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from a bud peculiar to it; the flowers of the group situated each upon a peduncle, or each upon a pedicel, and disposed a few together upon short peduncles, or situated in both modes. Flowers bisexual, or a few of them male: both kinds upon one plant. Calyx reddish, distinct from the ovary, top-shaped, or bell-shaped, of one piece, but having 5 or 4-8 segments, which are imbricate in æstivation; remaining until the fruit falls. Stamens as many as the segments; inserted into the lower part of the calyx, oppositely to the segments, and prominent beyond them: anthers opening lengthwise, outwardly (Smith), inwardly (T. Nees ab Esenbeck). Ovary ellipticoblong, compressed, cloven at the summit, having two cells and a pendulous ovule in each. Style very short, or there is not one. Stigmas 2, acuminate, villous on the inner face. - Fruit a samara, and this compressed, more or less round or oval, and having the wing-like part membranous, broad, and present all round, except in a notch, whose base is the place of the attachment of the stigmas. Seed: 1 in a samara, pendulous: in many instances, it is not perfected. Embryo not attended by albumen, straight, its radicle uppermost. Species several wild in Europe, North America, and India; one or more in Asia, one in China. Trees: some of the species attaining great size and age. Bark rugged. Wood hard. Branches twiggy. Flowers small. Leaves alternate, in 2 ranks, feather-veined; in most, unequal at the base, annual, serrate, and harsh to the touch. Stipules oblong, deciduous. Leaves within the bud folded lengthwise, in 2 portions, upright, with scales between leaf and leaf. (T. Nees ab Esenbeck, Gen. Pl. Fl. Germ.; Smith, Engl. Flor.; Duby et Decand. Bot. Gallic.; and observations.)
PLANERA Gmelin. Sexes polygamous, or each in a distinct flower; in each case, upon the same plant.-Female and bisexual flowers. Calyx bell-shaped, distinct from the ovary, membranous, green, of one piece, but having 5 ciliate lobes. Stamens, in the bisexual flower, 4-5 less developed than those in the male flower. Ovary top-shaped, villous. Stigmas 2, sessile, diverging, white, pimpled. Fruit roundish, gibbous, pointed, dry, 2-celled, each cell containing 1 seed. Male flower. Calyx as in the female and bisexual flowers. Stamens 4-5, inserted near the centre of the bottom of the calyx, and oppositely to its lobes. Anthers reaching a little beyond the lobes of the calyx, borne outwardly to the filament, of 2 lobes that seem as 4, and 2 cells that open sidewise and lengthwise.-In P. Gmèlini the fruits are in heads; and in P. Richárdi nearly solitary.-Species 2-? 3. Trees: natives of Asia and North America. Leaves alternate and more or less ovate and toothed; feather-veined and annual; and the flowers small, and not showy. P. Richárdi has stipules: which are straight, pointed, villous, and soon fall off. This species has united by ingrafting with the elm. (Turpin and Michaux.)
CELTIS Tourn. Flowers borne upon the shoots of the year, axillary; either solitary, or 2-3 together, each, in any case, upon a peduncle; or from 2 to many, in a raceme or panicle: in the kinds hardy in Britain, the flowers are protruded just previously to the leaves to which they, or the fruits, are afterwards axillary: bisexual, or, less commonly, by the imperfection of the pistil, only male in effect; both kinds upon one plant, and when they occur in the same raceme, the latter are the lower. Calyx bell-shaped, distinct from the ovary, 5-6-parted, the segments imbricate in æstivation. Stamens 5-6, inserted into the base of the calyx, oppositely to its lobes, and they are shorter than the lobes. Filaments at first incurved. Anthers cordate-acuminate; the cells 2, opening at the sides. Ovary ovate, 1-celled. Stigmas 2, sessile, acuminate, long, spreading or recurved, downy or glanded, simple or 2-parted. Fruit a drupe, subglobose. Ovule and seed, each 1, and pendulous. Embryo sickle-shaped, its radicle uppermost : traces of subgelatinous albumen are between the cotyledons.-Species 19 or more; 1 wild in Europe, the north of Africa, and Iberia; in the Levant; and 2 in China; 4 in North America; some in the West Indies and South America;
several in India. Some of them grow in moist soil. Most of them are trees with spreading heads and slender branchlets. In some, the bark of the branchlets and branches has white oblong spots scattered here and there. Leaves alternate, in 2 ranks, ovate and pointed, unequal at the base, serrate; rough on the upper surface, apparently from the callous bases and remains of bristles; annual in the kinds hardy in Britain, and these have the primary veins forming but a small angle with the midrib, and extending through a considerable portion of the length of the disk of the leaf. Stipules lanceolate, soon falling off. Leaves in the bud not folded, but plaited, with scales present between leaf and leaf. Fleshy part of the fruit eatable, but small in quantity. (T. Nees ab Esenbeck, Gen. Pl. Fl. Germ.; Spreng. Syst.; Wats. Dend. Brit.; Smith in Rees's Cycl.; Duby et Dec. Bot. Gallic.; and observations.) GENUS I.
