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slender twiggy branches, and leaves nearly lanceolate. There are plants in Messrs. Loddiges's arboretum.

P. b. 3 latifolia Hort. has the leaves rather broader than those of the species. There is a tree of this kind, in the London Horticultural Society's Garden, 12 ft. high.

* P. b. 4 intermedia Hort., Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 41. A, is a native of Dahuria, with stout, short, thick branches, knotted with wrinkles; and ovate, long, and rather narrow leaves; and generally attaining only the height of a large shrub. There is a plant, in the London Horticultural Society's Garden, 10 ft. high, by which it appears to be quite distinct from P. b. viminàlis.

P. b. 5 suaveolens; P. suaveolens Fischer, and Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. The
new sweet-scented poplar of the nurseries. - The plant in Messrs.
Loddiges's collection is not 1 ft. high; and we have not been able to
identify it in any other collections; though it must have been plen-
tiful in 1834, since in the wholesale priced Catalogue of the Ken-
sington Nursery for that year the price of plants is stated to be
10s. per hundred.

P. b. 6 folüs variegatis Miller has varie-
gated leaves. There is a tree of this
kind in the London Horticultural So-
ciety's Garden.



Description. The balsam poplar, in North America, according to Michaux, attains the height of 80 ft., with a trunk 3 ft. in diameter, and roots spreading close under the surface, and throwing up numerous suckers. In Siberia, according to Pallas, it is only a middle-sized tree; and in Dahuria and Altai, a low tree, or large shrub. According to Franklin, in the northern parts of North America, the trunk of the balsam poplar attains a greater circumference than that of any other tree. The head of the tree, in North America, is conical; but in Russia it is roundish. The trunk is covered with an ashcoloured bark; and the wood, in Siberia, is said to be reddish, being closer and a little harder than that of other poplars. In the moist plains of Dahuria, the tree is shrubby, because, according to Pallas, the grass is annually fired there; and the young shoots of all the trees being thus injured, they are seldom found rising with a clear stem. In the spring, the balsam poplar is known from all other species by the fine tender yellow of its leaves when they are first developed; the abundance of the yellow glutinous balsam with which the buds are covered, the very strong odour which this balsam diffuses throughout the surrounding atmosphere, and the comparatively rigid and fastigiate habit of growth of the tree, which approaches, in the latter respect, nearer to P. fastigiata than any other species. When mature, the leaves become of a deep green colour above, and of a rusty silvery white beneath. This is one of the hardiest of poplars, though not of rapid growth; except the first three or four years in the nursery. Bosc observes that botanists often confound this species with P. cándicans; but that cultivators never do so, from the very different manner of its growth, and from


the greater difficulty that is found in propagating it. The tree is wild in Lower Canada, more particularly between Quebec and Hudson's Bay; and in various places between lat. 47° and 49°. It is not very common about Montreal; and is rare on the shores of Lake Champlain. In Franklin's First Journey, it is stated, that it is found as far north as the Great Slave Lake; and that Mackenzie River has been named Rivière aux Liards, from the abundance of the tree in that quarter. It also constituted, Captain Franklin observes, "the greatest part of the drift timber that we observed on the shores of the Arctic Sea. Its Cree name is Matheh-metoos, which means the ugly poplar." (First Journey, &c., p. 753.) The balsam poplar was first brought from Canada to the Island of Jersey, and propagated there. Six of these plants were sent to Caroline, consort to George II., in the year 1731, under the name of arbre de la reine One of these was given by the queen to Sir Hans Sloane; and, being planted in the Botanic Garden at Chelsea, it soon produced male catkins; but no female or hermaphrodite ones, till about the year 1760. This poplar was introduced into Scotland, according to Dr. Walker, in 1768, having been raised in a nursery-ground at Leith, in that year, from seeds sent from Canada. The wood of the tree is white and soft, and not used in the arts by the Canadians, according to Michaux; but Franklin observes that, though it burns badly, and gives little heat, when green, its ashes yield a large quantity of potash. The balsam from the buds used formerly to be sent from Canada, and other parts of North America, in shells, under the name of baume focot; having been collected from the trees in spring, when, in consequence of the heat, it is dissolved, and collects into drops on the points of the buds. It is of a smooth and even texture, and is soluble in spirits of wine. In Siberia, a medicated wine is prepared from the buds, which is diuretic, and considered serviceable in the scurvy. Pallas states that the grouse, and other birds of that family, that feed on the buds of this poplar during winter, have their flesh imbued with a grateful balsamic flavour. In Europe, the only application of this tree is to ornamental purposes; and though, when it grows old and scrubby, it may merit the Cree name of "ugly poplar," yet, when young, few trees can be compared with it in the beginning of summer, either for the light rich yellow green of its foliage, or the fine balsamic odour which proceeds from both the leaves and the buds. In scenery of limited extent, and when the round-headed trees and buildings are comparatively small, or of medium size, the balsam poplar may be used for the same purposes as the Lombardy poplar. (See p. 1663.) The balsam poplar is readily propagated by suckers, which it sends up in abundance; or by cuttings, which, however, do not strike so readily as those of the other poplars. It will grow in any soil, but it prefers one moist and rich, and a sheltered situation.

