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which the world boasts of as wonders of the founder's art :-Great Bell of St. Paul's, 8,400 pounds; Great Tom of Lincoln, 9,894; Great Tom of Oxford, 17,000; Bell of the Palazzo, Florence, 17,000; St. Peter's, Rome, 18,607; Great Bell, Erfurth, 28,224; St. Ivan's Bell, Moscow, 127,836; Bell of the Kremlin, 443,772; which last, broken and suspended, is the admiration of travellers. Its metal has been valued at the enormous sum of £66,565 sterling, and in its fusion the devotion of the people produced great quantities of gold and silver, thrown in as votive offerings.
Next to the Russian bells, as to size, are those of China, and perhaps for tone, their sonorous metals, or, to speak more properly, the proportion of alloy of which they manufacture their bells and gongs, is not to be excelled by those of any other country. Bells are not, however, in any general use among them, for, since the native princes were displaced by a Tartar dynasty in 1644, they have almost fallen into total desuetude.
After the ringing of church-bells had been established as a science, though even then not by any means perfect, it was customary with many to leave donations in their wills, as a gift to the ringers for attending at certain hours on certain days named. Nell Gwynne, who is said to have "possessed every virtue but that of chastity," left for the bell-ringers of the church of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, London, a sum for a weekly entertainment of this kind.
The first regular peal of bells, traced out by a genuine lover of the art, was a peal of five, that, in 1456, was presented by Pope Calixtus III. to King's College, Cambridge, where they remained till 1750, the largest in the kingdom, the tenor weighing 64,000 pounds, and it is of this peal that the his
The Emperor Yong-lo, who began his reign in 1403, and transferred the seat of government from Nankin to Pekin, celebrated the event by casting nine bells, of enormous bulk, one of which was of iron. Seven of them were to be seen about the middle of the seventeenth century, and were said to be exceedingly well cast. One had a diameter of 12 feet 11 inches, and was 13 inches thick. They were struck also with wooden tongues, but there is a difference of opinion as regards the tone produced existing among writers.
In the festive seasons of the year, with what a fervid gladness do the brave bells cast their wild and melodious cadences into the space around them! How joyously do they welcome in Christmas! How lustily do they bid adieu to the old year, and welcome the new one in, with the clamor that is like the thunder of an organ! In the stillness of the Sabbath morning, their summons to the worship of the Creator takes a solemnity that is most impressive, and they thus lend their voice to the "praise and the glory of God" with as much reality and zeal as the whole inanimate universe is, with one accord,
testifying to the grandeur and the majesty of the Giver of all good!
[ST. IVANS BELL, Moscow.]
unnecessary, and the Almighty declared as fabulous | torian (Major) writes, in 1518, that "whilst he was as Jupiter by the voices of those philosophical and of Christ's College, he frequently lay in his bed to revolutionary writers, who taught the people infi- hear the meiody of the bells, which were rung early delity combined with science. This ceremonial in the morning on festivals, and being near the river To the poets, bells have been suggestive of imamust have been of significant consequences. Alcuin (so the college stands) was heightened by the rever-gery as powerful, apt, and beautiful, as any that earth, air, and sea ever offered. Hamlet in his mad(a learned English ecclesiastic), who lived in the beration from the water." time of Charlemagne, and who was held in much. ness is mourned by the "fair Ophelia" as one whose mind had become "like sweet bells jangled out of respect by that monarch, states that the christening, or the blessing, of bells had become an established tune;" and Orlando, when wandering with good old Adam in the forest of Arden, adjures the Duke usage in the seventh century. and his "co-mates" to grant them both relief, when exhausted by weariness and languor, if they have
In the commencement of the sixteenth century
The statistics of bells in the British Islands, at
"Ever been where bells have knelled to church"
"have with holy bell been knolled to church." Among those who are considered as having carried the art of bell-ringing in England to its greatest height, are Francis Roberts, author of cater-ringing, and George Gross, who created a peal of 7,001 changes. The names of Stedman and Anable, too, are held in high respect, while Holt and Charles Wells receive their fair tribute at the hands of other historians. Also, the triumvirate, William Jones, John Reeves, and Thomas Blakemore, who wrote a compendium of bell-ringing.
