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side white, and more densely silky, partly cottony. (Smith.) There are

plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick. Variety. Mr. Forbes has noted that he was in possession of a variety corre

sponding with S. Lappònum in the catkins exactly, but differing from it in the branches and leaves ; and that he had received it from Mr. M‘Nab of Edinburgh. (Sal. Wob., No. 72.)

* 69. S. PYRENA'ICA Gouan. The Pyrenean Willow. Identification. Gouan Illustr., 77., exclusively of the synonymes; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 696. ; Smith

in Rees's Cyclo., No. 107. ; Koch Comm., p. 56. The Sexes. The female is described in the specific character. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic or ovate, acute, entire ; when young, tomentosely villous; when

adult, glabrous, ciliate, of the same colour on both surfaces, reticulately veined. Catkins peduncled ; the peduncle a leafy twiglet. Capsules ovate-lanceolate, tomentose, upon a short stalk, which is longer than the gland. Style bifid. Stigmas elongated, bifid. A native of the Pyrenees, contiguously to the region of snow. (Koch.) Introduced in 1823. Variety or Variation. ** S. p. 2 ciliàta ; S. ciliata Dec. Fl. Fr., 3. p. 293. ; S. pyrenaica ß ciliata Dec. Fl. Fr., 5.

p. 34. (Koch Comm.), differs from the species in having no bairs on the surface of the leaves, and only hairs remaining at the edges.

70. S. WALDSTEINIANA Willd. Waldstein's Willow. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 679. ; Koch Comm., p. 57. The Seres. The female is noticed in the specific character. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic or lænceolate, acute, glabrous, serrated with distant adpressed

teeth. Catkins upon a long leafy peduncle, which is a twiglet. Capsules ovate-conical, tomentose, sessile at first, eventually having a short stalk. Gland reaching higher than the base of the capsule. Style elongated, cleft half-way down. Stigmas bifid. Wild on the Alps of Carinthia, the Tyrol, and Salzburg. (Koch.) Introduced in 1822.

Group xv. Viminales Borrer. Willows and Osiers.--Mostly Trees, or large Shrubs, withlong pliant Branches,

used for Basket-making.

Stamens 2 to a flower. Ovary nearly sessile; in S. mollíssima Ehrh. sessile;

hairy or silky. Style elongated. Stigmas linear, mostly entire. Leaves lanceolate. Plants trees of more or less considerable size, with long pliant branches. (Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., adapted.)

. 71. S. SUBALPI'NA Forbes. The subalpine Willow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 93. The Seres. The male is described and figured in Sal. Wob. "The female plant I have not seen." (Forbes.) Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 93. ; and fig. 93. in p. 1619. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, nearly entire; villous above, white

and cottony beneath. Stipules not apparent. Catkins nearly lin. long. Bractea reddish. Anthers yellow. (Sal. Wob., p. 185.) A native of Switzerland. Introduced in 1820, and flowering in April and May. A low upright shrub, with round, yellowish, pubescent, slender branches, which soon turn black in drying, the old ones becoming glabrous and brown. Leaves from 2 in. to 24 in. in length; elliptic-lanceolate, bright green, wrinkled, and pubescent; beneath, somewhat glaucous, whitish, densely pubescent, reticulated with prominent arched veins, their margins slightly revolute; at first seeming entire, but, on minute investigation, appearing furnished with a few distant glandular serratures towards the apex. Barren catkins from } in. to l in. long. Anthers yellow. The twigs are brittle, and, though rather elongated, Mr. Forbes thinks them unfit for basketwork. Mr. Borrer remarks of this kind, that, perhaps, it is not of the group Viminales, in which he has placed it. According to a specimen of it which has been sent to us by Mr. Brooks of Flitwick House, it has rounded rather tumid buds, and the shoot is rather angled; and in these characters, and in those of its

No. 90.

leaves, it is dissimilar to S. viminàlis : its buds

and leaves seem rather to indicate affinity to kinds of the group Cinèreæ. There are plants at Henfield.