Statistics. Recorded Trees. Near Edinburgh, in the pleasure-grounds of Craig Lockhart, a tree, planted in 1771, was, in 1798, 50 ft. high, and had a trunk 4 ft. in circumference at 4ft. from the ground. It was at that time considered the oldest and finest balsam poplar in Scotland. (Walker's Essays.) Existing Trees. In England, in Bedfordshire, at South Hill, it is 50 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 11 in., and of the head 26 ft.; in Hertfordshire, at Cheshunt, 6 years planted, it is 23 ft. high: in Monmouthshire, at Tredegar Park, 50 years old, it is 45 ft. high; at Dowlais House, 15 years old, it is 20 ft. high: in Pembrokeshire, at Stackpole Court, 7 years planted, it is 20 ft. high; in Staffordshire, at Alton Towers, 4 years planted, it is 16 ft. high; in Yorkshire, at Hackress, 16 years planted, it is 14 ft. high. In Scotland, in the Experimental Garden, Inverleith, 9 years planted, it is 12 ft. high; in Banffshire, at Gordon Castle, it is 56 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 3 in.; in Clackmannanshire, in the Garden of the Dollar Institution, it is 28 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 10ft.; in Fifeshire, at Danibristle Park, 16 years planted, it is 40 ft. high; in Forfarshire, at Courtachy Castle, 18 years planted, it is 45 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 7 ft; in Perthshire, in Messrs. Dickson and Turnbull's Nursery, Perth, 26 years planted, it is 48 ft. high. In Ireland, in Galway, at Coole, it is 36ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 1 ft. In the Isle of Jersey, in Saunders's Nursery, 10 years planted, it is 14 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 7 in., and of the head 12 ft. In Bavaria, at Munich, in the English Garden, 25 years old, it is 20 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 9 in., and of the head 8 ft.

Commercial Statistics. Plants, in the London nurseries, 4 ft. high, are 8s. per hundred; and of the new sweet-scented variety, 10s. per hundred. At Bollwyller, plants are 1 franc each; and at New York, 20 cents each.

15. P. CA'NDICANS Ait. The whitish-leaved balsam-bearing, or Ontario, Poplar.

Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 1., 3. p. 406., ed. 2., 5. p. 397.; Willd. Arb., 231., Sp. Pl., 806.; Michx. Arb.; North Amer. Sylva, 2. p. 239. t. 98. f. 2.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 618.; Spreng. Syst. Veg., 2. p. 244.

Synonymes. P. macrophylla Lindl. in Encyc. of Plants, p. 840., and Lodd. Cat., 1836; P. latifolia Manch Meth., p. 338.; P. ontariénsis Desf. Hort. Par., and Lodd. Cat., 1836; P. cordata Lodd. Cat., 1836; P. canadensis Manch Weissenst., 81., but not of Micha, which is P. lævigata Willd.; Balm of Gilead Tree, Boston, North Amer.; Peuplier liard, Canada; Peuplier à Feuilles vernissées, Fr. The Sexes. The male is in the London Horticultural Society's Garden; the female is in the Duke of Wellington's garden at Apsley House, London.

Engravings. Catesb. Car., 1. t. 34.; Michx. Arb.; Michx. North Amer, Sylva, 2. t. 98. f. 2. ; and our fig. 1537.

Spec. Char., &c. Shoot round. Bud very gummy. Stipules gummy. Petiole compressed in its upper part, hairy in many instances. Disk of leaf heart-shaped at the base, ovate, acuminate; serrated with blunt, unequal teeth; 3-nerved; deep green on the upper surface, whitish on the under one, on which the veins appear reticulate. Inflorescence similar to that of P. balsamífera (Michx. jun., Pursh, Spreng., and obs.) The disk of the leaf is thrice as large as that of P. balsamífera. (Michx. jun.) A tree, attaining the height of 40 ft. or 50 ft., with a trunk 18 in. or 20 in. in diameter, in the states of Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire; flowering, with the balsam poplar, in March. It was introduced into England in 1772, and is frequent in gardens.