U'LMUS L. THE ELM.
Lin. Syst. Pentándria Digýnia.
Identification. Lin. Gen., 123.; Lam. Ill., t. 185.; T. Nees ab Esenbeck Gen. Pl. Fl. Germ., fasc. 3 t. 3.; Sm. Engl. Fl., 2. p. 1, 2 and 19.; Lindl. Nat. Syst. of Bot., p. 179. Synonymes. Orme, Fr.; Ulm, or Rüster, Ger. ; Olmo, Ital.
Derivation. Ulmus is supposed to be derived from the Saxon word elm, or ulm; a name which is applied, with very slight alterations, to this tree, in all the dialects of the Celtic tongue. Ulm is still one of the German names for the elm; and the city of Ulm is said to derive its name from the great number of elm trees that are growing near it. There are above forty places in England, mentioned in the Doomsday-Book, which take their names from that of the elm; such as Barn Elms, Nine Elms, &c.
Description, &c. The elms are long-lived trees, with hard wood; rugged, and sometimes corky, bark; and zigzag, somewhat slender, branches. The leaves are alternate, stalked, deciduous, in general serrated and harsh ; unequal at the base, and bearing tufts of hairs at the axils of the primary veins. The flowers are earlier than the leaves, tufted, copious, and dark red; the capsules are pale, chaffy, and light, serving as a wing to the seed, which is often imperfect. (See Smith's Engl. Flora, ii. p. 19.) The roots of young plants, in some of the species, are of leathery toughness, very strong, of considerable length and suppleness. The commoner, and perhaps all, the kinds increase rapidly in the number and the size of their roots and branches. U. campéstris emits suckers from the older roots, which are extended under the surface of the soil; but this is not the case with U. montàna. All have strong uprightgrowing trunks; but these vary, in the several kinds, in their diameters and length. The disposition of the branches relatively to the trunk, and to the head which they constitute, also varies exceedingly; and considerable difference of character prevails in the spray. For example, the tufted twigs of U. campestris bear very little resemblance to the prominent wand-like shoots which stand out thinly over the surface of the heads of young trees of U. montàna, and all its varieties, or allied species; though in old trees the branches spread horizontally, and become drooping at their extremities. The tufted shoots of U. campestris assume occasionally the character of knots of entangled cord; and those tufts are called witch knots in some places. The character of the foliage is nearly the same in all the kinds of elm. That of U. campestris is very striking, from the smallness of the leaves, their number, the depth of their green, and their somewhat rounded figure: they remain on, also, till very late in the year. In U. montàna, U. m. glàbra, U. americana, and in some other kinds, the leaves are large, long, and sometimes pointed, with the marginal teeth more obvious, though, perhaps, only from the size of the disk; their green is lighter; and, in general, they fall off much earlier, than those of U. campestris. The different kinds vary, also, considerably in their time of leafing. The leaves of all the sorts have the base unequal, the margins doubly dentated, and are feather-nerved. The flowers are always protruded before the leaves, and are disposed in small groups,
which give a knotted character to the leafless branches, before they are fully developed; but which afterwards, from their colour, and their being supported on peduncles, look like little tufts of red fringe. The seeds of the elm, also, differ in the different kinds. "The inner bark of the elm is slightly bitter and astringent; but it does not appear to possess any important quality. The substance which exudes spontaneously from it is called ulmine." (Lindley's Nat. Syst. of Bot., p. 179.) Small bladders which possess considerable vulnerary properties are found on the leaves of elms, particularly in warm countries. The elm is a native of Europe and North America, and part of Asia and Africa, extending as far south as the coast of Barbary, and as far north as Russia. The elm has been a well known tree since the time of the Romans; and, of all the European trees, it is that which is the most generally cultivated, and most commonly applied to agricultural purposes. The reasons for this preference, no doubt, are, that its culture is extremely easy; its growth rapid; and that it will thrive in almost any soil or situation. It may also be transplanted, with comparative safety, at almost any age; and the timber will remain uninjured for a greater length of time than any other, when exposed to moisture. To counterbalance these advantages, the timber is very apt to shrink and warp, unless it be constantly moist, or the wood be kept for several years, after it is cut, before it is used. The tree, while in a living state, is also very often attacked by insects; and the timber is liable to become worm-eaten. Trees grown on a dry soil, and singly, make the best timber; but they are neither so large nor so long-lived as those grown in a moister soil, which form what is called in France le bois gras. Notwithstanding this, the elm will not thrive in very moist soil, as it is by no means an aquatic