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Verdure for a green field. Summer, l. 301.
The pigmy nations wounds and death they bring,
Iliad, iii. 10.
Iliad, iii. 149.
Cool age advances venerably wise.
The peculiar beauty of this figure arises from fuga gesting an attribute that embellishes the fubject, or puts it in a stronger light.
6. A complex term employed figuratively to dea notc one of the component parts.
Funus for a dead body. Burial for a grave.
7. The name of one of the component parts instead of the complex term.
Tada for a marriage. The Eaft for a country situated east from us. Jovis vestigia fcrvat, for imitating Jupiter in general.
8. A word signifying time or place, employed figuratively to denote what is connected with it.
Clime for a nation or for a constitution of government: hence the expression Merciful clime, Fleccy winter for snow, Seculum felix.
9. A part for the whole. . The Pole for the earth.' The head for the person :
Triginta minas pro capite tuo dedi.
Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus
Iliad, ix. 616.
-Forthwith from the pool he rears
Parnell. The peculiar beauty of this figure consists in marking that part which makes the greatest figure.
10. The name of the container, employed figuratively to signify what is contained.
Grove for the birds in it, Vocal grove. Ships for the feamen, Agonizing ships. Mountains for the sheep pasturing upon them, Bleating mountains. Zacynthus, Ithaca, &c. for the inhabitants. Ex mæstis domibus, Livy.
11. The name of the sustaincr, employed figuratively to fignify what is sustained.
Altar for the facrifice. Field for the battle fought upon it, Well-fought field,
12. The name of the materials, employed figuratively to signify the things made of them.
Ferrum for gladius.
13. The names of the Heathen deities, employed figuratively to fignify what they patronise.
Jove for the air, Mars for war, Venus for beauty, Cupid for love, Ceres for corn, Neptune for the sea, Vulcan for fire.
This figure bestows great elevation upon the subjeet ; and therefore ought to be confined to the higher
Itrains of poetry.
Attributes expresed figuratively. 1. When two attributes are connected, the name of the one may be employed figuratively to express the other.
Purity and virginity are attributes of the fame person : hence the expression, Virgin snow, for pure snow.
2. A word fignifying properly an attribute.of one subject, employed figuratively to express a resembling attribute of another subject.
Tottering state. Imperious ocean. Angry flood, Raging tempelt. Shallow fears.
My sure divinity shall bear the shield,
Odyley, xx. 61. Black omen, for an omen that portends bad fortune,
The peculiar beauty of this figure arises from fuggesting a comparison.
3. A word proper to the subject, employed to express one of its attributes.
Mens for intellccius, Mons for a resolution :
Istam, oro, exue mentem.
4. When two subje&s have a resemblance by a common quality, the name of the one subject may be employed figuratively to denote that quality in the other.
5. The name of the instrument made to signify the power of employing it.
---Melpomene, cui liquidam pater Vocem cuin cithara dedil.
The ample field of figurative expression displayed in these tables, affords great fcope for reasoning. Several of the observations relating to metaphor, are applicable to figures of speech : these I Shall flightly retouch, with some additions peculiarly adapted 18 the present subject.
In the first place, as the figure under confideration is built upon relation, we find from experience, and it must be obvious from reason, that the beauty of the figure depends on the intimacy of the relation between the figurative and proper sense of the word. A slight resemblance, in particular, will never make this figure agreeable : the expression, for example, Drink down a secret, for listening to a secret with attention, is harsh and uncóuth, because there is scarce any resemblance between listening and drinking. The expression weighty crack, used by Ben Johnson for loud crack, is worse if possible : a loud found has not the flightest resemblance to a piece of matter that is weighty.
The following expression of Lucretius is not less faulty, “ Et lepido quæ funt fucata sonore."
Horat. Carm. l. 2. ode 13,
Phemius ! let acts of gods, and heroes old,
Ody[ey, i. 433.
Æneid, vi. 559
Write, my Queen,
Cymbeline, ait 1. sc. 2.
As thus th' effulgence tremulous I drink.
Summer, l. 1684.