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of 60 trees with trunks between 10 ft. and 16 ft. in circumference, carrying the above girts for more than 40 ft. At Tiny Park there are 3 beech trees, with trunks 14 ft., 15 ft. 6 in., and 14 ft. 8 in. in circumference at the ground. The last, at 7 ft. from the ground, measures 16 ft. 3 in. round, and continues nearly of the same dimensions for 36 it. The dimensions of various other fine trees might be added from the same authority: În France, a beech is recorded by Arthur Young (Travels, p. 7.) as standing at Chantilly, and the finest, he says, that he ever saw : its trunk was as straight as an arrow, not less than 80ft. or 90 ft. high, 40 ft. to the first branch, and 12 ft. diam. at 5 ft. from the ground.

1908 Remarkable eristing Trees. The largest beeches now existing in England are, the Studley Beech (see fig. 1878.), the Knowle Beech (see p. 1963.), 85 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 8 ft. 4 in., and of the head 352 ft., and the Ashridge Beeches; of which the Queen Beech (fig. 1909.) is 110 ft. high, the trunk is 10 it in circumference at 2 . from the ground, and at the height of 74 ft. froin the ground, to which height the trunk is without a single branch, it is 6 ft. 3 in. in circumference. The King Beech, also in the park at Ashridge, and which is represented by the central tree in the group (fig. 1920.), is 114 ft. high, with a clear trunk of 75 ft., which, at 2 ft. from the ground, is 9'rt. in circunference, and 75 ft., 5 ft. 6 in. A spreading beech at Ashridge (fig. 1911.) is 70 ft. high, with a trunk 18 ft. 4 in. in circumference, and a head 114 ft. in diameter. The drawings from which our engravings of these trees are taken were made for us in October, 1836, by the permission and at the expense of the Countess of Bridgewater. The celebrated beech at Woburn Abbey, commonly known as Pontey's Beech, which was measured for us by the direction of the Duke of Bedford, in February, 1837, is 100 st. high, with a clear trunk of 50 ft. : the circumference of the trunk, at 4 ft. from the ground, is 12 ft 6 in.; and the cubic feet of timber which it contains are, by measurement, 317 ft.; and that in the head, by computation, is estimated at 50 ft. ; giving a total of 367 ft. of useful timber. This tree was measured in 1829; since which period it has increased in circumference, at 4 ft. from the ground, 6 in. ; and in cubic feet of timber in the trunk, 5 ft. A silver fir, in the park at Woburn, 114 ft. high, and containing 350 cubic feet of timber, exclusive of the head, had increased in circumference, in the same period, 12 ft. 6 in. at 4 ft. from the ground; and, in the cubic feet of timber in the trunk, no less than

190) 11 ft. ; thus showing the much greater rapidity of growth in the silver fir than in the beech. The highest beech in Raywood, at Castle Howard, was, in 1834, 110 ft. high, and it contained 940 cubic feet of timber; the circumference of the trunk, at 5 ft. from the ground, was 14 ft. 2 in., the length of clear bole was 70 ft., and the diameter of the head was 96 ft. A spreading beech at the same place was 80 ft. high, and contained 964 cubic feet of timber; the diameter of the head was 105 ft. ; the circumference of the trunk, at 5 ft. from the ground, was 17 ft. 10 in., and the length of clear bole 40 ft. (See Gard. Mag., vol. xi. p. 18.). At Bicton, in Devonshire, is a beech tree 104 m. bign, with a trunk 18 ft. in circumference; diameter of the head 87 ft. In Somersetshire, at Nettlecombe, is a beech 100 ft. high, with a trunk 24 ft. in circumference. In Wiltshire, in the grounds of A. B. Lambert, Esq., at Boyton, is a celebrated tree, called the Corton Beech, which measures 13 f. 9f ic. in circumference, at 4 ft. from the ground; the trunk contains nearly 8 tons of timber, and the whole tree upwards of 11 tons. Mr. Lambert's father, about the beginning of the present century, betted this tree, every circumstance considered, against any tree of the same species in England, and won a pipe of wine by it. Mr. Lambert has three other beech trees of nearly equal dimensions, close adjoining this remarkable one. The subsoil is chalk. In Worcestershire, on an estate belonging to Lord Lyttelton, are the Frankly Beeches, which