72. S. CA'NDIDA Willd. The whitish Willow. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 708. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 608. ; Smith in Rees's Cyclo.,

No. 138.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 91.
The Sexes.' The male is described and figured in Sal. W'ob.
Engravings. Sal. Wob., No. 91. ; our fig. 1326. ; and fig. 91. in p. 1619.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, very long,

1326 obscurely toothed ; downy above; beneath densely downy. Stipules lanceolate, nearly the length of the footstalks. (Willd. and Forbes.) A native of North America. Introduced in 1811, and flowering, in the willowgarden at Woburn Abbey, about the end of February or beginning of March. Leaves from 3 in. to 4 in. long; linear-lanceolate, narrow towards their extremities, obscurely toothed; margins slightly revolute; downy above, snow-white and cottony beneath ; with a prominent midrib, and obscurely prominent lateral veins, owing to the down. Catkin of the male 1 in. long, cylindrical. A very handsome species, well deserving a place in shrubberies, both for its ornamental white leaves, and very early flowers. There are plants at

Woburn and Henfield. Varieties. Mr Forbes mentions two varieties, one of which flowers full three

weeks earlier than the other, and has the anthers of a less deep scarlet. (Sal. Wob.)

? ? † 73. S. Inca'na Schranck. The hoary-leaved Willow, ? or Osier. Identification. Schranck Baier (Bavar.) Fl., 1. p. 230.; Koch Comm., p. 32. ; Forbes in Sal. Wob., Synonymes. S. ripària Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 698., Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 111., Hayne Abbild., p. 245., ? Host Sal. Austr., 1. p. 17. ,, S. lavandulæfolia Lapeyr. Abr., p. 601., Seringe Sal. Kelu., p. 70.; S. angustifdlia Poir. in Du Ham. Arb., ed. 1., 3. t. 29. ; S. rosmarinifolia Gouan Hort., 501. Schranck Salisb., No. 38., Scop. Carn., p. 527., Host Syn., 529.; S. viminàlis Vill. Delph., 3. The Sexes. Both are figured in Hayne Abbild. : the male is figured in Sal. Wob., where Mr. Forbes

has noticed that he had not seen the catkins of the other sex. If the kind of Host Sal. Austr. is

identical, both sexes of it are figured in that work. Engravings. Du Ham. Arb., ed. 1., 3. t. 29.; Hayne Abbild., t. 187.; Sal. Wob., No. 90. ; ? Host

Sal. Austr., t. 58, 59. ; our fig. 152;. ; and fig. 90. in. p. 1619. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, denticulated, hoary on the under

surface with hoary tomentum. Catkins arched, slender, almost sessile, subtended at the base with small leaves. Capsule ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, stalked; the stalk twice the length of the gland.

1327 Style elongated. Stigmas bifid. Bracteas subglabrous, ciliate with short hairs. (Koch Comm.) The following description of the kind is taken from Mr. Forbes in Sal. Wob.:- “ Branches villous, dark brown, whitish when young; long and slender, angulated at the top of the young shoots, and distinctly warted; forming a bush 4ft. or 5 ft. high. Leaves linear, from 3 in. to 4 in. long; minutely serrated, or, rather, furnished with a few glandular teeth towards the base ; margin slightly revolute; upper surface green and villous ; beneath, thickly clothed with white cottony down: the young leaves are all revolute and snowy-white. Footstalks bearing at the summit two glands, short and dilated at the base. Catkins appearing before the leaves, barren ones 1 in. long. The leaves of this species, Mr. Forbes observes, bear a strong affinity to those of S. viminàlis; while the catkins, branches, and mode of growth are quite different; and that it never rises more than 5 ft. or 6 ft. high.” Host has described in the Sal. Austr., his S. ripària as an elegant tree; but he may only mean a plant of tree-like figure, but slender and not of considerable height. Koch states that the species is found in a wild state, in

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P. 785.

seen catkins of the female.

the lower alpine valleys on the Pyrenees, Cevennes, Alps of Dauphiny, Switzerland, Tyrol, Austria, Carpathia; whence it follows the course of rivers, and inhabits their banks and moist meadows; but it does not grow in Germany, on the Rhine, beyond the limits of Suabia, nor north of the Danube. It descends from the Carpathian Mountains into Hungary and Galicia ; but, according to Besser, is not found in Volhynia. Introduced in 1821. It flowers, in the willow garden at Woburn, in April. It is an interesting kind for distinctness of character. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick; and also in the Hackney arboretum, under the name of S. trichocarpa.

