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· Vessels large may venture more,
But little boats should keep near shore.' Tis, however, a folly soon punished; for, • Prido that dines on vanity, sups on contempl,' as porr Richard says. And in another place, Pride breakfasted with Plenty, dined with Poverty and supped with Infamy. And, after all, of what use is this price of appearance, for which sn niuch is risked, so much is suffered? It cannot promote health, or ense pain, it makes no increase us merit in the person; it bastensunisforture,
•What is a butterfly? ai best,
The gaudy fop's his picture just,' es poor Richard says.
si But what madness must it be to run in debt for these superNuities! We are offered by the terms of this sale six months' credit; and thal perhaps has induced soinc of us to attend it, because we cannot spare the ready money, and hope now to be fine with oui it. But, ah: think what you do when you run in deut. You give to arɔther power over your liberty. If you cannot pay at the time, you will be ashamed to see your creditor: you will be in fear when you speak io hin; you will inake poor, pitiful, sneaking excuses, and by degrees come to lose your reracity, and sink into base downright lying; for, as poor Richard says, • The second vice is lying; the brst is running in debt.' And again, to the same purpose, Lying rides upon debt's back ;' whereas a free-bom Engiishman ought not to be ashamed nor afraid to speak to any man living. But poverty often deprives a man of all spirit and virtueIt is hard for ar empty bag in stand upright,' as poor Richard truly says. "What would you think of thar prince, or that government, who would issui an edict, forbidding you to dress like a gentlevan op gentle voinan, on pain of imprisonment or servitude? Would you i.ot say, that you were free, have a right to dress as you please, and that such an edict wouid
be a breach of your privileges, and such a govern niert tyrannical? And yet you are about to put your. self under that tyranny when you run in debi for such dress! Your creditor has authority, at his pleasure, u deprive you of your liberty, by confining you in goal for life, or by selling you for a servant, if you should not be able to pay him. When you have goi your bargain, you inay, perhaps, think Lttle of payment; but Creditors (por Richard tells us) have better memories than debtors;' and in another place
• Creditors are a superstitious sect, greas observers of set days and tiines.' The day comes round before you are aware, and the demand is made before you are prepared to satisfy it. Or if you bear your debt in mind, the term which at first seemed so long, will as it lessens, appear extremely short. Time will seem to have added wings to his heels as well as at his shoulders. • Those have a short Lent (saitt poor Richard) who owe money to be paid at Easter. 'Then since, as he says, “The borrower is a slave te the lender, and the debior to the creditor;' disdaip the chain, preserve your freedom, and maintain your independency: be industrious and free; be frugal and free. At present, perhaps, you may think your. selves in thriving circumstances, and that you can bear a little extravagance without injury; but
• For age and want save while you may,
No norning sun lasts a whole day.' as poor Richard says. Gain may be temporary ang luicertain; but ever, while you live, expense is constant and certain : and it is easier to build two chimneys, than to keep one in fuel,' as poor Rich ard says. So • Rather go to bed supperless than rise n debt.
Get what you can, and what you get hold, "Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into golj " uspoor Richard says. And when you have got the pluilosopher's slone, sure you will no longer complais of bad imes, or the difficulty of paying ta.ses.
This doctrine, my friends, is reason and wisdom. but, after all, do not depend too much upon your own industry and frugality, and prudence, though excel. lent things; for they may be blasted, without the blessing of Heaven: and therefore ask that blessing humbly, and be not uncharitable to those that at present seein to want it, but comfort and help them. Re. member Job suffered, and was afterwards pros perous.
“ And now, to conclude, • Experience keeps a dear school; but fools will learn in no other, and scarce in that; for it is true, we may give advice, but we cannot give conduct,' as poor Richard says. Howerer, remember this, • They that will nci be coun. selled, cannot be helped,' as poor Richard says; and, further, that. If you will not hear Reason, she will surely rap your knuckles.'"
Thus the olü gentleman ended his harrangue The people hcard it, and approved the doctrine, and immediately practised the contrary, just as if it had teen a common sermon; for the auction opened, and they began to buy extravagantly, notwithstanding all his cautions, and their own fear of taxes. ! found the good man had thoroughly studied my Al manacs, and digested all I had ůropped on those topics, during the course of twenty-five years. The frequent mention he made of me, must have tired every one else; but my vanity was wonderfully delighted with it, though I was conscious that not a tenth part of the wisdom was my own, which he as. cribed tu me, but rather the gleanings that I had made : of the sense of all ages and nations. However, I resolved to be the better for the echo of it; and though I had first determined to buy stuff for a new coat, I went away, resolved to wear my old one a little lon ger. Reader, if thou wilt do the same, thy profit wil be as great as mine. I am, as ever, thine to serve thee,
INTERNAL STATE OF AMERICA.
Being a true Description of the Interest and Polig
of that vast Continent.
THERE is a tradition, that in the planting of NewEngland, the first sett ers met with many difficulties and hardships : as is generally the case when a civi lized people attempt estalılishing themselves in a wilderness country. Being piously disposed, they sought relief from Heaven, by laying their wants and distresses before the Lord, in frequent set days of fasting and prayer. Constant meditation and discourse on these subjects kept their niinds gloomy and discontented; anu, like the children of Israel, there were many disposed to return to that Egypt which persecution had induced them to abandon. At length, when it was proposed in the Assembly to proclaim another fast, a farmer of plain sense rose and remarked, that the inconvienences they suffered, and concerning which they had so oiten wearied Heaven with their complaints, were not so great as they might have expected, and were diminishing every day as the colony strengthened ; that the earth began to reward their labour, and to furnish liberally for their subsistence; that the seas and rivers were found ful of fish, the air sweet, the climate healthy; and above all, that they were there in the full enjoyment of liberty, civil and religious: he therefore thought, that reflccting and conversing on these subjects would be more comfortable, as tending more to make them contented with their situation; and that it would be more becoming the gratitude they owed to the Divine Being, if, instead of a fast, they shculd proclaim a thanksgiving. iljs advice was taken; and from that day to this they have, in every year, observod cir cumstances of public félicity sufficient to furnish em ployment for a thanksgiving day; which is thereforo constantly ordered and religiously observed.
I see in the public newspapers of different States frequent complaints of hard times, deadness of trade, scarcity of noney, &c. &c. It is not my intention LC assert or maintain that these compiaints are entire ly without foundation. There can be no country or nation existing, in whicn there will not be sojne peo ple so circumstanced as to find it hard to gain a live lihood; people, who are rot in the way of any profitable trade, with whom money is scarce, bo cause they have nothing to give in exchange for it; and it is always in the power of a small number to make a great clamour. But let us take a cool view of the general state of our affairs, and per. haps the prospect will appear less gloomy than has been imagined
The great business of the continent is agriculture, For one artizan, or inerchant, I suppose we nave at least one hunilsed farmers, by far the greatest part cultivators of their own fertile lands, from whence many of them draw not only food necessary for their subsistence, but the materials of their clothing, so as to need very few foreign suppies: while they have a surplus of productions to dispose of, whereby wealth is gradually accumula:ed. Such has been the good. ness of Divine Providence to these regions, and so favourable the climate, that, since the three or four years of hardship is the first settlement of our fathers here, a fanıine or scarcity has never beer heard of amongst us; on the contrary, though some years may have been more, and others less plentiful, there has always been provision enough for ourselves, and a quantity io spare for exportation. And although the crops of last year were generally good, never was tho fariner better paid for the part he can spare comsnerce, as the published price currents abundantly testify. The lands he possesses are also continually rising in value with the increase of population; and on the whole, he is enabled to give such good wages to those who work for him, that all who are acquaint