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minal branches of trees are liable to be injured by severe frost; but in the climate of London this chiefly applies to plants in the nurseries. The Caro. lina poplar roots from cuttings with some difficulty; and, therefore, in British nurseries, it is commonly propagated by layers. In ornamental plantations, it ought always, as Miller advises, to be planted in situations where it will be sheltered by other trees; and, where it is wished to attain its full size, it ought always to be planted in good soil, and near water. In North America, where it grows in the swamps of Carolina, it is accompanied by the Taxòdium distichum, Nýssa biflora, A'cer rubrum, Càrya aquática, Quércus lyrata, Pópulus canadensis, and P. heterophylla.
Statistics. Populus angulata in Britain. At Syon, it is 83 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 3ft., and of the head 61 ft. : see the plate of this tree in our last Volume. At Ham House, Essex, it is 70 ft. high, diameter of the trunk 4 ft., and of the head 45 ft. In Durham, at Southend, 15 years planted, it is 65 ft. high. In Suffolk, at Ampton Hall, 57 years planted, it is 64 ft. high; the diameter of the trunk 2 nt. 3 in., and of the head 95 ft. In Yorkshire, at Grimston, 19 years planted, it is 50 ft. high. In the Experimental Garden, Inverleith, 9 years planted, it is 15 ft. high.
Populus angulata in Foreign Countries. In France, at Nantes, in the nursery of M. De Nerrières, 60 years old, it is 80 ft. high, with a trunk 11 ft. in diameter ; in the Botanic Garden at Avranches, 24 years planted, it is 58 ft. high; the diameter of the trunk 11 ft, and of the head 30 ft. In Austria, at Vienna, in the University Botanic Garden, 8 years planted, it is 24 ft. high; at Brück on the Leytha, 70 years old, it is 80 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 48 ft. In Bavaria, at Munich, in the English Garden, 16 years old, it is 15 ft. high.
Commercial Statistics. nts, in the London nurseries, are Is. 6d. each ; at Bollwyller, 1 franc and 50 cents ; at New York, 20 cents.
1 13. P. HETEROPHY'LLA L. The various-shaped-leaved Poplar Tree. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1464.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 1., 3. p. 407., ed. 2., 5. p. 397. ; Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 2. p. 244. ; Willd. Árb., 233., Sp. Pl., 4. p. 806. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 619. ;
Spreng. Syst. Veg., 2. p. 244.
racter of the species in the Fl. Bor. Amer,; and they will be found translated in our specific
Spec. Char., &c. Shoot round, tomentose. Leaf, while young, tomen-
1531 plants of it higher than 5 ft. or 6 ft. ; though a specimen tree in the Mile End Nursery, and another at Syon, must have been planted more than 50 or 60 years; and though it is said by Bosc to be a lofty tree in the neighbourhood of Paris. It is a very remarkable species, from the particular character of its leaves, which, though as large as, or larger than those of P. angulàta, and something resembling them in outline and in position on the branches, yet have nearly cylindrical footstalks, and their disks hanging down on each side from the midrib in a flaccid manner, not observable in any other species of the genus. According to Michaux,
the trunks of trees of this kind, in North America, are covered with a very thick and deeply furrowed bark. The young branches and the annual shoots are round, instead of being angular, like those of P. angulàta, P. canadensis, and P. monilífera. The leaves, while very young, are covered with a thick white down, which gradually disappears with age, till the leaves at last become perfectly smooth above, and slightly downy beneath. They are borne on long petioles; the disks are often 6 in. in length, and as much in breadth ; of a thick nature, denticulated and heart-shaped, with the lobes of the base lapped, so as to conceal the junction of the petiole. The catkins are drooping, and about 3 in. long, which is about half the length of those of P. angulàta.“ The wood,” Michaux adds, “is soft and light, with the heart yellowish, and inclining to red; and the young branches are filled with a pith of the same colour. The tree is said to flourish in France, where, as in America, its wood is held in little esteem. Both in French and British nurseries, it is propagated only by inarching and by layers. It well deserves culture as an ornamental tree, in rich moist soil, in a sheltered situation, where its large leaves will not be in danger of being torn by the wind. The male catkins are produced in great abundance; and, being very thick, though not very long, they make a fine appearance, from their rich brownish red and yellow colour. Plants, in the London nurseries, are 2s. 6d. each; at Bollwyller, 2 francs ; and at New York, 20 cents. 1 14. P. BALSAMI'FERA L. The balsam-bearing Poplar, or Tacamahac
Tree, Identification. Lin. Syst. Vég., 45., Mat. Med., 215.; Pall. FI. Ross., 1. p. 67. t. 41. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed.
