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turning to the north, he marched to Hawick, his numbers, which had not originally exceeded two hundred men, increasing as he advanced. At Hawick, the rebel lords were alarmed by intelligence of the approach of some of the king's troops from Edinburgh, and, after some disputes amongst themselves, they agreed to retrace their steps; but they had hardly commenced their retrograde march, when, on receiving an express from Mr. Forster, bearing an invitation to meet him at Rothbury, they faced about, and marched to Jedburgh; and from Jedburgh they proceeded, by a tedious, mountainous, and marshy route, to the place of rendezvous indicated by their Northumbrian friends. Mr. Forster, having been apprised of their arrival, and being, moreover, informed that General Carpenter had brought a body of troops, by forced marches, to Newcastle, and was preparing to attack him, broke up from Hexham on the 19th of October, and, making a long march, joined the Scotch lords that night at Rothbury. The next day the united forces of the rebels marched to Wooler, in the county of Northumberland. It was at this place that the rebel army was joined by the Rev. Robert Patten, who, not relying solely on the sword of the spirit, had contrived, in the course of his journey from Allandale, to pick up some recruits. The circumstances of his encountering these volunteers, who were keel-men from Newcastle, and the generalship which he evinced in marching at their head from Rothbury to Wooler, we shall detail in his own words.
"I suspected them for some of the militia, and kept at a distance; but, discovering they had no arms, made up to them, and asked them. what news, and whither they designed? They answered, (but especially one, a brave stout young fellow,) We are Scotsmen, going to our homes, to join our countrymen that are in arms for King James.' I told him, he was very bold. Sir,' says he, I'll drink his health just now so with his bonnet, which he dipt into a runner, he said, Here is King James's health,' which all his partners did. After this I told them, if they were sincere, and would follow me, I would bring them to their countrymen, which they promised to do. I gave each of them a shilling. Drawing near the town, Rothbury, I left them under a hedge, till I could inquire what was become of the rebels, and if we could by ourselves lodge safely there. I inquired for the best inn being directed there, where I found Mr. Charles Wogan's man, who came with me from Hexham, but parted for fear of being taken. He gave me a pair of pistols: so I returned to my companions, and brought them quietly into town, both wet and weary, and immediately went to the head constable, and told him, that if he would give us no disturbance, we would stay all night civilly, paying for what we had; but if he intended to make a prey of us, our friends being gone, we would then follow them. He made fair promises; but not daring to trust him too much, we made him sure in his own
house; so that we watched him by turns till early next day: we set out from this town, Rothbury, for Wooler, and there joined the English and Scots' horse, and were kindly entertained by the chiefs.'
Soon after this junction of the rebel forces at Wooler, their commanders received an account of the Highlanders, under Mackintosh, being arrived at Dunse, in consequence of which they hastened to Kelso. They had scarcely established themselves in that town, before they had the satisfaction to see Mackintosh and his men march into the place with bag-pipes playing, and colours flying. On the ensuing day, Oct. 23rd, the Rev. Robert Patten opened his spiritual commission, being ordered by Lord Kenmure, who held the chief command in Scotland, to preach at the great kirk at Kelso. On this solemn occasion, all the men attended the service. Mr. Buxton read prayers, and his co-pastor held forth from a most appropriate text, viz. Deut. xxi. 17. " The right of the first-born is his." It may be presumed, that Mr. Patten's audience were well satisfied with his performance. Certain it is, that this militant divine was pleased with his audience; for he observes—" it was very agreeable to see how decently and reverently the very common Highlanders behaved, and answered the responses according to the Rubrick, to the shame of many that pretend to more polite breeding." In the afternoon, Mr William Irwine, a Scotch Nonjuring clergyman, read prayers, and preached a sermon, full of exhortations to his hearers to be zealous and steady in the cause. This Irwine was a veteran in rebellion, and his sermon had already done good service, as he had formerly delivered the very same discourse to Lord Viscount Dundee and his army a little before the battle of Gilliecrankie.