Description, &c. The Ontario poplar bears a close general resemblance to the balsam poplar: it has the rigid fastigiate habit of that tree, its fine fragrance, and its property of throwing up numerous suckers; but it differs from it, in having very large heart-shaped


leaves, and in attaining a larger size, both in its native country, and in British gardens. The buds are covered with the same balsamic substance as those of P. balsamífera; and the leaves are of the same fine yellow colour in spring, and, like those of the balsam poplar, preserve, at all stages of their growth, the same shape. The foliage, when mature, is tufted, and of a dark green; the disposition of the branches is somewhat rigid and irregular; which last circumstance prevents the foliage from massing well together, and gives the tree rather an inelegant appearance. The trunk is covered with a smooth greenish bark, which becomes darker with age; the wood is soft; and, like that of the balsam poplar, is chiefly valuable for producing potash. Michaux never found the tree in forests in America, nor was he able to discover where it was indigenous; but he found it growing commonly before houses, both in the towns and country. Pursh mentions New England as the place where he had seen it in a living state. In British gardens, it has very frequently been confounded with the balsam poplar; and the same thing, Bosc informs us, often happens in France. Bosc strongly recommends this tree for its shade, and the fragrance with which it perfumes the air in spring. It is readily propagated by cuttings or suckers, but will not attain a large size unless on rich soil near water; though, as the roots creep along the surface, the soil need not be deep.

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Statistics. In England, in Buckinghamshire, at Temple House, 40 years planted, it is 70 ft. high ; the diameter of the trunk 2ft., and of the head 30 ft.; in Durham, at Southend, 7 years planted, it is 20 ft. high; in Hertfordshire, at Cheshunt, 18 years planted, it is 45 ft. high; in Nottingham. shire, at Clumber Park, 10 years planted, it is 48 ft. high; in Warwickshire, at Whitley Abbey, 7 years planted, it is 24 ft. high. In Scotland, near Edinburgh, at the Experimental Garden, Inverleith, 9 years planted, it is 23 ft. high; in Fifeshire, at Danibristle Park, 9 years planted, it is 23 f high; in Stirlingshire, at Callender Park, 16 years planted, it is 70 ft. high In Ireland, at Dublin, in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, 30 years planted, it is 30 ft. high. In Germany, at Vienna, in the garden of Baron Loudon, 30 years old, it is 24 ft. high. Price of plants as in P. balsamífera.



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THESE are included in two genera, the characters of which are thus given by Smith: ALNUS Tourn. Barren flowers numerous, aggregate, in a loose cylindrical catkin, imbricated every way. Calyx a permanent wedge-shaped scale, 3-flowered, with 2 very minute lateral scales. Corolla composed of 3 equal florets, attached to the inner side of every scale, each of one petal, in 4 deep, equal, ovate, obtuse segments. Filaments 4, from the tube of the corolla, shorter than its segments, and opposite to them. Anthers of 2 round lobes.-Fertile flowers fewer, aggregate, in an oval firm catkin, imbricated every way. Calyx a permanent, wedge-shaped scale, 2-flowered. Corolla none. Germen compressed, of 2 cells. Styles 2, parallel, tapering, a little prominent, deciduous. Stigma simple. Nut ovate, bony, compressed, angular, without wings, of 2 cells. Kernels solitary, ovate, acute.-Trees, with leaves alternate, stalked, simple, wavy or cut, deciduous, with twin deciduous stipules. Catkins terminal, panicled, pendulous, earlier than the foliage. (Eng. Fl., iv. p. 134.) Natives of Europe and North America. BE'TULA Tourn. Barren flowers. Catkin cylindrical, lax, imbricated all round with ternate concave scales; the middle one largest, ovate. rolla none. Filaments 10-12, shorter than the middle scale, to which they are attached. Anthers roundish, 2-lobed.-Fertile flowers. Catkin similar, but more dense; scales horizontal, peltate, dilated outwards, 3lobed, 3-flowered. Corolla none. Germen compressed, bordered, of 2 cells. Styles 2, awl-shaped, downy. Stigma simple. Nut oblong, deciduous, winged at each side, of one cell, with a solitary kernel.-Trees or shrubs, very hardy, with round slender branches; scattered, stalked, simple, serrated, deciduous leaves; and a hard, often veiny, wood. Bark, in several species, of many fine, soft, membranous layers. (Eng. Fl., iv. p. 153.) Natives of Europe, North America, and Asia.


The alder and the birch were made separate genera by Tournefort, and by Linnæus also, in his earlier works; but he afterwards united both genera into one, under the name of Bétulus. Modern botanists, for the most part, follow Tournefort; and the following are the distinctive characteristics of his two genera:-In Bétula, the female catkins are cylindrical, solitary, on simple peduncles, and bear their seeds furnished with a membrane on each side. In Alnus, the female catkins are oval; and they are borne on a branchy peduncle, containing seeds which are not bordered with membranes. As secondary characteristics, the birches prefer dry places, and the alders moist situations. All the known species of alder may be reduced to three or four; and all the species of birch which are hardy in England to four or five. Most of the species of both genera flower and fruit freely in the climate of London.