T was in summer's brightest days,
Each laughing pair of lovers there
When lo! a girl with golden hair
Came slowly from the wood.
The sun had browned her sweet fair face,
Her feet were travel-sore,
A mandolin with touching grace
Upon her arm she bore.
Right sweetly did she sing to them,
That sparkled like some costly gem
And thus she spake "O ladies fair!
By your bright eyes and beauty rare,
"I ask not silver for my song,
"In Barbary, the Moslem's slave,
And I were rather in my grave,
"He was the bravest of our youth,
""Tis for his ransom, that I sing
And beg from day to day,
That I have sworn from earth to wring,
And for his freedom pay!"
Then rose the first gay cavalier,
And said "My pretty maid," Whilst brushing from his eye a tear, "That ransom shall be paid!
"No gold have I, my debts are long,
But I've a horse both young and strong,
"That horse is thine, its price will aid
The second knight his dagger gave,
And each fair lady from her ear
And by those knights and ladies three,
That ransom straight was paid,
And eke a happy wife was she,
Nor ever lacked a charger knight
Who sat beneath that tree,
Nor ermined cloak, nor dagger bright,
But ladies fair and lovers brave,
All prospered from that day,
On which the noble spendthrifts gave
THIS very beautiful Engraving is from the pencil of the celebrated John Gilbert. It is intended as an illustration of the argument set forth in Tupper's Proverbial Philosophy upon the subject of "Mystery." As a work of art it is a perfect gem, and does honor to Mr. Gilbert, whose able and prolifie pencil is winning for him an exalted reputation both in England and this country. We have not room for Mr. Tupper's entire poem on this subject, but we quote a portion.
God, pervading all, is in all things the mystery of each;
The wherefore of its character and essence, the fountain of its virtues and its beauties
Or poised in the balances or order the power to attract and to repel ;
cause it shakes the flooring, and endangers the
other day that an amusing scene took place between
one of these despotic landlords and a young gen-
The propriétaire, a middle-aged and very plain man,
an uneasy glance upon M. D; "I want 1,500 francs for it."
A PAGE OF PARIS GOSSIP.
WITH the month of June commences the season
of suburban excursions in Paris. The Parisians are slaves to usages and dates. From the first day of this sunny month, and in despite of weather or circumstance, they hasten away to their villas at Asnières, Ville d'Avray, Bellevue, and It seems that Monsieur D- after having given Nanterre. By a fortunate occurrence of time and notice to quit his apartment, had neglected to engage labor, the railway of Auteuil has been lately opened, another. The fatal day approached, almost before and now serves to convey the wearied habitués of he was aware of it, and he was obliged to go in the salons to a new and charming colony of rural quest of another, for move he must on the morning residences lately built, called the Villa Montmo- of the second day. His search proved fortunate, rency, and situated in the pseudo Parc de Bonflers, and his choice was soon made. In a pretty house near the pleasantest part of the Bois de Boulogne. in the Chaussee d'Antin, he found a little room to In peopling the park with all kinds of elegant let, with which he was greatly pleased. retreats, the builders have been careful to spare the finest trees, and have contrived to leave them standing in the gardens of the various mansions. The architecture is polygener, and every dwelling bears
"I should have preferred a larger apartment," he said to the concierge, "and one not so high as the fourth story; but I have not time to seek a better. What is the rent?"
"He lives in the house," replied the concierge;
its distinctive character. Here we find the Swiss
A correspondent of the N. Y. "Courier and En-
"He told me 800 francs."
"That is my business. I have as much right to
ask a high price as you have to refuse it.”
"All the worse for me if I do not let it before." "But, monsieur, I am compelled to move to-morrow morning. I had relied upon your room; where am I to find another between this and then?"
"I cannot help that. I must have the 1,500. It is for you to take it or leave it."
"Then I decide upon accepting," replied the young man, for he was rich enough to pay the sacrifice, and so avoid the trouble of seeking another lodging
'You accept !” cried the propriétaire. "You consent to pay 1,500 francs for a room that is only worth 800! Then my suspicions were correct!"
"What suspicions, monsieur? I do not understand you."
"Spare yourself useless falsehood, monsieur. I see through your intentions, and I glory in defeating your odious plans! You shall not lodge in my house for any price, so there's an end of the matter!"
