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native of Lapland; flowering there in July, and, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in April, and again in July. Introduced in 1820. The branches and leaves of this species are more tender during the spring than those of S. herbàcea; the stem is almost filiform. Leaves broadly ovate, or somewhat roundish, ovate, or obovate; hardly ever so narrow as to be called oblong; and shining on both sides. Mr. Forbes says this plant bears a strong affinity to S. herbàcea; but that the silky germens and glaucous leaves clearly show it to be distinct. There are plants at Henfield.


Group xxiii. Hastata Borrer.


Low Shrubs, with very broad Leaves, and exceedingly shaggy and silky Catkins. (Hook Br. Fl.)

163. S. HASTA TA L. The halberd-leaved Willow.

Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1443.; Fl. Lapp., ed. 2., 293.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 664.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 22.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 35.

Synonyme. S. hastata Koch, part of, and, if the kinds indicated below as varieties be admitted as such, all of Koch's S. hastata, except S. Wulfeniàna Willd., Koch Comm., p. 42.

The Sexes. The female is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Smith has noted in Rees's Cyclo that he had not seen male flowers.

Engravings. Lin. Fl. Lapp., ed. 2. t. 8. f. 9.; Sal. Wob., No. 35.; our fig. 1352.; and fig. 35. in p. 1611. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate, acute, serrated, undulated, crackling, glabrous; heart-shaped at the base, glaucous beneath. Stipules unequally heartshaped, longer than the broad footstalks. Catkins very woolly. Ovary lanceolate, glabrous, on a short stalk. (Smith in Rees's Cyclo.) A native of the mountains of Lapland. It is said that Messrs. Lee and Kennedy first brought it into this country, in about 1780. It rises to a small spreading tree, and flowers in April or May. Branches blackish, hairy when very young only. Leaves 3 in. long, and about half as wide. (Id.) It generally attains the height of 4 ft. to 5 ft. (Forbes.) Koch, viewing the species as comprising the varieties indicated below and S. Wulfeniana Willd., has given the geographical distribution of it as follows:- Moist places, and by rivers in the alpine and subalpine regions of Savoy, Switzerland, Germany, and Carpathia, Sweden, and Britain. Its most certain British station seems that discovered by Mr. F. Drummond, "by a small stream that passes through the sands of Barrie, near Dundee." (Bor.) In the north of Sweden, it inhabits the bogs of the lower regions and plains. S. malifòlia Smith, indicated below as a variety of S. hastàta, is the kind of the latter that is indigenous to Britain. Koch, according to his view of the contents of S. hastàta as a species, has ascribed to it a variousness in the form of the leaf of from lanceolate to ovate, with a heart-shaped base.



S. h. 2 serrulata. Leaves broadly ovate, heart-shaped at the base; synon. S. hastàta Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 664. But Wahlenberg has accurately remarked that the description relates to a shoot devoid of flowers: the same kind, in a flower-bearing state, is the S. serrulàta Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 664. (Koch Comm., p. 43.) This variety of Koch's we consider as blended in our first, or typical, kind. Willdenow has given Lapland as the native country of both his S. hastàta

and S. serrulàta: the latter is registered as introduced into Britain in 1810.

S. h. 3 malifolia; S. malifolia Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1617., Willd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 676., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 36.; S. hastàta, part of, Koch Comm., p. 43.; S. hastàta Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.; S. hastàta Borrer in a letter.- The female is figured in Sal. Wob. and in Eng. Bot., where Smith notes that he had not seen the catkins of the male. For a leaf, see our fig. 36. in p. 1611. Leaves elliptic oblong, toothed, wavy, thin and crackling, very glabrous. Stipules heart-shaped, about equal to the footstalks. Bracteas obovate, bearded. Ovary lanceolate, glabrous, on a short glabrous stalk. (Smith Eng. Fl.) According to Koch, the leaves are obovate-oblong, serrated with crowded and deepish teeth. (Comm., p. 43.) Sir J. E. Smith, who considered this sort as a distinct species, described it as having an aspect "altogether singular among our British willows, resembling some sort of apple tree rather than a willow." The stem is from 3 ft. or 4 ft. to 6 ft. high, crooked, with numerous irregular, spreading, crooked, or wavy branches, most leafy about the ends; their bark blackish; the young ones hairy. There are plants of S. hastàta and S. h. malifòlia at Woburn and Flitwick.