are of great antiquity. Standing on hill, they can be seen to a great distance; and they are mentioned in old leases as land-marks. The largest was blown down some years ago; but those still standing have been measured for us through the kindness of Lord Lyttelton, and their dimensions are as follows:- The upper beeches are now reduced to four in number. The one blown down in 1839 was a noble tree, and considerably larger than any of the others; being about 20 ft. in circumference, with a proportionate height and head. The largest now standing is 14 it, in circumference at 1 ft. from the ground, and is 70 ft. high. The lower beeches comprise five large, and six or eight smaller, trees; the largest measuring about 14 ft. in circumference. One of these was blown down in 1836, and was found much decayed. They are very handsome trees; and, from their mode of growth and commanding situation, they have a very striking effect. In Derbyshire, at Keddleston, the seat of Lord Scarsdale, is a beech tree which was removed about 70 years ago, when the present mansion was built, and which was then a large tree. It has now a trunk 12 ft. in circumference, and a head 52 ft. in diameter, touching the ground on every side. In Scotland the most remarkable beeches are, one at Newbattle Abbey, 88 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 9 ft. and of the head 100 ft. ; one in Dumfriesshire, and two in Morayshire. The Eccles Beech (fig. 1912.) stands near Baitford, in Dumfriesshire. The trunk is 18 ft. in circumference, where it begins to throw out the branches, which extend over a space 95 ft. in diameter. An account and drawing of this tree has been sent to us by Mr. Grierson, secretary to the Horticultural Society of Dumfries, who adds, “The late proprietor of this tree, Mr. Maitland, used to bring his friends to sit beneath its shade to take their wine after dinner." The Earl's Mill Beech, in Morayshire (fig. 1913.), is 50 ft. high, with a trunk 17 ft. in circumference at 3 ft. from the ground, and a head 93 ft. in diameter. The Grange Hall Beech (fig. 1914.), in the same county, is only 36 ft. high, with a trunk about 14 ft. in circumference at 5 ft. from the ground, and a head 95 ft. in diameter. The roots rise up all round the trunk to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft. from the ground, and form a natural seat, to which the immense and umbrella-like head affords an agreeable shade. The drawings of these last two trees were made for us by Mr. Stephens, artist, of Elgin, at the request, and expense of Macleod, Esq.

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Fagus sylvatica in England. In the environs of London, at Gunnersbury Park, are many fine beeches, 90 ft. high, with trunks about 9 ft. in circumference.-South of London. In Devonshire, at Killerton, a beech tree, 150 years old, is 68 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 7 ft., and of the head 97 ft. In Dorsetshire, at Melbury Park, 200 years

1910 old, it is 82 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 7 ft., and of the head 96 ft. In Somersetshire, at Cothel. stone, it is 85 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 5ft., and of the head 84 ft. In Surrey, at Claremont, it is 90 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 5 ft. In Sussex, at Kidbrooke, it is 70 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 7 it., and that of the head 87 ft. In Wiltshire, at Wardour Castle, 100 years old, it is 60 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 5 ft. 6 in., and that of the head 82 ft.; and at Longford Castle, it is 70 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3 ft., and that of the head 50 ft.-North of London. In Berkshire, at Bear Wood, 16 years planted, it is 80 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and that of the head 18 ft.; at High Clere, it is 67 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3 ft., and of the head 28 ft. In Denbighshire, at Llanbede Hall, it is 71 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3 ft., and of the head 47 ft. In Derbyshire, at Foston Hall, 100 years old, it is 78 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk 12 ft., and the diameter of the head 60 ft. In Essex, at Audley End, 80 years planted, it is 80 ft. high. In Gloucestershire, at Chipping-Cawdor, it