And he slammed the door in M. D's face, who turned away, persuaded that he had been dealing
with a madman. And. in fact, the man was a monomaniac of jealousy, who imagined the whole world were in league to rob him of the affections of his pretty wife.
A NIGHT IN THE LIFE OF A PHYSICIAN.
Now this was far from pleasant. In fact it was a very awkward fix to be in. I did not know how to act. The madman made a grasp at me, but fortunately I eluded his grasp, and thinking it better to wild-fight in the dark, I seized his lamp and cast it on the floor. The room was now dark. The madman set up a terrific yelling, and I could hear him lock the door and put the key in his pocket, while he kept muttering.
"For God's sake, doctor," said he, "come with me! It's a case of life or death. A young girl has stabbed herself; she is bleeding to death. One thousand dollars if you save her! Come, oh, do not. delay." And he rushed towards me, as if to drag me along.
I hurried away with him, snatching my instruments from the table as I passed it. I think I never saw before such conclusive grief as this man's face expressed. He was a handsome man, with one of those faces the ladies so much admire, jet black hair, clustering in waving curls over a white forehead. The lower part of his otherwise feminine features was relieved by a deep jet black beard.
"And so," replied Michael, bitterly, "the land I have cultivated for twenty years, and earned by my "I will kill him, I will kill him! Oh! it will be unceasing labors, is to be taken away from me by a rare sport to see him die like she did!" foreigner, simply because he happens to be born a fifteenth cousin!"
I felt my courage rise with the emergency. I half determined to try a struggle with him; but I knew the increased strength that the insane possess, and I thought it scarcely prudent. What should I do? I must do something. It would soon be daylight, when I would again be in his power. I felt for some weapon with which to defend myself, and, as luck would have it, found a heavy dumb bell in the corner where I lay concealed. Presently, I heard the madman slowly searching for me. I raised the dumb bell: May God forgive me," I said; it descended, and I was free.
The madman lay stunned on the floor. I rushed to the door, smashed in the As he said thse words, they turned a corner of the lock with the heavy metal, and rushed down stairs. path, and came suddenly upon the open glade, where Presently, the house was all in commotion. Oh! the balloon was floating a few feet above their heads, The girl dead in a pool of blood-sustaining a light, pretty car, which seemed to be the man insensible on the floor, with the dagger swimming over the grass. We reached the house. On a satin couch, in a splendid room-the rich Turkey carpet covered with firmly clutched in his hand. her blood-lay a young girl. I think I never saw slowly recovered. But reason never returned. He admiration. It was the first time she had ever seen
what a scene!
I bled him and he
Florence could not restrain a cry of surprise and
I asked him for the particulars of the case. "Doctor," said he, "make haste. I shall go mad. Why, I would give every drop of blood in this body to save one drop of hers. Oh, God!" said he, "pre. She stabbed herself before I could prevent her. Make haste, doctor-oh, my God! my
serve my reason.
such a beautiful creature. Even with pallid countenance and bloodless lips she was more of heaven than earth. What she was when the roses played on her downy cheeks I could fancy.
There was a deep wound over the heart, and it was quite evident that the blow had been given with right good will. On the floor, covered with blood, lay the weapon -a slight Damascene dagger, the handle richly set with pearls, strongly lit up with the reflection from the blood-stained ivory.
I was too late! Alas, the life-blood was slowly dropping away. That masterpiece of creation was soon to be cold and inanimate. She slowly opened her eyes and fixed them with dying love upon the young man who had summoned me to this scene of death.
“Sidney," she said, "Sidney, I am dying. My own Sidney, I could not live neglected. I told you I would love you to death. Kiss me, Sidney." She sank back, and death closed upon his victim!
My companion sat for some time strangely staring at the lifeless form on the couch. I could perceive that reason was tottering on its foundation. I was fascinated by his strange look. At last I went up to him.
"Sir," I said, "she is no more. Death has released her from her troubles."
"Dead! Did you say she is dead, doctor?" said he, with a strange and curious stare at me. "Ah! and you have murdered her," yelled the madman, for such he was now. You have murdered her, and I shall murder you. Ah! ah! it will be rare sport." Before I could prevent him, he had picked up the dagger. "Yes," said he, with a yell, "I will murder you with her dagger. I wiil stab you in the same place. Oh! it will be rare sport to see you groan and struggle like she did. Ah! ah!" and he nade a bound at me.
a madman to this day.