?S. h. 4 arbúscula ; S. arbúscula Wahl. Fl. Dan., t. 1055.,
Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 138., where there is a figure
and description of the female plant (see our fig. 1353.,
also fig. 138. in p. 1630.); S. arbúscula ß Lin. Fl. Suec.,
p. 348.; S. arbúscula y Lin. Sp. Pl., p. 1545., Fl. Lapp.,
t.8. f.m.- Leaves lanceolate, serrated with distant,
small, and appressed teeth, or almost entire. Accord-
ing to Forbes, the leaves are elliptic-lanceolate, sharply
serrated; glabrous above, glaucous and slightly silky beneath; the
lower leaves densely silky. Catkins about in. long. Ovary ovate,
downy, sessile. Style longer than the linear divided stigmas. The
old leaves appear to be nearly glabrous, and to correspond with the
figure of S. arbúscula in Flor. Lapp., pl. 8. fig. m. (Sal. Wob., p. 275.)
Brought from Switzerland, by Lord G. W. Russell, in ? 1824; and
flowering, in the Woburn salictum, in May. A very pretty little
shrub, not above 1 ft. high. (Ibid.)

164. S. LANATA L. The woolly-leaved Willow.

Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1446.; Fl. Lapp., ed. 2.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 688.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 88. ; Smith Eng. FL, 4. p. 205.; Hook. in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2624.; Wahlenb. Lapp., 259.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2.

Synonymes. S. lanata, the kind No. 2., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 71.; S. lanàta Koch, at least part of Koch Comm., p. 53. ; ? S. càprea Fl. Dan., t. 245. The style is represented as bifid, and the stigmas as bipartite. (Hooker in E. B.) ?S. chrysanthos Fl. Dan., t. 1057., Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 71., the kind No. 1. In Fl. Dan., t. 1057., two styles to a flower are represented, though the plate, in other respects, very faithfully represents my Lapland specimen of S. lanata, sent me by Dr. Wickström. (Hooker in Eng. Bot.) The S. chrysanthos Fl. Dan. and the Scottish S. lanata appear to me widely different in foliage, the Scottish kind having its leaf much more orbicular, and generally heart-shaped at the base. (Forbes in Sal. Wob.) Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 704., Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 127.

The Sexes. Both sexes are described and figured in Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2624.: both sexes of S. chrysanthos Fl. Dan. are figured in Sal. Wob.

Engravings. Lin. Fl. Lapp., ed. 2., t. 8. f. x., t. 7. f. 7.; Wahl. Lapp., t. 16. f. 1.; Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2624.; Sal. Wob., No. 71., the kind No. 2., a leaf; Fl. Dan., t. 245, ? 1057.; our fig. 1354.; and fig. 71. No. 2. in p. 1617.

Spec. Char., &c. Leaves roundish ovate, pointed, entire; shaggy on both surfaces; glaucous on the under one. Ovary sessile, oblong, glabrous. Styles four times as long as the blunt divided stigmas. (Smith Eng. Fl.) Catkins clothed with long, yellow, silky hairs. Ovary nearly sessile, lanceolate, longer than the style. Stigmas undivided. (Hooker in Eng. Bot. Suppl.) Capsule upon a stalk that is longer than the gland. Stigmas entire. (Koch Comm., p. 53.) Stamens 3 to a flower; in some instances 2; the filaments, in not a few instances, combined to a greater or less extent. (Hooker in E. B. S.) A native of Lapland, the Faro Isles, and Sweden; and,

perhaps, other parts of the north of Europe, besides Scot-
land, in which country it has been found in two localities;
one, Glen Callater, where it was found by Mr. G. Don,
who was the first to discover the species in Scotland; the
other, the Clova Mountains, where Mr. T. Drummond
discovered it on rocks, in sparing quantity. It flowers in
May. The figures in Eng. Bot. Suppl., dated February,
1830, had been partly prepared from a plant cultivated
in the Chelsea Physic Garden, that had been originally
brought from the Clova Mountains. The following traits g
are derived from Smith's detailed description in Eng. Fl.:



"Stem 3 ft. or 4 ft. high, with numerous thick distorted branches, downy when young. Leaves broader than those of any other British willow except S. càprea, on shortish stout footstalks; elliptic or roundish, with a short oblique point; entire, though somewhat wavy; from 1 in. to 2 in. long; occasionally heart-shaped at the base; sometimes more obovate, inclining to lanceolate, and the earlier ones much smaller: all of hoary or grey aspect, being covered, more or less completely, with long, soft, silky, shaggy hairs, especially the upper surface; the under one is more glaucous, beautifully reticulated with veins. Catkins terminal, large, and very handsome, bright yellow: those of the female proceed from lateral buds." Dr. Wahlenberg considers this species as "the most beautiful willow in Sweden, if not in the whole world." The splendid golden catkins at the ends of the young shoots light up, as it were, the whole bush, and are accompanied by the young foliage, sparkling with gold and silver. It yields, also, more honey than any other salix. Grafted standard high, it would make a delightful little spring-flowering tree for suburban gardens. There are plants at Henfield, and in the Goldworth Arboretum. Varieties, according to Koch, in Koch Comm., p. 53.

S.l. 2 glabrescens; S. chrysánthos Vahl Fl. Dan., vi. t. 1057. (Koch
Comm., p. 53.)-Leaves glabrous in a great degree.

S. l. 3 glandulosa Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp., t. 16. f. 1. (Koch Comm.)-Leaves sublanceolate, glabrous in a great degree, toothed with glanded teeth. ?S.1.4 depolita Koch; S. depréssa Lin. Fl. Suec., No. 899., Fl. Lapp., No.361. t. 8. fig. n., Wahlenb. Fl. Lapp. (Koch Comm.), Lin. Fl. Suec., ed. 2., 352., Fl. Lapp., ed. 2., 297. t. 8. f. n. (Smith in Rees's Cyclo.)

If S. chrysanthos Fl. Dan. be admitted as a variety of S. lanàta L., the question as to its synonymes stated above may be deemed unnecessary.

Group xxiv. Miscellanea A.

Kinds of Salix described in Sal. Wob., and not included in any of the preceding


165. S. ÆGYPTIACA L. The Egyptian Willow.

Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 1444.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 686., excluding the references to Pallas and Gmelin; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 82.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 146.

Synonymes. Calaf and Ban, Alpin. Egypt., 61. t. 62.

The Sexes. The male is mentioned in the description in Rees's Cyclo.

Engravings. Alpin. Egypt., t. 62.; Sal. Wob., No. 146. ; and fig. 146. in p. 1630.

Spec. Char., &c. Leaves somewhat toothed, elliptic, oblong, veiny; rather glabrous above, glaucous and more or less hairy beneath. Stipules half-heart-shaped. Branches glabrous, and angular and furrowed. Catkins sessile, very hairy. Alpinus describes this species as a small tree. The leaves are on rather short footstalks, broad at the base, without glands, usually 3 in. or 4 in. long, and nearly 2 in. broad; acute, rather distantly toothed; glaucous and densely downy when young. (Rees's Cyclo., art. Salix, No. 82.) A native of Egypt, where a water is said to be procured from the catkins by distillation, which is considered antipestilential. (Ibid.)

??? 166. S. ALPINA ?Forbes. The alpine Willow. Identification. ? Forbes Sal. Wob., No. 149. Mr. Forbes has not quoted an authority for the name, though he has noted that he was indebted to Professor Don for a specimen.

Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 149.; and our fig. 149. in p. 1630.

Spec. Char., &c. Leaves obovate, elliptic, entire; margins slightly revolute, densely silky on the upper surface; glaucous, reticulated, hairy underneath. Branches slender, and very black when dried. (Sal. Wob., p. 279.) "Dr. Graham kindly sent me living cuttings of a willow with this name, alpina, from the Edinburgh Garden, in 1831; but I have not succeeded in cultivating it. I think it much resembled S. cordifolia Pursh, which I formerly had growing."

167. S. BERBERIFO`LIA Pall. The Berberry-leaved Willow.
Identification. Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. p. 2. 84. t. 82; Itin., 3., Append., 759. t. K. k. f.
7. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 683.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 68.; Forbes in Sal.
Wob., No. 140.

The Sexes. The male is figured in Sal. Wob.; the female is noticed in the Specific

Engravings. Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. p. 2. t. 82.; Itin. Append., t. K. k. f. 7.; Gmel.
Sib., 1. t. 35. f. 3.; Sal. Wob., No. 140.; our fig. 1355.; and fig. 140. in p. 1630.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves obovate, bluntish, with deep tooth-like serratures, glabrous,
shining, ribbed, and reticulated with veins on both sides. Capsules ovate, glabrous.
(Smith in Rees's Cyclo.) A native of Dauria, in rocky places on the loftiest moun-
tains; growing, along with Rhododendron chrysanthum, near the limits of per-
petual snow. The stems are branched and diffuse. Leaves with disks not much
above in. long, and so deeply toothed as to be almost pinnatifid; and very
happily compared to those of the berberry. (Smith.) A variety with elongated
leaves is found in Kamtschatka. Introduced in? 1824, and flowering in May.