tree, like the alder. The wood of elms that have been frequently pruned becomes knotted; and this wood, when polished, is very ornamental. To obtain it, the trees in France are sometimes kept lopped, and headed down every three or four years. The variety called the twisted elm (orme tortillard) is also much esteemed for its wood; as are the monstrosities, or knobs, found occasionally on all the species of elm; and which, when cut into thin slices, and polished, are kept by cabinet-makers for the purpose of veneering. The elm is remarkable for the aptitude of the different species to vary from seed; so much so that it is extremely difficult to say in this genus which are species and which are varieties; or even to what species the varieties belong. To us it appears, that there are only two sorts which are truly distinct; viz. U. campestris and U. montàna. U. americana, we are assured by Mr. Masters of Canterbury, who has paid great attention to the genus, and raised many sorts, both from American and European seeds, is identical, or apparently so, with what is called the Huntingdon elm; a variety raised at Huntingdon, between 80 and 90 years ago, from seeds gathered from trees in that neighbourhood. U. glabra and U. màjor seem intermediate between U. campéstris and U. montana. U. effùsa appears very distinct; but is probably only a variety of U. campestris. Of all the numerous varieties which may be procured in British nurseries, the best kinds for cultivation for their timber appear to be, the Huntingdon elm (U. m. glàbra vegèta), and the wych elm (U. montana); and for ornament, the weeping elm (U. montàna péndula), the subevergreen elm (U. campéstris virens), and the twiggy elm (U. campéstris viminalis). The sucker-bearing elms are chiefly the varieties of U. campéstris, and these seldom produce seeds; but U. montàna, and U. m. glabra, and their varieties, which never throw up suckers, produce seeds in the greatest abundance every year. U. campéstris does indeed produce_seeds occasionally, though rarely, in England; and the U. c. viminalis is a British seedling. In France, U. campestris ripens seeds much more freely, and these have given rise to many varieties.
1. U. CAMPE'STRIS L.
The English, field, or common small-leaved, Elm. Identification. Lin. Sp. Pl., 327.; Willd. Sp. Pl., p. 1324.; Host Fl. Austr., 1. p. 550.; Sm. Engl. Fl., 2. p. 20.; Lindl. Synops., p. 226.; Hook. Br. Fl., ed. 2., p.141.; Mackay Fl. Hibernica, pt. 1. p. 240.
Synonymes. Ulmus Atinia Pliny Nat. Hist., lib. 16. cap 17., and lib. 17. cap. 11., Cam. Epit., 70., U., No. 1586. d, Hall. Hist., 2. 269.; U. minor, folio angusto scabro, Ger. Emac., 1480. f., Raii Syn., 469.
Engravings. Engl. Bot., t. 1886.; N. Du Ham., 2. t. 42.; Dod. Pempt., 837. f.; Ger. Emac., 1480. ; Hayne, t. 27.; Michx. North Amer. Sylva, iii. t. 129. f. 1.; and the plates in our last Volume. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves doubly serrated, rough. Flowers nearly sessile, 4cleft. Samara oblong, deeply cloven, glabrous. (Smith Eng. Flora.) tree from 60 ft. to 80 ft. in height; flowering in March and April, and ripening its seeds in May.
Varieties. These are very numerous, both in Britain and on the Continent; and most of them have been selected by nurserymen from their seed-beds. Any one, Baudrillart remarks, who has ever observed a bed of seedling elms, must have noticed that some have large leaves, and some small ones; some are early, and some late; some have smooth bark, and some rough bark; and some soft leaves, and others very rough ones. Some varieties are higher than others; the branches take now a vertical, and again a horizontal, direction. In short, while botanists describe, and cultivators sow, they will find that nature sports with their labours, and seems to delight in setting at fault alike the science of the one, and the hopes of the other. This is always the case with plants that have been long submitted to the cultivation of man. The cares that are bestowed upon them, the different situations in which they are placed, and the different kinds of treatment which they receive, appear to change their native habits. (See Dict. des Eaux et Forêts, ii. p. 460.) The quantity of the timber of the several varieties differs as much as the size of the leaves and the habit of growth. In some varieties, such as U. c. viminális, it is of no value, from the slenderness of the trunk; in others, the tree is subject to decay at the joints of the branches, the bark to split into long thin strips, and the interior of the trunk to rot. The most valuable varieties for cultivation as timber trees are, U. c. stricta, U. c. acutifòlia, U. c. álba, and U. c. latifolia. We shall first give the names of the principal varieties of the common English elm which are to be found in British nurseries; and, next, the names of those which are said to be cultivated in France. We might have doubled the number of these varieties; and we should have felt justified in including among them U. suberosa, and perhaps some other kinds which we have treated as species; for there is, in truth, no certainty as to what are species and what varieties in elms.
A, Timber Trees.
