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THE GARDENER.

away entirely from the plant, so that

the pots may never stand in it. The water WINDOW GARDENING.—There are many used should be either rain or river-water, who have not the convenience of a green- If necessarily from the pump or spring, house, who are, nevertheless, equally fond it ought to stand in the air a day of flowers, and spend considerable sums or two before using. 2. Give as much yearly in the purchase of plants, bestow- air as possible, when the weather is mild, ing a great deal of pains in attending to either by having the window up, or by them. It is not to be denied too, that, removing the plants outside. If, in warm after all their endeavours, their plants weather, this is done under a bright sun, look sickly, and finally die. The blame the pots will have to be shaded, as the sun is too often laid at the door of the florist upon their sides would prove injurious to who supplied them, for not giving healthy the young roots, and would greatly injure plants, when in almost every instance the the plant ; and if in bloom, and exposed fault lies with the buyers. The plants, it is to the sun, the flowers would soon fade true, which come into the market have and drop. 3. Keep the rooms where the generally been under a high state of cul- ) plants are of as uniform a temperature as tivation. They have been regularly possible, and the plants themselves as near watered, potted in soil according to the window as is convenient, except in their different habits, and grown in pots severe weather, when they are better near according to their size. The heat, air, the middle of the room during the and light have all been arranged and 4. Examine them occasionally, to see if regulated as the utmost skill and experi- the pots are full of roots. If this is the ence could suggest. The transition from case, and the plants are worth it, get some all this regularity to the tender mercies of good soil, and shift them into pots a size the purchaser is soon felt. Drowning or larger; or if not shifted, be more careful starving, or neglecting altogether, is no in supplying water, as they will require uncommon fate. The pots are taken home, more when in this state.

In summer, put into pans or saucers, deluged with water them frequently over the foliage, water, and the water left in the saucers, or but not except they also need it at the they are set in some conspicuous place, root as well. These may be adopted as and left to their fate. In the first case, very general rules, though more absothe leaves turn yellow and drop, the lutely necessary to some plants than flowers fall, and in a very short time all others, but very good to all. There is a that can be seen of them are their naked good deal to be considered in buying stems, with little tufts of green on the plants, in making the proper choice; for tops or points of their shoots, which a few however gratifying it may be to have days before were in perfection ; in the those which look best in full bloom, it is latter case, the plants die with all the most satisfactory to have those which last leaves and bloom upon them. Nearly all longest in perfection, especially those the evils attending plants grown in which have a succession of bloom, and windows are to be traced to these two whose foliage is interesting when the

I will therefore attempt to lay flowers are gone. This rule may be down a few general rules, which, if pro- deviated from in behalf of tulips, crocuses, perly attended to, will do away with hyacinths, and other bulbs, which are nearly all the complaints under this head. valuable when little else is in blossom. 1. Never water but when the plants These will also bloom in the darkest streets actually want it. That is easily known by of cities. They ought to be purchased feeling the soil with the finger, or giving either in the beginning of November, the pot a rap on the side with the knuckles. when the roots are dry, for planting yourWhile it is moist no water is needed ; when selves, or in pots or glasses when they are it feels dry, then water—which latter will beginning to grow. If in pots, all these not be oftener than three times a week in require a plentiful supply of water when autumn and winter, and every day in in a growing state ; and if kept cool after spring and summer-giving it copiously showing flower, their season of blooming every time, and allowing it

is prolonged.—Gardeners' Chronicles

causes.

to

run

Clay, Stone, Gold, &c. Some from social ORIGINS AND INVENTIONS.

relations; as, Master, Prentice, Bachelor, INVENTION OF LETTERS.—Letters are Cousin, Child; and many from Christian supposed to have been invented by the names; from Henry, Harris, Harrison, Phenicians, a race of people who resided | Henrison ; from John, Johnson, Jones, in the country bordering on the eastern Jackson, Jennings, Jenkins ; from ADAM, shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Cadmus Addison, Adams; from DENNIS, Dennison, the leader of a colony from this country, Jennison ; from ALEXANDER, Sanders, Sanfounded Thebes, in Greece, and intro- derson. In addition to these, names have duced letters there about the year 1519, | been derived from a multitude of sources; before Christ. At that time the alphabet as, Wing, Horn, Frost, Snow, Peck, Plum, consisted only of sixteen letters.

Beard, Ball, Bond, Freeman. ORIGIN OF STERLING MONEY.—During

INVENTION OF PAPER.-_While some the reign of Richard I., King of England, doubts have been entertained as to whom or about 1190, money, which was coined Europe is directly indebted for the introin the eastern part of Germany, became duction of so important a manufacture, of great demand, on account of its purity. it is quite certain that at a period anterior The inhabitants of that portion of country to the thirteenth century it was known where this pure coin was made, were

and practised in Asia. We have numecalled Easterlings; hence the name Eas

rous and incontestible proofs that the terling money was applied to the coin Chinese possessed the art of paper-making brought from that region. Soon after

at a very early period; from them their ward some of the Easterlings, who were neighbours, the Tartars, received it, subskilled in coining, were sent for to come stituting cotton, which abounded in their to London, and bring the process of coining to a state of perfection there. This country, for the bamboo, which was cer

tainly the substance more generally used was accomplished, and the English coin in China. At the commencement of the took the name of Sterling Money, which it eighth century, when the conquests of retains to the present time.