I never heard the history of my patients of that night. They were strangers in the house. I never will forget that night's adventure.
his reasons and circumstances, I am accused of interested and almost fraudulent designs by this Loffmann !"
These latter had long been so popular as to attract great crowds, perhaps the more so as the aërial voyages were as little dangerous as they were short. The balloons were strongly attached to the ground by ropes, which could be lengthened or shortened at pleasure, the ascent never exceeding the tops of the trees, even among the bravest of the adventurers.
"Alas! he does not know us, brother," said the
girl, gently. "They have filled him with prejudices against us, and he has believed them, because it was his interest to do so."
The crowd were now leaving the balloon for the fireworks on another terrace, when a young girl, leaning on the arm of a man about forty years of age, appeared at the end of the avenue. They were talking slowly, and appeared pre-occupied by some serious matter. After a silence, the man said, energetically
"No, sister: as long as I live I can never forgive that Christian Loffmann for disputing my inheriting Loerrach, my cousin's property; for Heaven knows it was not left to me as a gift, but as my right for what he owed me."
"He should have said so in his will, Michael," answered the young girl.
"And just because he did not, I am despoiled of my due! Because a dying man did not explain all
"The judgment has not been given," interrupted Florence.
"Ah, but I have little to hope from it," answered Michael. "This Loffmann is young and active; he has friends, too; perhaps the decree has already been pronounced
He stopped on hearing his sister sigh.
"Well, well; here I am talking of it all again, when I brought you here on purpose to make us both forget it. I wish something wonderful would happen to divert us—"
A NIGHT AMONG THE CLOUDS.
HE sun was setting on a certain Sunday in
a balloon closely. She drew nearer.
"Two more places!" cried the man who held the cords.
One man was sitting in the car, in the dress of a traveller, with one of the iron-spiked walking-sticks used on mountain excursions.
"Two places! Who will go for a ride in the air?" repeated the man.
"Is there no danger?" asked the girl.
"None in the least," answered the man; more than ten thousand souls have taken these little
"And can one descend when one likes ?" "You need only ring the little hand-bell." "Let us go!" cried Michael. And so saying, he lifted Florence into the car. The man loosed the ropes, and in another moment the balloon slowly began to ascend. The young girl turned pale. The stranger saw it, and moving towards the hand-bell said, smiling-" Shall we stop ?"
"Yes, and from an adversary who neglects no ties—and stiffness in their limbs-Florence at last means of annoying me." glided down from her seat, unable to support herself any longer. "I am sleepy," she murmured.
"Like mine," returned Michael. "If he gains his cause, I loose everything I have gained in my whole life."
"Ah, I see," said Michael, "our positions are alike; you plead against some Christian Loffmann,
How far does your demesne extend?”.
"And I, all I have been looking to in the future."
But she did not move.
Michael started, as if his conscience told him his guest had divined his secret thoughts.
"Ah! you want to know how much your cause
"Take this cloak."
He turned, and saw Loffmann stripping himself will gain for you?" he answered, bitterly. of his coat, which was lined with fur. "Upon my word I was not thinking of it!" replied "But you yourself?" hesitated Ritter, touched Loffmann, but he looked disconcerted. and surprised. "You need not blush about it," said Ritter: "we each have confidence in our own rights, naturally.
"Christian Loffmann!" cried the stranger. Why that is my name! And my adversary is Michael Ritter!"
"Why that is mine!"
And the two men exchanged glances of surprise, passion, and hatred. Florence looked frightened. She laid a hand on her brother's arm. "Let us descend!" said she. But he would not listen. "What Mr. Loffmann said of his adversary is a calumny!" exclaimed he, with glittering eyes. "And what Mr. Ritter said of his is false !" plied the young man forcibly.
'Oh, heavens! let us descend!" said the girl, tremblingly.
"Yes," said Michael," explanations will be more satisfactory on the ground."
He rang the bell; but the balloon remained tionary: again, a second and third time, with as little effect. They looked over the side of the car.
"Oh, waken up! waken up!" cried Michael; "sleep here is death! Get up, Florence! get
"I have none left," cried Christian. "Here is my hand, Ritter, and it is a true friend's hand!"