2., 5. p. 397.; Willd. Arb., 230., Sp. Pl., 4. p. 805. ; Michx. Arb., 3. ; North Amer. Sylva, 2. p. 237. 1. 98. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 618. Synonyines. P. Tacamahaca Mill. Dict., No. 6.; the Tacamabac, Amer.; le Baumier, Pr.; Peuplier liard, and also Tacamahac, in Canada'; Balsam Pappel, Ger. The Seres. Plants of the male are in English gardens. The female is figured in Pallas's Flora Ros. sica, I. t. 41. One or two flowers, clearly bisexual, have been found in a catkin of otherwise male flowers, borne by a tree in the Botanic Garden at Bury St. Edmunds, previously to 1850, which bore, at the same time, other catkins of male flowers. Miller mentions that a tree in the Chelsea
Botanic Garden also produced both male and female flowers. Engravings. Michx. Arb., 3. t. 13. f. 1.; North Amer. Sylva, 2. t. 98. f. 1. ; Du Ham. Arb., ed. nov., 2. t. 50.; Pall. Fl. Ross., I. t. 41. ; Wangh. Amer., t. 28. f. 59. ; Trew Ehret., t. 46. ; Catesb. Car., 1. t. 34. ; Gmel. Sib., 1. t. 33. ; Pluk. Alm., t. 281. f. 1. ; our fig. 1535. of the male plant; fig. 1536. of the female ; and the plate of this tree in our last Volume. Spec. Char., &c. Shoot round. Bud very gummy. Petiole round. Disk of leaf ovate-acuminate, or ovate-lanceolate, serrated with adpressed teeth; deep green on the upper surface, whitish on the under one, and tomentose there, but rather inconspicuously.so, and netted with glabrous veins. Stipules subspinescent, bearing gum. Stamens 16, or more. (Willd., Michx. jun., and obs.) A tree, a native of North America, and in Dahuria and Altai. It was cultivated in England as early as 1692, in the Royal Gardens at Hampton Court. (Ait. Hort. Kew.) It flowers in March, in North America (Pursh); in April, in England (Ait. Hort. Kew.); and the female, in Dahuria, in May. (Pallas.) In the climate of London, according to Miller, the male flowers come out in long catkins in April and May, and fall off soon after: their stamens are numerous, irregular in height, and crowned with bearded anthers of a purple colour. The hermaphrodite flowers are produced at the end of the shoots, upon long slender peduncles, in very loose catkins, having a leafy involucre under each, which is oval and entire; and from the bosom of that arises the peduncle, which is very short. Upon the top is placed the petal, or calyx (or nectary, according to Linnæus), shaped like a wide cup, having a style in the centre, and two stamens on one side, terminated by pyramidal purple anthers. The female flowers are succeeded by oval capsules, terminating in a point, and en
closing downy seeds. (Mart. Mill.) Varieties, * P. 6. 2 viminàlis ; P. viminalis Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; P. salicifolia Hort. ;
P. longifolia Fischer, Pall. Ross., t. 41. B; is a native of Altai, with slender twiggy branches, and leaves nearly lanceolate. There are
plants in Messrs. Loddiges's arboretum. 1 P.b. 3 latif olia Hort. has the leaves rather broader than those of the
species. There is a tree of this kind, in the London Horticultural
Society's Garden, 12 ft. high. * P.b. 4 intermèdia Hort., Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 41. A, is a native of Dahuria,
with stout, short, thick branches, knotted with wrinkles; and ovate, long, and rather narrow leaves; and generally attaining only the height
of a large shrub. There is a plant, in the London Horticultural Society's Garden, 10 ft. high, by which it appears to be quite
distinct from P. b. viminalis. * P.6.5 suaveolens ; P. suaveolens Fischer, and Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. The
new sweet-scented poplar of the nurseries. - The plant in Messrs.
108. per hundred.