* 74. S. LINEA'ris Forbes. The linear-leaved Willow. Identification. Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 89. Synonyme. ?8. incàna var. linearis Borrer. (Borrer in a letter.) The Sexes. The male is described and figured in Sal. Wob. Mr. Forbes has noted that he had not Engravings. Sal. Wob., 89. ; our fig. 1328.; and fig. 89. in p. 1619. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves linear, villous; shining above, cottony beneath; mar

gins slightly denticulated. Branches brown. Stipules none. Catkins elliptical, nearly sessile. Bracteas elliptical, yellow, as are also the anthers. (Sal.. Wob., p. 177.) Brought from Switzerland by the Hon. Henry Grey Bennett, in 1820; and flowering, in the willow garden at Woburn Abbey, in April. A low bushy shrub, with copious branches, dark brown or purplish in every stage. Leaves from 14 in. to 24 in. long, truly linear; the margins slightly serrated ; the teeth sometimes furnished with glands; the upper surface green, shining, wrinkled, and besprinkled with fine, minute, adpressed hairs, sometimes scarcely visible; beneath, white and cottony, their inargins revolute ; leaves frequently opposite and alternate on the same branch. Buds of a bright crimson colour. mug Footstalks short, reddish. No vestige of stipules is to

1328 be perceived in any state of growth. Catkins appearing before the leaves, 1 in. long, and erect in the male plant. Easily known by the rosemary-like appearance of its leaves. In the figure of the stamens in Sal. Wob. (see our fig. 1328.), the stamens are represented as palpably monadelphous; a case of which not any mention is made in the text there.

This kind is striking from the narrowness of its leaves. There are plants at Woburn, Henfield, and Flitwick, and in the Goldworth Arboretum.

*4 75. S. VIMINA'LIS L. The twiggy Willow, or common Osier. Identification. Lin. Sp. PL, 1448.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 706.; Hayne Abbild., p. 251. ; Koch Comm., P. 29. ; Host Sal Austr., 1. p. 16. ; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1898. ; Eng. Fl., 4. p. 228. Forbes in Sal.

Wob., No. 133. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 3. ; Mackay Fl. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 249. ; Pursh F1. Amer. Sept., 2. Synonyme. S. longifolia Lam. Fl. Fr., 2. 232. (Koch.) The Sexes. Both sexes are figured in Eng. Bot., Sal. Wob., Hayne Abbild., and Host Sal. Austr.

Both exist in Britain. The male seems less robust and vigorous than the female. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1893.; Sal. Wob., No. 133.; Hayne Abbild., t. 194. ; Host Sal. Austr.,

t. 54, 55. ; our fig. 1329.; and fig. 133. in p. 1629. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves linear, inclining to lanceolate, elongated, taper-pointed, entire, wavy ; snow-white and silky beneath. Branches straight and slender. Ovary sessile. Style as long as the linear undivided stigmas. (Smith E. F.) A native of England, in wet meadows; and flowering in April and May. According to Pursh, it grows in North America, introduced from Europe, on the banks of rivers, and about plantations. The following description of its characters is derived chiefly from the English Flora :- Branches straight, erect, wand

20g like, very long and slender, round, polished; when young, 1329 downy with fine silky hairs. Leaves on short footstalks, almost upright, about a span long, and in. wide, being nearly linear, acute,

P. 608.

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entire, though slightly wavy at the edges, and somewhat revolute; the upper side green, glabrous, even ; under side pure white, with close cottony, or rather silky, down. Stipules linear-lanceolate. Catkins numerous, lateral, sessile, full 1 in. long.” (Smith.) This species is readily distinguished from others of the section to which it belongs by the white satiny under surface of its leaves. It is held in high estimation for the various kinds

of basketwork, bands, &c.; and it is generally employed for such purposes. Varieties. One has the bark of the branchlets of a testaceous colour

(brownish yellow); another dark brown; and the leaves of this variety are of a darker green : but there are many intermediate varieties. (Koch Comm.) “ There is a variety called the velvet osier, in which no external difference is discernible; but the twigs are said to be more pliant.” It is much esteemed as an osier for wickerwork. (Smith Eng. Fl., iv. p. 229.). Perhaps it is right to understand Smith as intending this as a distinct kind from “ the true velvet osier,” which he has noticed under S. Smithiana, and which is mentioned in this work under S. holosericea. In the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, a brown-barked variety, probably the same as that mentioned by Koch, is grown for hoops, under the name of the Dutch willow. It makes shoots 10 ft. or 12 ft. long in one season. Plants are common in the nurseries. Species named $. Villarèsii, S. purpùrea mas, and S. rùbra, sent to us from the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, are all the same as S. viminalis.