U.c.1 vulgaris, U. campestris Hort. Dur.-Very twiggy; pale smooth bark; of irregular growth in some plants, with almost horizontal branches, where no others are near to force the shoots upwards. In some soils, it is very subject to decay at the joints. The bark is leadencoloured while young, splitting into long thin strips with age. A bad variety to cultivate for timber.
U. c. 2 latifolia Hort. has broader leaves than the species, and expands them very early in spring. There is a tree of this variety in the London Horticultural Society's Garden, which, in 1824, after being 10 years planted, was 17 ft. high.
† U. c. 3 álba Masters. — Of upright growth. The old bark cracks in irregular long pieces, and becomes very pale with age. Shoots with
the bark tinged with red, and the footstalks of the leaves quite red. Leaves shining, and doubly and deeply serrated, bearing a very near resemblance to those of U. effùsa. Á valuable timber tree.
U. c. 4 acutifolia Masters. — Growth, during its early stages, very like the last, but stronger. The leaves, in old specimens, more tapering, and the branches more pendulous. The young leaves do not justify its name. Bark like the last. This appears very common in some parts of Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk. Also a good timber tree. 1 U. c. 5 stricta Hort. Dur. Red English Elm. One of the most valuable timber trees of the small-leaved kinds. Growth very rigid.
The timber is excellent; and the tree forms poles of equal diameter throughout. There are fine specimens of this tree in Minster, Thanet, and at Ickham, near Canterbury. In Mr. May's park, at Herne, where there are several kinds of elms, all of which thrive remarkably well, one recently cut down showed this day (Nov. 14. 1836) indications of upwards of 100 years' growth. A portion of the trunk girts 15 ft. for 16 ft. in length. The remaining part of the tree has been appropriated. There is a tree in the Horticultural Society's Garden, marked U. c. rùbra, which, judging from the specimens sent to us by Mr. Masters, appears to be identical with this variety. It is a splendid tree, and, in 1834, had attained the height of 32 ft., with a trunk 7 in. in diameter, after being 10 years planted. U c. 6 virens Hort. Dur., or Kidbrook Elm, is almost evergreen in a mild winter; and, as such, is the most ornamental tree of the genus. It must not, however, be depended upon as a timber tree, because, in some autumns, the frost kills the shoots. The bark is red, and the tree of spreading habit. This, like the last-mentioned kind, grows well upon chalk. Notwithstanding its name of Kidbrook elm, a place in Sussex, it is a Cornish variety. There is a fine tree in the Horticultural Society's Garden, named there U. montàna nodòsa, which fully answers to the above description of Mr. Masters. U. c. 7 cornubiensis Hort.; U. stricta Lindl. Synop., p. 227., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; the Cornish Elm; is an upright-branched tree, with small, strongly veined, coriaceous leaves. "Branches bright brown, smooth, rigid, erect, and very compact." (Lindl.) This variety, in the climate of London, is a week or fortnight later in coming into leaf than the common elm. It attains a very great height, and has a somewhat narrower head than the species. There are very large specimens of it at Bagshot Park, 70 years planted, which are 70 ft. high; the diameter of the trunk 3 ft., and of the head 40 ft. In Worcestershire, at Croome, the tree, 50 years planted, is 70 ft. high; the diameter of the trunk 2 ft., and of the head 15 ft. There are young trees in the Horticultural Society's Garden, one of which, in 1834, after being 10 years planted, was 15 ft. high; and several at Messrs. Loddiges's. Dr. Lindley mentions a subvariety of this sort, with much smaller leaves; which he has named U. s. 2 parvifòlia, and which is the U. s. 2 microphylla of Lodd. Cat., 1836. There are two other subvarieties mentioned in Lodd. Cat., under the names of U. s. áspera, and U. s. crispa.
U. c. 8 sarniensis; U. sarniénsis Lodd. Cat., 1836; the Jersey Elm; is a free-growing variety, differing very little from the species. There are trees of this kind 20 ft. high in the Horticultural Society's Garden. U. c. 9 tortuòsa; U. tortuosa Lodd. Cat., 1836;? Orme tortillard, Fr. The twisted Elm. - For an account of the uses of this tree, see the list of French varieties, p. 1379. There is a plant in the London Horticultural Society's Garden, 6 ft. high.
B. Ornamental, or curious, Trees.
U. c. 10 fòlüs variegatis Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. - This variety, which may be called the silver-leaved elm, has the leaves striped with white, and, in spring, is very ornamental.
U. c. 11 betulæfòlia, U. betulæfòlia Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, has leaves somewhat resembling those of the common birch.
U. c. 12 viminàlis; U. viminàlis Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; and the plate in our last Volume; has small leaves, and numerous slender twig-like branches. It is a very distinct and elegant variety; and easily recognised, either in summer or winter. In some stages of its foliage, this sort is frequently mistaken for a variety of birch. It is quite useless for timber, but makes an ornamental tree, with a character of its