gated leaves. There is a tree of this
1535 ciety's Garden. Description. The balsam poplar, in North America, according to Michaux, attains the height of 80 ft., with a trunk 3 ft. in diameter, and roots spreading close under the surface, and throwing up numerous suckers. In Siberia, according to Pallas, it is only a middle-sized tree; and in Dahuria and Altai, a low tree, or large shrub. According to Franklin, in the northern parts of North America, the trunk of the balsam poplar attains a greater circumference than that of any other tree. The head of the tree, in North America, is conical; but in Russia it is roundish. The trunk is covered with an ashcoloured bark; and the wood, in Siberia, is said to be reddish, being closer and a little harder than that of other poplars. In the moist plains of Dahuria, the tree is shrubby, because, according to Pallas, the grass is annually fired there; and the young shoots of all the trees being thus
1536 injured, they are seldom found rising with a clear stem. In the spring, the balsam poplar is known from all other species by the fine tender yellow of its leaves when they are first developed ; the abundance of the yellow glutinous balsam with which the buds are covered, the very strong odour which this balsam diffuses throughout the surrounding atmosphere, and the comparatively rigid and fastigiate habit of growth of the tree, which approaches, in the latter respect, nearer to P. fastigiàta than any other species. When mature, the leaves become of a deep green colour above, and of a rusty silvery white beneath. This is one of the hardiest of poplars, though not of rapid growth ; except the first three or four years in the nursery. Bosc observes that botanists often confound this species with P. cándicans ; but that cultivators never do so, from the very different manner of its growth, and from
the greater difficulty that is found in propagating it. The tree is wild in Lower Canada, more particularly between Quebec and Hudson's Bay; and in various places between lat. 47° and 49°. It is not very common about Montreal; and is rare on the shores of Lake Champlain. În Franklin's First Journey, it is stated, that it is found as far north as the Great Slave Lake; and that Mackenzie River has been named Rivière aux Liards, from the abundance of the tree in that quarter. It also constituted, Captain Franklin observes, “ the
greatest part of the drift timber that we observed on the shores of the Arctic Sea. Its Cree name is Matheh-metoos, which means the ugly poplar.” (First Journey, &c., p. 753.) The balsam poplar was first brought from Canada to the Island of Jersey, and propagated there. Six of these plants were sent to Caroline, consort to George il., in the year 1731, under the name of arbre de la reine One of these was given by the queen to Sir Hans Sloane; and, being planted in the Botanic Garden at Chelsea, it soon produced male catkins; but no female or hermaphrodite ones, till about the year 1760. This poplar was introduced into Scotland, according to Dr. Walker, in 1768, having been raised in a nursery-ground at Leith, in that year, from seeds sent from Canada. The wood of the tree is white and soft, and not used in the arts by the Canadians, according to Michaux; but Franklin observes that, though it burns badly, and gives little heat, when green, its ashes yield a large quantity of potash. The balsam from the buds used formerly to be sent from Canada, and other parts of North America, in shells, under the name of baume focot; having been collected from the trees in spring, when, in consequence of the heat, it is dissolved, and collects into drops on the points of the buds. It is of a smooth and even texture, and is soluble in spirits of wine. In Siberia, a medicated wine is prepared from the buds, which is diuretic, and considered serviceable in the scurvy. Pallas states that the grouse, and other birds of that family, that feed on the buds of this poplar during winter, have their flesh imbued with a grateful balsamic flavour. In Europe, the only application of this tree is to ornamental purposes ; and though, when it grows old and scrubby, it may merit the Cree name of “ugly poplar,” yet, when young, few trees can be compared with it in the beginning of summer, either for the light rich yellow green of its foliage, or the fine balsamic odour which proceeds from both the leaves and the buds. In scenery of limited extent, and when the round-headed trees and buildings are comparatively small, or of medium size, the balsam poplar may be used for the same purposes as the Lombardy poplar. (See p. 1663.) The balsam poplar is readily propagated by suckers, which it sends up in abundance; or by cuttings, which, however, do not strike so readily as those of the other poplars. It will grow in any soil, but it prefers one moist and rich, and a sheltered situation.
Statistics. Recorded Trecs. Near Edinburgh, in the pleasure-grounds of Craig Lockhart, a tree, planted in 1771, was, in 1798, 50 ft. high, and had a trunk 4 ft in circumference at 4 ft. from the ground. It was at that time considered the oldest and finest balsam poplar in Scotland. (Walker's Essays.)
Existing Trees. In England, in Bedfordshire, at South Hill, it is 50 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 11 in., and of the head 26 ft. ; in Hertfordshire, at Cheshunt, 6 years planted, it is 23 it. high : in Monmouthshire, at Tredegar Park, 50 years old, it is 45 ft. high; at Dowlais House, 15 years old, it is 20 ft. high: in Pembrokeshire, at Stackpole Court, 7 years planted, it is 20 ft. high ; in Stafford shire, at Alton Towers, 4 years planted, it is 16 ft. high; in Yorkshire, at Hackress, 16 years planted, it is 14 ft. high. In Scotland, in the Experimental Garden, Inverleith, 9 years planted, it is 12 ft. high; in Banffshire, at Gordon Castle, it is 56 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 3 in. ; in Clackmannanshire, in the Garden of the Dollar Institution, it is 28 ft. high, diameter of the trunk / ft., and of the head 10 ft.; in Fifeshire, at Danibristle Park, 16 years planted, it is 40 ft. high ; in Forfarshire, at Courtachy Castle, 18 years planted, it is 45 ft. high, diameter of the
trunk 2 ii., and of the head 71; in Perthshire, in Messrs. Dickson and Turubull's Nursery, Perth, 26 years planted, it is 48 ft. high. In Ireland, in Galway, at Coole, it is 36.ft. high, the diameter of the trunk ift. In the Isle of Jersey, in Saunders's Nursery, 10 years planted, it is 14 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 7 in., and of the head 12 ft. In Bavaria, at Munich, in the English Garden, 25 years old, it is 20 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 9 in., and of the head 8 ft.
