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glory of God, but of themselves, is a servile labor, without a blessing and without peace. This is unfortunately the character of the usual scientific labors of the present day; and this perverted belief in so many learned men has a most powerful and most evil influence on the instruction of the young. Vanity impels the learned men; they impel the young by vanity, and lead them to make a show before people with what they have learned. Thus it happens that all pleasure in what they learn, and the mode of learning it, is entirely driven away, and replaced by an idle pleasure in the praise of men; and all which is cursed by such vanity must of necessity wither away. While both old and young, teachers and scholars, are, like Narcissus, foolishly burying themselves in a vain self-admiration and self-respect, still others fall into the same spare, by devoting to ungodly scientific labors their whole lives, words, and actions. Students of nature, wholly absorbed in the creature, ask not after the Creator; but live in a modern heathenism; and philologists, neglecting every thing that is Christian, worship false gods with the ancient classics. Such errors as these have a destructive influence on youth.
I have elsewhere discussed various other errors, both of teachers and of the lawgivers of pedagogy.
Man is to “have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.” This dominion was that of the image of God, in the name of God; peacefully recognized by all creatures. Thus the painters place Adam and Eve in Paradise, at peace with the lions and tigers around them. But when man became disobedient to God, the creatures became disobedient to him; for they had reverenced him only as the viceroy of God.
There, however, remained to man a species of dominion, even after the fall. “And the fear of you,” said God to Noah, "and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered.”
But this was not the original peaceful dominion; it was a dominjon of fear and terror. And a commandment of fear caine also from the Lord. As he had before the fall given man all manner of herbs, and the fruit of trees, for food, so he said, after the flood, "Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things."
Therefore, even to the present time, the dominion of fallen man is such over the beasts, that they fear him, as rebels do the power of their ruler; and his weapons, still more than his divine image. But the prophecies in Isaiah of a future time, when a young child shall lead a lion and a lamb together, and when the sucking-child shall play upon the cockatrice's den, point to a restoration of this human dominion over the beasts. Daniel in the lions' den, and Paul, whom, according to the Word of the Lord, the viper did not injure, are the forerunners of that dominion which man shall again possess, not by the power of his weapons, but by faith.
The passage of the Israelites through Jordan and through the Red Sea, the powerful prayers of Elisha for and against the rain, Christ's stilling of the storm by the words “Peace; be still,” and his walking upon the sea—all these point to a future dominion of man over inorganic nature also; a moral dominion, in the power of faith, in the power of God.
The various healings of the sick point to a similar future power.
But, it may be said, all that we are saying relative to the restoration of human powers is simply arguing from a miraculous past to a miraculous future.
It is true that at present we have only the shadow of that past and future time; and it is only with that shadow that we have at present to do.
Thus thought the most judicious of philosophers, Bacon, when he said, “Knowledge and power are the same" (Scientia et potentia hominis coincidunt in idem.) In proportion as man knows nature, he rules it. Bacon every where requires, not merely a theoretical knowledge, but a practical, efficient power. With all theoretical knowledge of nature there goes also a practical art; an art of operating upon nature, mostly based upon scientific knowledge.
Thus we do in fact rule the creation, not by the mental magic of words, strengthened by faith ; but we make it serviceable to us by searching into the nature and powers of different creatures, bringing them under our power, and setting one to work upon another.
We tame and improve animals, we improve plants, guide the lightning, constrain steam to serve us, fly by the aid of gas, cure by all kinds of medicine, and light is made to serve us in the place of artists.
In this realm man rules, and he seeks in all ways to extend his dominion. The present time boasts especially of this extension. But this is no gain, if all nobility of feeling, all sense for higher things, are to be choked and destroyed ; if all intellectual power is to become slavishlý subservient to the earthly; and if man, utterly blinded with his convulsive efforts, is to seek material objects only.
We are bound to strive against such ungodly and unworthy impulses. We may not be indifferent in whose name it is that we work; whether it is Moses who acts, or Jannes and Jambres. Both theoretical and practical natural science must be taught, in a right and pious manner; both must be sanctified, as well in principle as in purpose.