"The next morning," says our author, "the Highlanders were drawn up in the church-yard, and so marched in order to the market place, with colours flying, drums beating, and bag-pipes playing, and there formed a circle, the lords and other gentlemen standing in the centre. There was an inner circle also formed by the gentlemen volunteers. Then silence being enjoined, the trumpet sounded; after which, the Pretender was proclaimed by one Seaton Barnes, who sumed the title of Earl of Dumfermling. The proclamation was to this effect.-'Whereas, by the decease of the late King James VII. the imperial crowns of these realms did lineally descend to his lawful heir and son, our sovereign King James VIII. We, the lords, &c., do declare him our lawful king over Scotland, England, &c.'"
After the proclamation, a manifesto of the Earl of Mar was read. This document is introduced by a broad assertion of the hereditary right of the exiled Stuart to the throne of these kingdoms; and assures the people of his majesty's
VOL. XI. PART II.
respect for the laws which secure to them their liberties, both civil and religious. It next complains of the infringements which had been lately made upon the constitution; and of the evils consequent upon the involving of British with foreign interests. The manifesto then proceeds to rouse the patriotic feelings of the Scotch, by holding the Union up to reprobation; and to conciliate their good will, by promising its dissolution. It then complains of ruinous wars and the invasion of the hereditary rights of the subject. The British Parliament, it styles, as it has been often since styled, "a packed assembly," and reproaches it with having fixed a price upon its sovereign's head, and having proscribed the best patriots by groundless impeachments and attainders. George I. it stigmatizes as an intrusive alien, "who, notwithstanding his expectation of the crown for fifteen years, is still unacquainted with our manners, customs, and language;" and it designates the leading Whigs as "a few hot-headed men of a restless faction," who wish to controul the genuine feelings of the nation by the means of a foreign force. It is finally asserted, that the army is wronged by the neglect of merit, and by the partiality and venality which have been evinced in the distribution of military promotion. Moved by these considerations, Mar and his associates declare that they have taken up. arms, and call upon all good subjects to repair to their standard, promising " to secure the Protestant religion against all efforts of arbitrary power, popery, and all its other enemies, (meaning the dissenters,) by acts passed in the respective parliaments of England and Scotland." In touching on this topic, they thus endeavour to cajole the orthodox of the church of England.
"Nor have we any reason," say they, "to be distrustful of the goodness of God, the truth and purity of our holy religion, or the known excellency of his majesty's judgment, as not to hope that, in due time, good example and conversation with our learned divines will remove those prejudices which we know his education in a Popish country has not rivetted in his discerning mind; and we are sure, as justice is a virtue in all religions and professions, so the doing of it to him will not lessen his good opinion of ours."
Such were the principal topics of Mar's manifesto, which was artfully conceived and ably composed. The reading of it was hailed by the populace with shouts of" No Union! No malt! No salt tax!" cries which indicated the grievances which most affected the feelings of the people at large. At the conclusion of the ceremony, the rebel troops returned to their quarters, where they remained till Thursday. The intervening time was occupied by their chiefs in collecting arms and ammunition from the town and its vicinity, and in organizing and
disciplining their forces. Of these, the Lord Viscount Kenmure had the chief command whilst they were in Scotland. He had with him a troop of gentlemen, which was called the first troop, and was commanded by the Honourable Basil Hamilton, of Beldoun, son to Lord Basil Hamilton, who was brother to the late Duke of Hamilton. The second troop was called the Merse troop, and was commanded by the Honourable James Hume, brother to the Earl of Hume, who was at that time a prisoner in Edinburgh castle. The third troop took its name from its commander, the Earl of Wintoun, who appointed, as his lieutenant, Captain James Dalzel, brother to the Earl of Carnwath. The latter noblemen was also with the army, of which he commanded the fourth troop. The fifth troop was under the command of Captain Lockhart, brother to Mr. Lockhart, of Carnwath. He was a half-pay officer in Lord Mc Ker's regiment, and, as such, when the rebels surrendered at Preston, he was tried by a court-martial and shot. These troops, Mr. Patten describes as "well manned and indifferently armed; but their horses," he observes, "were small, and in mean condition." The army was, moreover, accompanied by a great many gentlemen volunteers, who were not formed into any regular troop.