1911 is 85 ft. high, with a trunk 6 ft. 6 in. in diameter ; at Doddington, it is 80 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3 ft., and that of the head about 70 ft. In Herefordshire, at Croft Castle, are several trees, from 80 ft. to 85 ft. high, with trunks about 20 ft. in circumference, and the branches extending over a space from 100 ft. to 120 ft. in diameter; at Eastnor Castle, 14 years planted, it is 40 ft high, the diameter of the trunk 1 ft., and that of the head 32. ft. In Leicestershire, at Donnington Park, 100 years old, it is 96 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 7 ft., and that of the head 100 ft. Mr. Donaldson, the steward at Donnington, who had this tree measured for us, states that when he sent the man up into the tree, there was a squirrel in it, which, not venturing to come down, as Mr. Donaldson was standing close by, mounted before the man to the very summit of the tree, from which immense beight it leaped to the ground, and, falling on a tuft of beech leaves, ran away uninjured. In Nottinghamshire, at Worksop Manor, it is 90 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 5 ft., and that of the head 117 ft. In Radnorshire, at Maeslangh Castle, it is 70 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 6 ft., and that of the head 90 ft. In Shropshire, at Willey Park, it is 25 ft. high, after being 9 years planted. In Staffordshire, at Trentham, it is 70 ft. high,

1912 the diameter of the trunk 5 ft., and that of the head 102 ft. in Suffoik, at Finborough Haii, so years planted, it is 90 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 5 ft. 6 in., and that of the head 80 ft.In War. wickshire, at Combe Abbey, 60 years planted, it is 54 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3ft 6 in., and that of the head 77 ft.; at Edgbaston, near Birmingham, it is 115 ft. high, with a trunk 4 ft. in diameter. In Worcestershire, at Croome, 65 years planted, it is 95 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 6 in., and that of the head 60 nt. In Yorkshire, 'the immense trees at Studley, and at Raywood, have been already mentioned. (See p. 1977.)

Fagus sylvatica in Scotland. In the environs of Edinburgh, at Cramond House, it is 90 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk 13 ft., and the diameter of the head 111 ft.; at Dalmeny Park it is

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70 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk 10 ft., and the diameter of the head 60 ft. ; at Barnton House it is 90 ft. high; at Gogar House it is 60 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 3 ft., and of the head 90 ft. ; at Hatton House it is 90 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk 12 ft. 6 in., and the diameter of the head 60 ft.; at Hopetoun House, 100 years old, it is 80 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 8in., and of the head 60 ft.; at Moredun Park it is 85 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 6 ft., and of the head 73 ft.-South of Edinburgh. In Ayrshire, at Dalquharran, it is 90 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk 16 ft., and the diameter of the head 96 ft. ; at Kilkerran, 130 years old, it is 75 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk A ft., and the diameter of the head 96 ft. In Dumfriesshire, at Jardine Hall, are

1913 the remains of an avenue of beech trees, planted in 1708, some of the trees of which have trunks from 10 ft. to 15 ft. in circumference, and one, which is 73 ft. high, covers a space 73ft, in diameter. In the stewartry of Kirkcudbrightat St. Mary's Isle, it is 63 nt. high, the diameter of the trunk 3 ft. 6 in., and that of the head 51 ft. In Haddingtonshire, at Tyninghamn, it is 6+ ft. high the diameter of the trunk 5 f. 6in, and that of the head 57 ft.-North of Edinburgh. In Banffshire, at Gordon Castle, it is 87 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 4 ft.