Culture, 8c. There is nothing peculiar in the culture of this species, or its varieties ; but, as it is a vigorous grower, those who cultivate it in quantities for basket-making or hoops generally plant it in the best soil, intersected by watercourses, so that the roots may always have that element within their reach. Accounts of the formation, management, and profit attending osier plantations will be found in the Bath Agricultural Society's Papers, vol. xvi. p. 129.; Transactions of the Society of Arts, vols. 19, 20, 22, 23, and 24.: but, after our general directions for the culture and management of basket and hoop willows (p. 1467.), it is unnecessary here to enter into farther details. . * 76. S. STIPULA'ris Smith. The stipuled, or auricled-leaved, Osier, or

Willow. Identification. Smith Fl. Brit., p. 1069.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 708.; Koch de Sal. Europ: Comm.,

p. 29. ; Smith Eng. Bot., t. 1214. ; Eng. Flora, 4. p. 230. ; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 420.; Mackay Fl. Hibern., pt. 1. p. 249. The Seres. Both are described in Eng. Flora, and both are figured in Eng. Bot., and both in Sal. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1214. ; Sal. Wob., 132.; and fig. 132. in p. 1628. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, slightly wavy, obscurely crenate;

soft and nearly naked above, white and downy beneath. Stipules halfheart-shaped, stalked, very large. Gland cylindrical. Ovary ovate, nearly sessile, as well as the linear undivided stigmas. (Smith E. F.) A native of England, in osier holts, hedges, and woods; and flowering in March. “ Twigs upright, tall, soft and downy, of a pale reddish brown, brittle, and of little or no use as an osier. Leaves almost upright, numerous, about a span long, sharp-pointed, unequally and slightly crenate, green, even, and soft; though hardly downy above, finely downy and whitish beneath, with a nearly smooth, reddish, or pale midrib, and remarkably downy, or, as it were, fringed, veins. Footstalks stout, 4 in. or fin. long.” (Smith.) “ Allied to S. viminàlis in fructification ; differing in its larger and coarser leaves, less white beneath ; and in their large, very remarkable stipules.” (Hook. Br.Fl.) “ It is not worthy of cultivation for any economical purpose : yet it was sent several times to the late Mr. Sowerby to draw, as the true S. viminàlis, the valuable qualities of which every body knows.” (Smith E. F.) Common in the nurseries. 1 77. S. SMITHIANA Willd. Smith's Willow, or the silky-leaved Osier. Identification. Willd. Enum., 1008. ; Smith Eng. Fl., 4. p. 229.; Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 134., 90

far as relates to the female; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 420.; Mackay FL Hibern., pt. 1. p. 250.

Wob.

Synonymes. S. mollissima Smith Fl. Brit., p. 1070., exclusively of the synonymes, Eng. Bot., t. 1509.,
Rees's Cyclo.; S. acuminata, with narrower leaves, Koch Comm., p. 31. ; S. acuminata B Lindl.
Synop., p. 233.
The Seres. The female is described in Eng. F2, and figured in Eng. Bot. and Sal. Wob.
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 1509. ; Sai. Wob., No. 134., i he female ; and our fig. 134. in p. 1629.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, slightly wavy, minutely toothed;