Commercial Statistics. Plants, in the London nurseries, 4 ft. high, are 8s. per hundred ; and of the new sweet-scented variety, 10s. per hundred. At Bollwyller, plants are 1 franc each; and at New York, 20 cents each,
* 15. P. CA'NDICANS Ait. The whitish-leaved balsam-bearing, or Ontario,
Poplar. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 1., 3. p. 406., ed. 2., 5. p. $97. ; Willd. Arb., 231., Sp. Pl., 806. ; Michx. Arb.; North Amer. Sylva, 2. p. 239. t. 98. f. 2. Pursh Fí. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 618. ; Spreng.
Syst. Veg., 2. p. 244. Synonymes. P. macrophylla Lindl. in Encyc. of Plants, p. 840., and Lodd. Cat., 1836; P. latifolia Manch Meth., p. 338.; P. ontariensis Desf. Hort. Par., and Lodd. Cat., 1836; P. cordata Lodd. Cat., 1836; P. canadensis Manch Weissenst., 81., but not of Michx, which is P. lævigàta Willd.; Balm of Gilead Tree, BostonNorth Amer. ; Peuplier liard, Canada ; Peuplier à Feuilles vernissées, Fr. The Sexes. The male is in the London Horticultural Society's Garden; the female is in the Duke
of Wellington's garden at Apsley ouse, London. Engravings. Catesb. Car., 1. t. 34. ; Michx. Arb. ; Michx. North Amer. Sylva, 2. t. 98. f. 2.; and our
fig. 1537. Spec. Char., fc. Shoot round. Bud very gummy. Stipules gummy. Pe
tiole compressed in its upper. part, hairy in many instances. Disk of leaf heart-shaped at the base, ovate, acuminate; serrated with blunt, unequal teeth ; 3-nerved ; deep green on the upper surface, whitish on the under one, on which the veins appear reticulate. Inflorescence similar to that of P. balsamífera (Michæ. jun, Pursh, Spreng., and obs.) The disk of the leaf is thrice as large as that of P. balsamífera. (Michx. jun.) A tree, attaining the height of 40 ft. or 50 ft., with a trunk 18 in. or 20 in. in diameter, in the states of Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire; flowering, with the balsam poplar, in March. It was introduced into England in 1772, and is frequent in gardens.
Description, &c. The Ontario poplar bears a close general resemblance to the balsam poplar: it has the rigid fastigiate habit of that tree, its fine fragrance, and its property of throwing up numerous suckers; but it differs from it, in having very large heart-shaped leaves, and in attaining a larger size, both in its native country, and in British gardens. The buds are covered with the same balsanic substance as those of P. balsamífera ; and the leaves are of the same fine yellow colour in spring, and, like those of the balsam poplar, preserve, at all stages of their growth, the same shape. The foliage, when mature, is tufted, and of a dark green; the disposition of the branches is somewhat rigid and irregular; which last circumstance prevents the foliage from massing well together, and gives
1537 the tree rather an inelegant appearance. The trunk is covered with a smooth greenish bark, which becomes darker with age; the wood is soft; and, like that of the balsam poplar, is chiefly valuable for producing potash. Michaux never found the tree in forests in America, nor was he able to discover where it was indigenous; but he found it growing commonly before houses, both in the towns and country. Pursh mentions New England as the place where he had seen it in a living state. In British gardens, it has very frequently been confounded with the balsam poplar; and the same thing, Bosc informs us, often happens in France. Bosc strongly recommends this tree for its shade, and the fragrance with which it perfumes the air in spring. It is readily propagated by cuttings or suckers, but will not attain a large size unless on rich soil near water; though, as the roots creep along the surface, the soil need not be deep.
Statistics. In England, in Buckinghamshire, at Temple House, 40 years planted, it is 70 ft. high ; the diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 30 ft. ; in Durham, at Southend, 7 years planted, it is 20 ft. high ; in Hertfordshire, at Cheshunt, 18 years planted, it is 45 il, high ; in Nottinghamshire, at Clumber Park, 10 years planted, it is 48 ft. high ; in Warwickshire, at Whitley Abbey, 7 years planted, it is 24 ft. high. In Scotland, near Edinburgh, at the Experimental Garden, Inverleith, 9 years planted, it is 23 ft. high į in Fifeshire, at Danibristle Park, 9 years planted, it is 23 A. high'; in Stirlingshire, at Callender Park, 16 years planted, it is 70 ft. high In Ireland, at Dublin, in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, 30 years planted, it is 30 ft. high. In Germany, at Vienna, in the garden of Baron Loudon, 30 years old, it is 24 ft. high. Price of plants as in P. balsamffera.