1914 6 in., and that of the head 60 ft. In Cromarty, at Coul, 162 years old, it is 80 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3ft, and that of the head 63 ft. In Fifeshire, at Danibristle Park, it is 70 ft. high, the diameter of the head 82 ft. In Forfarshire, at Kinnaird Castle, 200 years old, it is 90 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 6 ft., and of the head 105 ft.; at Courtachy Castle, 102 years old, it is 78 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk 18 ft., and the diameter of the head 60 ft. In Perthshire, at Taymouth, it is 96 ft. high, and has a trunk 17 ít. in cir. cumference, and the diameter of the head 96 ft.; in Messrs. Dickson and Turnbull's nursery, Perth, 60 years planted, it is 66 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3ft., and that of the head 42 ft. In Ross-shire, at Brahan Castle, it is 70 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3 ft. 6in., and that of the head 80 ft. In Stirlingshire, at Airthrey

Castle, it is 136 years old, and 90 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 5ft., and of the head 92 ft. ; at Callendar Park, 200 years old, it is 70 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk 17 ft., and the diameter of the head 86 ft.

Fagus sylvatica in Ireland. In the environs of Dublin, at Cypress Grove, it is 96 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3 ft. 10 in., and that of the head 66 ft. - South of Dublin. In the county of Cork, at Castle Freke, it is 53 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk 15ft., and diameter of the head so ft. In Kilkenny, at Woodstock, 95 years planted, it is 91 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 5 ft., and that of the head 48 ft.; at Borris it is 90 ft. high, the

circumference of the trunk 18 ft., and the diameter of the head 96 ft. In King's County, at Charleville Forest, is a birch, which, though only 60 years planted, is 110 ft. high, with a trunk 17 ft. in circumference, and a head 90 ft. in diameter. In Limerick, at Mount Shannon, are many noble specimens. - North of Dublin. In Down, at Moira, it is 110 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 4 ft. 6 in., and that of the head 80 ft. In Fermanagh, at Florence Court, 38 years old, it is 65 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and that of the head 50 ft. In Sligo, at Mackree Castle, 73 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3 ft. 6 in., and that of the head 54 ft.

Fagus sylvatica in Foreign Countries. In France, near Nantes, it is 100 years old, and 90 ft. high. In the village of Laulnay, parish of St. Aubin-du-Perron, near the oratory of that name (Manche), which was possessed before 1791 by the Eudistes of Coutances, a birch tree was felled on the 27th of January, 1837; when a man who was splitting the wood, found in one of the branches a cross, 9 in. and 9 lines high, with cross bars of 1 in., and a pedestal of 14 lines high, and 5 lines broad, which was perfectly regular (L'Hermès). A similar example is recorded in the Magazine of Natural History, vol. i. p. 471., as having been seen by us at Metz, in 1828. In Switzerland, the largest specimens of beech are two at the entrance to the Abbey of Pommiers, near Salène, each being 15 ft. in circumference at 2 ft. from the ground. In Austria, at Vienna, in the University Botanic Garden, 60 years old, it is 50 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head šo ft.; at Kopenzel, 60 years planted, it is 40 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 6 in., and of the head 24 ft. In Prussia, in Berlin, at Sans Souci, 60 years old, it is 50 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 3ft, and of the head 28 ft.; in the Pfauen-Insel, 40 years planted, it is 36 ft. high. In Sweden, at Lund, in the Botanic Garden, 59 years old, it is 56 ft. high,

the diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 6 in., and of the head 36 ft. In Italy, in Lombardy, at Monza, 24 years planted, it is 32 ft. high, the circumference of the trunk 3 ft., and the diameter of the head 39 ft.

