. xxvii. 4. and Deut. iv. 24.) yet his nature is a strong reason why he orders and inflicts punishment in a most wise manner. Now the nature of God requires, that he so display the glory of his justice, as he may likewise manifest the riches of his grace. Nor does it derogate from the infinite goodness of God, as if by that he could grant repentance to the sinner, and so receive him into favour without any satisfaction. For the bestowing of the Spirit of regeneration is an effect of the highest love. But that God should so much love a sinner, continuing still impenitent, without the consideration of a satisfaction, is a conduct inconsistent with his other perfections, as we have already
so frequently shewn. God cannot but take bis Spirit from to him who maketh a mock of him. It is not becoming to
grant repentance by means of the same Spirit, without the intervention of the sacrifice of the priest, whereby sin may be expiated.
XX. Seeing therefore both the nature and actions of God, and the reasonings of the sacred writers, teach us the necessity of a satisfaction; since by that doctrine the eminent perfections of God are placed in the most shining light'e seeing the right observance thereof tends very much to promote piety: And as thereby there is no derogation made from any of the divine perfections, we conclude it is the safest course soberly to embrace it."
XXI. Yet we must observe, when speaking in general of the necessity of a satisfaction, or of such a punishment of sin, wherein the righteous and holy God may be justified and sanctified, we set no bounds to the time, the degree, or the spe cial manner of the punishment. The history of the life and death of Christ, makes it very evident, that dispensations, and mitigations, at least a compensation by an equivalent, took place here, and consequently could justly take place. And who will assert, or, if he should presume to say so, can plainly prove, that it was impossible that Christ, -in order to make satisfaction, should undertake and submit to sufferings, fewer in number, shorter in duration, less intense in quantity, as to the parts of the body, and faculties of the soul, the
moments and periods of his life spent here upon earth? And *here let that saying of Paul, Rom. xii. 8. be everesa rule to
us'; “ not to think more highly than we ought to think, but to think soberly."
Of the Persons for whom Christ engaged and satisfacties 1. We should have no certainty of all those things, which it is proper for us to know, for the glory of our Lord Christ, and our own consolation, concerning this suretiship and satisfaction, did it not also appear, for whom he satisfied according to his covenant-engagement. The solution of this question is indeed of very great moment, but it does not appear so very difficult, if we only carefully attend to the nature of Christ's suretiship and satisfaction, which we have already explained, proved, and defended. For singe Christ did, by his engagement, undertake to cancel all the debt of those persons for whom be engaged, as if it was his own, by suffering what was meet, and to fulfil all righteousness in their room ; and since he has most fally performed this by his satisfaction, as much as if the sinners themselves had en dured all the punishment due to their sins, and had axcomplished all righteousness: the consequence is, that he has engaged and satisfied for those, and those only, who are actually saved from their sins; as is evident to reason. - For Christ neither engaged, nor satisfied, but for those whose person he sustained. Which Arminius himself, Adversus Perkinsum, p. 72. frankly owns. Moreover, that any of those whose person Christ sustained, and for whom he satisfied as their Surety, should be obliged to satisfy for the same debt; by eternal death, is most inconsistent with, and contrary to the faithfulness and justice of God. Nor can we; on any account, think it possible, that any one should in earnest plead, that Christ died for all and every one in particular, till he has weakened the force of that expression, to die for any one, by which, as we lately made appear against the Socinians, is de noted a substitution in the place of another. But it is worth while distinctly to set forth the true doctrine in these following positions. ****
Il. We therefore concludes 1st. That the obedience and sufferings of Christ, considered in themselves, are, on acodunt of the infinite dignity of the person, of that value, as to have been sufficient for redeeming not only all and every man in particular, but many myriads besides, had it so pleased God and Christ, that he should have undertaken and satisfied for them.
III. 2dly. That Christ as man, subject to the law of love, did, in a holy manner, love all men without distinction, as his neighbours, heartily wished them well, seriously lamented the ruin of those that perished, whom yet, as God, he knew were reprobates, and for whom, as Mediator, he had not engaged. Yet he submitted this human affection, commanded by the law, common to us and to Christ, to the dis vine appointment, and restricted it to the purpose of the decreeing will of God; in this manner proving the holiness of his will, in the glorifying of the divine counsel, and in a due subjection thereunto. This appears from the tears, which Christ, as man, shed over the calamities that were coming upon that abandoned city, which had partly slain, and partly loaded with contempt and ignominy the prophets : nry, had been the only butchery in the whole world for them; and was at length, by a most horrid parricide, to devote itself, with its unhappy posterity, to the lasting curse of God, Luke xix. 41.
IV. 3dly. The suretiship and satisfaction of Christ, have also been an occasion of much good, even to the reprobate. For it is owing to the death of Christ that the gospel is