soft and downy above, but the down scarcely visible; whitish and silky beneath. Stipules long, narrow. Catkins ovate. Germen stalked. Style shorter than the linear deeply divided stigmas. (Smith Eng. Fl.) “ In my specimens the ovaries and bracteas are remarkably shaggy.” (Hook in Br. Fl., ed. 2.) A native of England, in meadows and osier grounds; common in the woods in the neighbourhood of Woburn; and flowering in March and April. “ Branches erect, wand-like, round, long, slender, reddish, leafy, smooth, finely downy and soft when young; brittle, and unfit for basketwork. Leaves on shortish downy footstalks, lanceolate, 3 in, or 4 in. long, tapering to a point; the margin wavy, or slightly crenated, with minute teeth here and there, especially towards the point; the upper side green, delicately soft to the touch, with extremely minute, almost invisible, close, silky down; under side paler, whitish, densely silky, and likewise peculiarly soft; the midrib and slender veins reddish, rather less downy. Catkins appearing before the leaves, numerous, small.” (Smith.) S. Smithiina is without merit in the economical application of its rods. (Id.) There are plants at Woburn Abbey, at Henfield, and at the Goldworth Arboretum; also, under the name of S. mollíssima, at Messrs. Loddiges's.

+ 78. S. MOLLISSIMA Ehrh. The softest-surfaced Willow, or Osier. Identification. Ehrh, Beitr., 6. p. 101. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. 707. ; Wahlenb. Fl. Carpat., p. 317. ;

? Hayne Abbild., p. 252. ; Koch Comm., p. 28. Sy onyme. S. pùbera Koch apud Bönninghausen F1. Monaster. The Sexes. The female is described in the specific character. Koch has noted that he had not seen

the male. Engraving. ? Hayne Abbild., t. 195., the female. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, repandly toothed with distant minute teeth ; when young, having the under surface finely tomentose. Stipules ovate, acute. Catkins sessile, or upon a short twiglet seeming a peduncle, and bearing small leaves at the base of the catkin. Capsule ovately conical, tomentose, sessile. Gland reaching higher than the base of the ovary. Style elongated,' Stigmas linear, bitid, reaching as high as the hairs of the bracteas. (Koch) It is easily distinguished from S. vininàlis by the down of the leaves being finer, yellowish, and not shining; the flowers more loosely disposed in the catkin; the bracteas of a yellowish rusty colour, and by their hairs being of a dull white, and of the length of the stigmas. In S. viminalis the leaves are white, and silky beneath; the bracteas of a very dark brown, and have silvery hairs; and the stigmas are undivided, and extend beyond the hairs of the bracteas. S. mollissima grows wild upon banks of rivers, and contiguously to water, in the north of Germany, in Silesia, and in the north of Hungary. (Koch.) A native of Germany. * ? 1 79. S. HOLOSERI'CEA Hook., ? Willd. The velvety, or soft-shaggy

flowered,Willow, or Osier. Identification. Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p. 421. ; Bluff. and Fing. Fl. Germ., 2. p. 565. (Hook.); ? Willd. Sp. PL, 4. p. 708. (Hook.); ? Hayne Abbild., p. 253. ; ? Smith in Rees's Cyclo., No. 137. ; ? Koch

Comm., p. 34. Synonymes. S. Smithiana rugosa, quoted as a name extant by Forbes in Sal. Wob., No. 184. ; ?S. acuminata, the var, mentioned by Smith in Eng. Fl., 4. p. 228. ; S. acuminata var. rugosa Smith MSS., and probably S. rùbra of Walker's Essays, p. 443. (Borrer in a letter.) I believe that the velvet osier is S. holosericea Wild.

The male is figured in Sal. Wob.; the female is described in the Specific Character, &c. Engravings. Hayne Abbild., t. 196. (the sex is the male); Sal. Wob., No. 134., in which the male

catkin only is figured. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, serrated; glabrous above;

pale, downy, and strongly veined beneath. Catkins cylindrical. Ovaries stalked, densely clothed with silky wool. Stigmas ovate, sessile. Bracteas very shaggy, black. (Hook. Br. Fl.) Wild about Lewes, Sussex. Mr. Borrer thinks that this is probably allied to the S. holoserícea Willd., and distinguishes it from S. acuminata Smith by its sessile pale-coloured stigmas, and leaves greener and more rugose above, and more strongly veined beneath. (Ibid.) S. holosericea Willd. is noticed by Smith (Eng. Fl., iv. p. 230.), as a native of Germany, not so of Britain. It is recorded in the Hortus Britannicus, as introduced into Britain in 1822. Smith has remarked, besides, that he believes a kind of osier, called the velvet osier, to be identical with s. holosericea Willd., and that the velvet osier is much valued for

The Sexcs.

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