Fagus sylvatica purpurea. The largest in England is that at Enville, in Staffordshire, which, as already mentioned, is about 70 ft. high, with a head 85 ft. in diameter; the longest branch measuring 42 ft. in extent from the tree. In the environs of London, is one at Syon, 71 ft. high, circumference of the trunk 8 ft. 6 in., and diameter of the head 61 ft. ; at Kenwood is one, 36 years planted, which is 48 ft. high, circumference of the trunk nearly 6 ft., and diameter of the head 40 ft.; at Muswell Hill it is 62 it. high, circumference of the trunk 14 ft., and diameter of the head 39 ft.; at Claremont, in Surrey, it is 50 ft. high, diameter of the head 40 ft. In Buckinghamshire, at Temple House, it is 30 ft. high, diameter of the head 20 ft. ; in Cheshire, at Kinmel Park, it is 24 ft. high, diameter of the head 32 it.'; in Durham, at Southend, are several between 40 and 50 nt. high, after being only 18 years planted ; in Gloucestershire, at Doddington, 30 years planted, it is 40 ft. high, diameter of the head 33 ft. ; in Nottinghamshire, at Clumber Park, it is 42 ft. high, diameter of the head 52 ft. ; in Oxford shire, in the Oxford Botanic Garden, it is 55 ft. high, diameter of the head 40 ft.; in Pembrokeshire, at Stackpole Court, it is 35 ft. high, diameter of the head 27 ft. : in Suffolk, in the Bury Botanic Garden, it is 50 ft. high, diameter of the head 42 ft., at Great Livermere, it is 35 ft. high, diameter

of the head 40 ft. : in Worcestershire, at Croome, 38 years

planted, it is 60 ft. high, diameter of the head 40 ft. ; in Yorkshire, in the nursery of Messrs. Backkouse, át York, it is about 80 years old, 10 ft. 4 in. in circumference, 31 ft. high, and diameter of the head 44 ft. In Scotland, in Banffshire, at Gordon Castle, it is 56 ft. high, diameter of the head 54 ft. ; in Fifeshire, at Raith House, it is 45 ft. high, diameter of the head 40ft: in Perthshire, at Inverary, 50 years old, it is 40ft. high; and at Messrs. Dicksen and Turnbull's Nursery, Perth, 40 years planted, it is 48 ft. high, diameter of the head 40 ft. In Ireland, at Cypress Grove, it is 40 ft. high, diameter of the head 40 ft.; in Kilkenny, at Borris, it is 56 ft. high, diameter of the head 59tt. ; in Waterford, at Salterbridge, it is 50 ft. high, diameter of the head 56 ft.; in Louth, at Oriel Temple, it is 54 ft. high. In France, at Scéaux, near Paris, 45 years planted, it is 70 ft. high; at Metz, it is 29 A. high, diameter of the head 49 ft. In Germany, at Harbke, in Brunswick, it is 70 ft. high ;

Amer.

this tree produces about 20 lb. of mast every year, which sells at 2 dollars (9.) per lb. (see Gard.
Mag., vol.

viii
. p. 445.): at Göttingen, in the

Botanic Garden, 26 years planted, it is between So it and 40 ft. high. In Austria, at Vienna, at Laxenburg, it is 25 it. high. In Prussia, at Berlin, at Sans Souci, it is 18 ft. high.

Commercial Statistics. In the London nurseries, mast is 108. per bushel; two years' seedlings are 8s. per thousand; transplanted plants, from 2 ft. to 3 ft. high, 40s. per thousand. Plants of the purple-leaved variety are from 9d. to Is. 5d. each; of the fern-leaved, from 1s. 6d. to 28. 6d.; and of F. s. péndula, from 3s. 6d. to 58. At Bollwyller, plants of the different varieties are from 2 to 3 francs each; and, at New York, the species is 25 cents per plant, and the varieties 1 dollar each.

1 2. F. FERRUGI'NEA Ait. The American ferruginous-wooded Beech. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., 3. p. 362; Abbott Ins., 2. p. 149.; Willd. Arb., 112.; Michu. N.