When man, as the image of God, was placed as his representative in the dominion over the creatures, he was also himself shaped in the image of God.
It would seem that the Creator desired that his creatures should themselves partake of his creative power; for he conferred upon plants, beasts, and men the power of reproducing their kind, to all time; instead of himself forming one generation after another.
But to man he granted more; he granted him the gift of various creative powers, and an intelligent will for the free development of those powers. The bees build dodecahedric cells, not by a free and improvable art, but by instinct; they must make dodecahedra, just as the inorganic elements of a garnet crystal must gather into the same shape.
Of what kind, it might be asked, were these gifts in Adam, before the fall? Only one is mentioned in Genesis, that of speech. It was already observed that the Creator approved of the dames which Adam gave to the beasts; and that these must therefore have expressed the real character of the beasts. In these names, humanly given, God's creation was mirrored, they were actual names; really substantives ; arising out of the appearance of the creatures themselves. We, fallen men of the present day, can not make such names.*
We may consider this giving of the names by Adam as the first entirely complete expression of human speech; a completeness which later men have sought to equal in many ways, in prose and in poetry.
The very name of poet reminds us that he is an image of his Creator-a “maker.” The greatest of poets has, in the Midsummer Night's Dream, thus described the poet :
“The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling,
A local habitation and a name."
fancy-Macbeth, Hotspur, Desdemona, Shylock—indeed most of the persons in bis dramas—so entirely individualized, independent men, that we might almost be tempted to assert that they have a more individual existence than do numberless actual human beings ?*
Thus the poet creatively, by his words, reveals a rich interior world. And his poems even stimulate sensitive hearers to become poets themselves; to repeat his creative act.
The historian and the orator are related to the poet.
But above all the human arts of language, and different from them, stands in holy solitude the revealed Word of God, which through his efficient power causes the regeneration of the world. From its fullness, preachers, and singers of divine songs, draw their power over the hearts of their hearers. In this holy realm, man finds a foretaste of the powers of the future world; of his return into his father's house.
As in the arts of language, so does the creative power of man express itself in fine arts. Raphael does not only give us true representations of localities and of men; he paints a new earth, a new heaven, and glorified saints like angels.
Thus we can trace this creative power in every art; in the sculptor, the architect, the musician; sometimes imitating, and sometimes idealizing, in a divine aspiration.
Every artistic gift implanted by God in the soul of a child must be faithfully cherished and trained. To this end the first requisite is, that his senses shall be trained : bis eye to a true, clear, vivid apprehension of the visible world; his ear to true and keen hearing, &c. And with this development of the susceptibilities must sooner or later be connected that of the power of representation : of speaking, singing, writing, painting, &c.; that is, the development of the creating power. But, above all, his feelings must be purified and sanctified, that he may have no pleasure in impure artistic labors, in external beauty without internal moral goodness.
I can not utter a sufficiently emphatic warning against the usual abuses of these powers. The apostle James refers to the abuse of speech. “The tongue,” he says, (and we may add, the pen and the press,) "is an unruly evil. Therewith bless we God, even the Father; and therewith curse we men, which are made after the similitude of God.
Doth a fountain send forth at the same place sweet water and bitter ?” And it is said, in earnest warning, “For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.”
*God did not make men and then depart, but they are of him and in him. Remain in him who made you. It is upon this truth that the real energy and actual existence of a human being depend
t" The Word, added to the element, makes it a sacrament."
These warnings are applicable both to speakers and writers; and to hearers and readers too.
The fine arts, especially, have variously and deeply sinned against purity; let us guard our children against impure pictures. Unholy and delusive passions characterize the modern music; let us return to the chaste and pure music of the ancient masters.
I pray the reader to receive with indulgence this attempt to base pedagogy upon principles; to set forth, though only in outline, its purpose and object. It is an endeavor to show that all human training must seek the restoration of the image of God; and that a Christian, ethical, intellectual, and artistic training, in particular, should contemplate the renewal of our similarity to God in boliness, wisdom, power, and creative energy. Such a training leads to holiness, which bas the promise of this world and the next.