168. S. TETRASPE'RMA Roxb. The four-seeded Willow. Identification. Roxb. Corom., 1. p. 66.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 657.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 9.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 31.

The Scres. Both sexes are figured in Rox.' Cor. and in Sal. Wob.

Engravings. Roxb. Corom., 1. t. 97.; Sal. Wob., No. 31.; and fig. 31. in p. 1609.

Spec. Char., &c. Leaf oblong-lanceolate, with the upper part acuminate; serrated, glabrous, glaucous beneath. Flowers blossoming after the protrusion of the leaves, Male flower having 6 stamens. Ovary ovate, stalked. Style short. Wild in mountainous places in India, by the banks of rivers. (Willd. Sp. Pl.) A native of India. Introduced in 1796, or soon afterwards. In its native country, it forms a middling-sized tree, with an erect trunk, but short, and as thick as a man's body, bearing a very large branching head, with twiggy branches. It had not flowered in the Woburn collection anteriorly to the date of the publication of that work in 1829.

£ 169. S. ULMIFO`LIA Forbes. The Elm-leaved Willow, or Sallow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 158.


The Sexes. The female is described in Sal. Wob., and in the Specific Character. Spec. Char., &c. Stem erect. Leaves ovate-elliptic, serrated; glaucous beneath, shining above a; little heart-shaped and unequal at the base, acute at the tip. Stipules large, half-heart-shaped, serrated and glandular towards the stem. Ovary nearly sessile, ovate lanceolate, glabrous. Style elongated, glabrous. Stigmas notched. Bracteas obovate, dark in their upper half, and fringed. (Sal. Wob., p. 286.) A native of Switzerland. Introduced in 1821, and flowering, in the Woburn salictum, in April, and again in August. An upright bushy tree, attaining the height of 18 ft. or Branches round, pubescent, of a dark brown colour, and marked with many small red spots towards autumn. The leaves from 2 in. to 24 in. long, and 13 in. in breadth, of an ovate-elliptic shape, sometimes hollowed out at the base; finely serrated; green and shining above, glaucous and besprinkled with minute hairs underneath. Footstalks above in. long, villous, like the midrib. Catkin slender, 1 in. long when at maturity. Three applications of the epithet ulmifolia, besides the above, have been made; namely, S. ulmifolia Thuill. Paris., 518., De Cand. Fl. Fr., 5. p. 340. (Koch Comm., p. 37.; Smith Eng. Fl.); S. ulmifolia Schl. (Steud. Nom. Bot.); and S. almifolia Hort. Berol. (Koch Comm., p. 42.) Koch has referred the first of these to S. caprea, and Smith to S. aurlta; the second is referred, in Steud. Nom. Bot., to S. nigricans Smith; the third, by Koch, to his S. phylicifolia. ? Is Mr. Forbes's distinct from all these. S. ulmifolia Thuill, is registered in Hort. Brit., No. 24006., as having been introduced from Switzerland in 1821.

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Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., p. 183.

The villous-leaved Willow.

The Sexes. The plant in the Woburn collection had not flowered in 1829.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., t. 92. ; and fig. 92. in p. 1619.

Spec. Char., &c. Leaves obovate-lanceolate, finely serrated towards the tip; rather slightly toothed and tapering towards the base; upper surface shining, and minutely covered with small hairs; beneath, glaucous, reticulated, and slightly hairy. (Sal. Wob., p. 183.) A small shrub, with slender, greenish yellow, villous branches, which are sometimes marked with yellow dots; growing here to the height of 2 ft. The leaves are from 1 in. to 13 in. long, obovate-lanceolate, tapering towards the base, minutely serrated at their tip, but generally finely toothed in the middle; often appearing as entire; their upper surface shining, besprinkled with very minute hairs; under glaucous, reticu lated, covered with small shining hairs. The whole substance of the leaves is very thin and tender. Mr. Forbes cannot unite this with the hitherto described species; the leaves and slender growth of the branches being very different from any other species of the genus. It appears rather impatient of cold; and, as it suffers during the winter, that may be one reason why it has not yet flowered. A S. villosa Schleicher is registered in Steudel's Nomenclator Botanicus; and such is likely to be indigenous to Schleicher's country of residence, Switzerland, whether the kind noticed above is identical with it, or not.