The forces, designed to cross the Forth, had been formed into six regiments. The first of these, under the command of the Earl of Strathmore, had been driven back by the men of war to the shore of Fife. Of the second, (the Earl of Mar's,) only a part effected their passage into Lothian, and proceeded to the southward, under the command of Major Nathaniel Forbes, whom Mr. Patten describes as "a man, singularly brave, of pleasant discourse, mixing the thread thereof with a great many Scots' proverbs, which were very well applied, and gave great entertainment to those that were acquainted with that dialect." The third regiment, commanded by Logie Drummond, a veteran intriguer on the behalf of the Stuart family, did not cross the Forth entire. The fourth, the Lord Nairn's, had a more successful passage, their colonel having brought over most of his men. The fifth regiment was commanded by Lord Charles Murray, a younger son to the Duke of Athol. He had been a cornet of horse in the wars on the continent, and made himself very popular among the Highlanders, by marching on foot, at the head of his regiment, and cheerfully sharing in all the fatigues and privations sustained by the common soldiers. The sixth regiment was called Mackintosh's battalion, from the name of its colonel, a relation of Brigadier Mackintosh, who has been mentioned above as commanding the rebel troops, who crossed into Lothian, and by whom his relative, though inclined to the interests of the House of
Hanover, was, unhappily for himself, induced to join the forces of the Pretender. Besides these six regiments, there were a considerable number, called the gentlemen volunteers, commanded by Captains Skeen and M'Lean, Lieutenant David Stewart, and Ensign John Dunbar.
The English, who were not so well regulated or so well armed as the Scots, were divided into the following troops. First, that of the Earl of Derwentwater, commanded by his brother Charles Radcliffe, Esq., and Captain John Shaftoe. On this unfortunate nobleman, the reverend historian bestows a well-merited eulogium for the suavity of his manners and the generosity of his disposition. "He was," says he, "a man formed by nature to be generally beloved; for he was of so universal a beneficence, that he seemed to live for others." The second troop was Lord Widdrinton's, commanded by Mr. Thomas Errington, of Beaufront. His lordship, if credence may be given to Mr. Patten, did not inherit the obstinate courage evinced by his namesake, at Chevy Chase; for, says our author, "I could never discover any boldness or bravery in him, especially after his majesty's forces came before Preston.' The third troop was under the orders of Captain John Hunter, a bold and resolute man, who appears to have first displayed a spirit of enterprise in "running unaccustomed goods out of Scotland into England." The fourth troop was commanded by Robert Douglas, brother to the Laird of Finland, an active emissary of the Pretender, who conveyed the despatches which the Earl of Mar had occasion from time to time to send into England, and returned with the answers of his confederates. "He was," says Mr. Patten, "indefatigable in searching for arms and horses, a trade, some were pleased to say, he had followed out of the rebellion as well as in it." The following anecdote will serve to shew the character of the borderers of that day.
"To this account of these two gentlemen, (Hunter and Douglas,) I shall add a pleasant story, which one was pleased to remark upon them. When he heard that the former was gone, with his troop, back into England, as was then given out, to take up quarters for the whole army, who were to follow, and to fall upon General Carpenter and his small and wearied troops; he said, 'let but Hunter and Douglas, with their men, quarter near General Carpenter, and in faith, they'll not leave them a horse to mount on.' His reason is supposed to be, because these, with their men, had been pretty well versed in horsestealing, or, at least, suspected as such: for an old borderer was pleased to say, when he was informed that a great many, if not all, the loose fellows, and suspected horse-stealers, were gone into the rebellion, it is an ill wind blows nobody profit; for now,' continued he,