the Arabs carried them to Samarkand, ORIGIN OF SURNAMES.-In the early deep in the Scythian plains, they found ages of the world, a simple name was the manufacture of cotton - paper estasufficient for each individual ; as, Adam, blished there. The Arabs learned the art Moses, Job, Luke, Peter, John. In the pro- from the Tartars, as the Tartars had cess of time these single names became learned it from the Chinese, and in their so numerous, that it was necessary to use turn substituted linen for cotton. To the surnames for the sake of distinction. The Arabs, therefore, it appears pretty certain first approach to this was the addition of that we are indebted for the inestimable the name of the sire ; as, Caleb, the son of article, or paper made from linen ; but Nun. Then followed the use of signifi- whether the art of making it was introcant words, expressive of personal feats, duced by the Italians of Venice, Gaeta, looks, or actions, originating, probably, and Amalfi, who, during the eighth, ninth, in a manner similar to many of the nick- and tenth centuries kept up a constant names of the present day. To this class commercial intercourse with Syria and belong such names as, Black, White, Gray, Egypt, or whether the Saracens-(Arabs Long, Swift, Whitehead, Lightfoot. Ano- under another name), who conquered Spain ther class of names were derived from in the early part of the eighth century, occupations: as, Carpenter, Baker, Mason, made known the manufacture in that Miller, Bishop, Marshal, Porter, Parsons, country, has not as yet been clearly ascerPage, Smith. The root of the word Smith, tained. Mr. Mills reasonably supposes which is smitan, was originally applied to that the flourishing linen manufactories artificers in wood and stone, as well as at Valentia suggested the idea of the subthose in metal ; hence the frequency of stitution of linen for cotton in that part the name is easily accounted for. Other of Europe, as the cotton manufactories names were derived from natural objects; at Samarkand induced the Tartars to emas, Flower, Rose, Sage, Finch, Jay, Bird, | ploy cotton instead of bamboo, &c.

THE WORK-TABLE FRIEND.

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T. Correspondents of the Work-table De

partment. IN page 197, Vol. 6, Family Friend, Old Series, we gave a full and accurate description of all the terms, marks, &c., used in our crochet designs; in that Number therefore, our friends will find all the information they can require for working any crochet receipt which has appeared since the date of that article. In page 167, Vol.1, New Series of the Family Friend, are two new stitches, recently invented by us. As it is obviously impossible to occupy the space of the journal, by reiterating the elementary instructions with every article, we beg ladies to refer back to those Numbers.

We are always happy to comply with the request of our friends, to introduce any particular subject, provided our space permits, and that it is likely to be of general utility; but crests, coats of arms, and other similar articles, which are of mere personal interest, are inadmissible in our pages. They can at any time be obtained by applying to Mrs. PuLLAN, 126, Albanystreet, Regent's-park.

SOVEREIGN PURSE IN CROCHET.

MRS. PULLAN.

Materials.—1 skein of dark blue purse-silk, 1 skein of apricot or salmon ditto, 1 gilt clasp, and 3 rows of gold beads,

MAKE a chain of 80 stitches with the SOVEREIGN PURSE, IN CROCHET, BY blue silk, and close it into a round. Do one round of Sc.

1st Pattern Round. Both colours, the 1 apricot of last round), 1 blue, 3 apri+2 blue, 2 apricot, 1 blue, + repeat all cot, 4 blue, + 4 times. round.

10th Round.- + 6 blue, 1 apricot, 1 2nd Round.- t. 1 blue, 4 apricot, + all blue, 3 apricot, 1 blue, (over 1 apricot of round.

last round), 3 apricot, 1 blue, 1 apricot, 3 3rd Round.—Like 2nd.

blue, + 4 times. 4th Round.—Like Ist.

11th Round.- + blue, 5 apricot, 1 5th Round.- All blue.

blue, 5 apricot, 3 blue, + 4 times. 6th Round.- + 9 blue, 3 apricot, 8 blue, 12th Round. + 6 blue, 11 apricot, 3 + 4 times.

blue, + 4 times. 7th Round.+ 10 blue, 3 apricot, (so 13th Round.- + 7 blue, 4 apricot, 1 that the first coines over the second apri- blue, 4 apricot, 4 blue, + 4 times. cot of last round), 7 blue, +4 times.

14th Round.- + 5 blue, 2 apricot, 2 Sth Round. + 11 blue, 1 apricot, 8 blue, 1 apricot, 3 blue, 1 apricot, 2 blue, blue, + 4 times.

2 apricot, 2 blue, + 4 times. 9th Round.- + 7 blue, 3 apricot, 1 15th Round. + 4 blue, 1 apricot, 2 blue, 1 apricot, (which should come over blue, 4 apricot, 1 blue, (on the rentre of

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three blue), 4 apricot, 2 blue, 1 apricot, 1 25th Round.- + 9 blue, 1 apricot, 10blue, + 4 times.

blue, + 4 times. 16th Round. - Like 12th.