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Kinds of Salix introduced, and of many of which there are Plants at Messrs. Loddiges's, but which we have not been able to refer to any of the preceding Groups.

Several of the names in this group are Schleicher's, Koch's estimate of which we have already given in p. 1486. Many of the others are probably of kinds described as belonging to preceding groups; because, when the salictumn at Woburn was planted, the entire collection of Messrs. Loddiges, as it existed in 1827, was included. We have, however, given the names and descriptions below, that nothing might be wanting to render our article on Salix as complete as the nature of the recorded information on that genus will admit.

171. S. ALBE'SCENS Schl.

Identification. Schleicher Cat.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Synonyme. S. stylòsa z Dec.

The whitish-leaved Willow.

Description, &c. There are living plants in the Hackney arboretum, which appear to belong to Cinèreæ. It is mentioned in the Hortus Britannicus as a native of Switzerland, introduced in 1824.

172. S. ALNIFO`LIA Host. The Alder-leaved Willow.

Identification. Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.

Description, &c. This kind appears to belong to the group Cinèrea. There were living specimens in the Hackney arboretum, and in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, in 1836.

173. S. AMMANNIA NA Willd. Ammann's Willow.

Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., No. 16.; Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 21. ; ? Walt., on the authority of Steud.

Synonymes. S. Myrsinites Hoffm. Sal., 17, 18, 19, on the authority of Willd.; S. hastàta Hopp., not L

Engravings. Hoffm. Sal., t. 17, 18, 19.; Hayne Abbild., t. 116.

Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oblong-elliptic, acute, serrated, glabrous, glaucous beneath. Stipules ovate, permanent, toothed. Catkins about 1 in. long, with elliptic, obtuse, hairy scales; appearing before the leaves. (Smith, adapted.) A tree with brown branches, downy when young; a native of the Salzburg and Carinthian Alps. According to Hort. Brit., it was introduced from Austria in 1821.

174. S. ANGUSTATA Pursh. The taper-leaved American Willow.

Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., No. 21.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 27.

Spec. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate, acute, very long, gradually tapering at the base, finely serrated, quite glabrous, scarcely paler beneath. Stipules half-heart-shaped. Catkins erect, smoothish, appearing before the leaves. (Pursh.) A low tree, found in shady woods on the banks of rivers, in New York and Pennsylvania; flowering in March. It has very long leaves, and resembles S. prinöldes. (Ibid.) Introduced in 1811.

175. S. ANGUSTIFO`LIA Willd. The narrow-leaved Caspian Willow, Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 699.; Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 112. Synonyme. ?S. cáspica Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. p. 274.

Engraving. N. Du Ham., 3. t. 29.

Spec. Char., &c. Leaves linear, very narrow, without stipules, nearly entire, ovate at the base, hoary above, silky beneath. (Willd, and Smith.) A low shrub, a native of the country near the Caspian Sea. Branches brown. Pallas's plant is said to be glabrous, otherwise his description agrees with that given by Willdenow. (Ibid.) Introduced in 1825.

? 176. S. BETU`LINA Host. The Birch-like Willow.

Identification. Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.

Description, &c. This seems to belong to the group Cinèreæ. There are living plants in the Hackney arboretum, the leaves of which are too long and too narrow to bear much resemblance to those of any kind of Bétula; so that the name probably refers to some other part of the plant.

? 177. S. CANDI'DULA Host. The whitish Willow.

Identification. Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.

Description, &c. Leaves in form somewhat resembling those of an elm. Apparently belonging to the group Cinèreæ. There were living plants in the Hackney arboretum, and in the Botanic Garden at Cambridge, in 1836.

? 178. S. CANE'SCENS Lodd. The hoary Willow.

Identification. Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.

Spce. Char., &c. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, 2 in. or 3 in. long; glabrous and shining above, white and downy beneath; young leaves hoary on the upper side. Capsules ovate, sessile, downy. There are plants under this name in the Hackney arboretum, which appear to belong to the group Cinèreæ Borr., p. 1553.; and are totally different from S. canéscens Willd., No. 67. in p. 1545, which belongs to the group Glaúcæ Borr., p. 1543.

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