Amer., 3. p. 21.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 460. Synonymes: "F. americana latifolia Du Roi Harbk., 1. p. 269. Wang, Amer., p. 80. ; red Beech, Engravings. Michx. N. Amer. Syl., 3. t. 106. ; Wang. Amer., t. 29. f. 55.; and our fig. 1917. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves ovate, acuminate, thickly toothed; downy beneath; ciliate on the margin. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 460.) A North American timber tree, so much resembling the common European beech, as by some to be considered only a variety of it. It was introduced in 1766, and is not unfrequent in collections. The American beech is easily known from the European one by its much shorter obtusely pointed buds, with short, roundish, convex scales, which terminate almost abruptly, and are enclosed

in numerous, short, loose scales.
Varieties.
* F. f. 2 caroliniana ; F. caroliniana Lodd. Cat.,

ed. 1836; and fig. 1915.; has leaves some-
what cordate at the base, ovate, slightly
acuminate, obsoletely dentate, and some-
what mucronate. The colour is a very dark
green, somewhat tinged with purple when
fully mature. The veins of the under side
of the leaf are somewhat hoary.

1915
1 F. f. 3 latifolia ; F. latifolia of Lee's Nursery; and our fig. 1916. -

Leaves lanceolate, acuminate; tapering at the base, feather-nerved,
much longer than those of the preceding variety in proportion to
their length, and of a lighter green. It differs from the plant marked
F. caroliniànain the Hack-
ney Arboretum; but, as
the latter is very small, and

1916
the Hammersmith plant is
growing in a better atmo-
sphere, perhaps it is not

worth keeping distinct. Description, fc. The red beech, Michaux observes, bears a greater resemblance to that of Europe than to the American white beech. It equals the latter in diameter, but not in height; and, as it ramifies near the ground, it has a more massive head, and a more tufted foliage. Its leaves are equally brilliant with those of the white beech, a little larger and thicker, and more deeply serrated. Its fruit is of the same form, but only half as large; while the prickles of its calyx are less numerous, but firmer. The wood

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is somewhat red, or of a rusty hue, when mature; whence the name. A trunk of this species, i ft. 3 in. or ift. 6 in. in diameter, commonly consists of 3 in. or 4 in. of sap, and ift. 1 in. or 1 ft. 2 in. of heart wood; the inverse of which proportion is commonly found in the wood of the white beech. The distribution of this tree in the United States is almost 1917 exclusively confined to the north-eastern provinces, and Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. In the district of Maine, and in the states of New Hampshire and Vermont, it is so abundant, as often to constitute extensive forests, the finest of which grow on fertile, level, or gently sloping lands, which are proper for the cultivation of corn. The wood of this species is considered stronger, tougher, and more compact than that of the American white beech; and, in the district of Maine and in British America, where the oak is rare, it is employed with the sugar maple and yellow birch, or Bétula excelsa, for the lower part of the frame of vessels. As it is extremely liable to injury from worms, and speedily decays when exposed to alternate dryness and moisture, it is seldom used in the construction of houses; but, where nothing better can be procured, it is selected for making hoops. Shoelasts are made of it, and other minor articles; because, when perfectly seasoned, it is not liable to warp. On the whole, the wood is inferior in compactness and solidity to the European beech, though planks of it, about 3 ir.. thick, are sometimes exported to Britain. The tree was introduced into England by Messrs. Lee and Kennedy; and its foliage makes a very fine appearance, both in the Hammersmith Nursery and at Messrs. Loddiges's. Though the leaves do not differ materially from those of the common beech during summer, yet, in autumn, they become decidedly darker, and die off of a rusty green, approaching, in F. f. caroliniàna, to black. In America, this species is subject to the attacks of Phalæ'na tessellàris (Abb. and Smith Ins., ii. t. 75.; and our fig. 1918.), the cream-barred, or beech, tussock moth, which devours the leaves. The caterpillar of this insect is brown, and the imago pale buff: it is most common in Georgia. On the whole, both the species and its varieties well deserve culture as ornamental trees of the middle size. They

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are propagated by layers and grafting; and plants, in the London nurseries, are 5s. each ; at New York, 25 cents.

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