A'LNUS Tourn. THE ALDER. Lin. Syst. Monc'cia Tetrándria. Identification. Tourn., t. 359.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 334.; Hall. Hist., 2. p. 300.; Comp., ed. 4., p. 176.; Gærtn., t. 90.

Synonymes. Bétulæ species Lin.; Aune, Fr.; Erle, Ger.; Ontano, Ital.; Aliso, Span. Derivation. From al, near, and lan, the edge of a river, Celtic; in reference to its habitat: from the Hebrew, alon, an oak: or, according to others, from alitur amne, it thrives by the


Description, &c. Trees, rarely exceeding the middle size; and some so low as to be considered shrubs. With the exception of A. glutinòsa laciniàta and A. cordifòlia, the species are not very ornamental; nor is the timber of great value, except for the charcoal which may be made from it. All the species prefer a moist soil, or one in the vicinity of water. A. glutinosa ripens seeds freely, as do most of the other sorts; but all the latter are generally propagated by layers. The only truly distinct species appear to us to be, A. glutinosa, A. cordifolia, A. incàna, A. oblongata, and A. víridis; which last seems an intermediate species, or connecting link, between Alnus and Bétula.

1. A. GLUTINO'SA Gartn. The glutinous, or common, Alder. Identification. Gærtn., 2. p. 54.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4 p. 334.; Comp., ed. 4, p. 155.; Hook. Lond., t. 59., Scot., 271.; Hoss. Anleit., 186.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.

Synonymes. Bétulus A'lnus Lin. Sp. Pl., 1894. a, Fl. Br., 1013., Eng. Bot., 21. t. 1508.; B. emar. ginata Ehrh. Arb., 9.; Alnus Raii Syn., 442.; Aune, Fr.; gemeine Else, or Elser, or schwartz Erle, Ger.; Elsenboom, Dutch; Alno, or Ontano, Ital.; Aliso, or Alamo nigro, Span. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1508.; Hunt. Evel. Syl., 240. f.; Ger. Emac., 1477. f.; Lob. Ic., 2. 191. f.; Loes. Pruss., t. 1.; Dalech. Hist., 97. f.; our fig. 1540.; and the plate of this species in our last


Spec. Char., &c. Leaves roundish, wedge-shaped, wavy, serrated, glutinous, rather abrupt; downy at the branching of the veins beneath. (Eng. Fl., iv. p. 131.) A tree, from 30 ft. to 60 ft. high; a native of Europe, from Lapland to Gibraltar; and of Asia, from the White Sea to Mount Caucasus; and, also, of the north of Africa; flowering, in Britain, in March and April. Varieties.

A. g. 2 emarginata Willd. Baum., p. 19.,
has the leaves nearly round, wedge-
shaped, and edged with light green.
A. g. 3 laciniata Ait. Willd., 1. c., Lodd.
Cat., ed. 1836; A. g. incisa Hort.; our
fig.1538., and the plate of a fine tree at
Syon, in our last volume; has the leaves
oblong and pinnatifid, with the lobes
acute. Wild in the north of France,
particularly in Normandy, and in the
woods of Montmorency, near Paris.
(N. Du Ham.) Thouin, in the year
1819, in the Nouveau Cours d'Agricul-
ture, states that the cut-leaved alder was
first found by Trochereau de la Berlière,
and planted by him in his garden near


St. Germain, where the stool still remains from which all the nurseries of Paris have been supplied with plants, and, probably, all Europe. A. g. 4 quercifolia Willd., 1. c., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.-Leaves sinuated, with the lobes obtuse.

A. g. 5 oxyacanthafolia; A. oxyacanthæfòlia Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; and our fig. 1539.-Leaves sinuated and lobed; smaller than those of the preceding variety, and somewhat resembling those of the common hawthorn.

A. g. 6 macrocárpa; A. macrocarpa Lodd. Cat., 1836; has the leaves and fruit rather larger than those of the species, and is also of more vigorous growth.

I A. g. 7 folis variegatis Hort. has the leaves variegated.

Other Varieties. There are some other names applied to plants in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges, which, we think, can only be considered as varieties of A. glutinòsa; or, perhaps, of A. incàna; but the plants are so small, that we are unable to determine whether they are sufficiently distinct to be worth recording. Among these names are, A. nigra, A, rubra, A. plicata, and A. undulata. A. rùbra is said to be a native of the Island of Sitcha. (Annal. des Scien. Nat., 3. p. 237.) Some of the sorts treated as

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