26th Round.-- + 8 blue, apricot, 9 17th Round.-Like 11th.

blue, + 4 times. 18th Round.— Like 10th.

27th Round.- t 8 blue, 4 apricot, 8° 19th Round.—Like 9th.

blue, + 4 times. 20th Round.—Like 8th.

28th Round.- t 8 blue, 4 apricot, 3 21st Round.- + 6 blue, 2 apricot, 2 blue, 1 apricot, 4 blue, + 4 times. blue, 2 apricot, 8 blue, + 4 times.

29th Round.- + 9 blue, 7 apricot, 4. 22nd Round.- + 5 blue, 9 apricot, 6 blue, + 4 times. blue, + 4 times.

30th Round.- + 11 blue, 3 apricot, (on 23rd Round.- + 4 blue, apricot, 1 | the centre three of 7 apricot), 6 blue. blue, 3 apricot, 7 blue, + 4 times.

31st Round.—All blue. 24th Round.- + 6 blue,

apricot, 1 Now repeat the 1st to 4th pattern rounds, blue, 1 apricot, 1 'blue, 2 apricot, 7 blue, when fasten off the apricot, and do two + 4 times.

rounds of Sc with the blue.

1st

open Round.—(All blue to the end), edging, which completes it, is a simple +1 Dc, 1 Ch, miss 1, + all round. line of No. 1 Mecklenburgh thread, closely

2nd 3rd and 4th Rounds.—De under covered with button-hole stitch. The edgchain, 1 ch, miss Dc stitch of last round. ing itself must be worked first. This

Work one side of the purse, backward is done by tacking down a thread to corand forwards in the same way, gradually respond with the first row of loops. Cover decreasing at each edge, to fit the clasp. two of these, and half a third with buttonDo the same at the other side.

hole stitch; then take back the needle For closing the end, do one round of to the middle of the second loop, and after apricot silk; then holding the two sides leaving a thread to form a loop there, take together, Sc a stitch of each with blue. a tight button-hole stitch to secure it. Add the fringe and clasp.

Repeat this to the centre of the first loop,

and the two being made, cover one, and MOUSQUETAIRE COLLAR.

half the other with button-hole stitch. Materials.—3 yards of Italian braid, and the Take the needle to the centre of the first Point Lace Cottons of Messrs. W. Evans and of these, to form the loop at the point of Co., Boar's Head Cotton Manufacturers, Derby,

the scallop, work it in the same way, and The Mousquetaire is the name given then cover the half loops left. Thus each to the very becoming style of collar, scallop is done in succession; the line adrecently introduced from France. It is joining the Vandyke, only being outlined. of rather a large size, and in deep points, Care must be taken so to arrange that as seen in the engraving. About seven every Vandyke has a scallop at the point of it. are the usual number in a collar, but nine For point-lace stitches &c. see No. may be made if it is intended for a stout 68, Old Series, and No. 13, New Series person.

of the Family Friend. The depth, also, must be regulated by A drawn and mounted pattern of this the taste of the wearer. We have seen collar sent post free for 2s ; a complete them almost five inches deep ; but at set of point - lace cottons, including present, this size looks peculiar; four fourteen kinds, are 3s 6d by post. inches, reckoning to the point of every Vandyke, may be considered as a medium FEMALE OCCUPATION.-Women in the size, and we would recommend that the middle rank are brought up with the idea pattern should be increased to that scale. that if they engage in some occupations,

The pines are outlined in Italian braid, they shall lose " their position in society.” which is represented in the engraving by Suppose it to be so; surely it is wiser to the clear broad white lines. Evans's quit a position we cannot honestly mainMecklenburgh thread, No. 1, forms the tain, than to live dependent upon the outline of the leaves, and other parts. The bounty and caprice of others : better to leaves are made as heavy as possible, being labour with our hands than eat the bread filled with foundation-stitch, with a line of idleness : or submit to feel that we of open-work in the veinings only. For must not give utterance

our real this stitch, Evans's Boar’s-head cotton, opinions, or express our honest indignaNo. 120, must be used. Within the Italian tion at being required to act a base or braid is a similar width, worked in open unworthy part. And in all cases,

however diamond-stitch, with No. 150 Boar's-head ; situated, every female ought to learn how and the centre of each pine is in spotted all household affairs are managed, were it lace, done with 140 Mecklenburgh. The only for the purpose of being able to bars which make the groundwork of the direct others.. There cannot be any collar, forming a beautiful guipure, are disgrace in learning how to make the done in 120 Mecklenburgh; as in all the bread we eat, to cook our dinners, to mend most valuable old point, they are very our clothes, or even to clean the house. variously worked--some are quite plain, Better to be found busily engaged in some merely spotted with Raleigh dots, removing the dust from the furniture, and others have small semicircular loops than to let it accumulate there until a on them.

visitor leaves palpable traces where his hat The outline of the collar within the lace or his arm have been laid upon a table.

to

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