"I accept it as such. Loffmann, we have both been deceived, each believing the other to be ill-in"And I hope they will be decisive," added Loff- tentioned, because our interests were opposed; and man, in a significant voice. we had no means of learning the contrary by acsta-quaintance. Let us thank God that in our last hour He has brought us together, that we may appear
before him without rancor in our hearts."
"Amen!" answered Loffmann, "and may God forgive us as we forgive each other!"
Then, looking up, they perceived a pale light on one side it was the dawn.
"Gracious Heavens!" cried Michael, "there is an emeute in the gardens! They are tearing down the railings, and making a bonfire of the seats, and breaking the lamps !"
"There! they are now under the balloon!" "What are they doing?"
"Let this wipe out the past. I am sorry I said another, far and near.
"Let us forgive each other, then," answered
"I am stronger," he answered, briefly.
Both stooped to wrap it round the girl, and their I will show you the demesne." hands met. Michael seized his adversary's
"By Jove, they are cutting the cords!"
The wind appeared to change and sink; the balloon began to descend slowly; and a little hope re-animated their hearts. The sun rose, and the country began to re-appear. It seemed like a resurrection to them. The earth existed still, and for them; and the balloon continued to descend. They soon distinguished the villages and fields. Suddenly Ritter joyfully exclaimed,—
The three travellers shrieked aloud—but in vain believing the car empty, the students had cut the cords, and in another moment the balloon darted high into air, and disappeared from their eyes in the gathering clouds of night.
"It is Loerrach!" and Florence, revived and thankful, recognised their old house and meadows.
But at this moment the balloon seemed beginning to re-ascend on a fresh wind. Florence clasped her hands.
The unfortunate prisoners in the air waisted some breath in useless cries and exclamations; but despair soon succeeded, and they remained silent and quiet, believing themselves doomed to a speedy but inevitable death. Florence hid her face on her brother's shoulder, but he had no words of consolation to give her.
conducted his two companions after their common deliverance. Their mutual congratulations had at first quite occupied their minds; but now that the first feelings of relief had passed away, Ritter began to feel his menaced interests re-awakening within him.
And he pointed out woods and fields, one after
Loffmann stepped cautiously on the edge of the so lately uttered, kept them from communication car, and hanging on by the cords, thrust the spike
even in their common danger.
of his walking-staff through the silk of the balloon. Meanwhile the balloon, at the mercy of the night- The gas rushed out with a roar; the balloon sank winds, floated through the sky, with the rapidity of with frightful rapidity, and the travellers shut their a swallow returning to its nest, while its inmates eyes in terror. A violent bump came, and they could but just perceive the glimmer of some town or found themselves entangled in the branches of a pine city over which they were passing. But, by degrees, tree, with the car but a few feet from the ground. even this failed them: the balloon mounted higher, Towards the close of the same day, Loffmann and and the cold became oppressive. Dull rumblings Ritter were leaning out of the window of the old came in their ears-sharp tinglings in their extremi-house-the disputed property-to which Michael had
"It seems a wonderfully well-cultivated property,"
"I have given every thought and hour I possessed to it," replied Michael. "I had hoped to continue my improvements; but who can tell how many or how few days it may perhaps still be mine? Perhaps, already"
As he said these words, Florence entered; she seemed troubled as she advanced, holding a letter in her hand.
"Is that from M. Litoff?" asked Michael, and he turned pale.
"Yes," answered the girl.
"Then the judgment is pronounced, and we shall soon know??
He stretched out his hand for the letter, but the hand trembled. Florence took it between hers; and looking timidly at Loffmann, said gently
“Whatever happens, do not let us forget that we have forgiven each other!"
"The letter! the letter!" cried Michael, impatiently. The girl drew back a step.
"Promise to submit quietly, and not angrily, to the decision," she said. And pointing to the hill, where the pine-tree which had entangled them was still visible, she added, solemnly—
"Have you so soon forgotten our night in the clouds?"
Ritter and Loffmann looked at each other. For a moment they each hesitated, and then held out their hands both together.
"Ah," cried Michael, "it shall not be said that in danger alone our hearts were disposed to mercy! Saved by the goodness of God, let us prove our
"Is there no means of stopping it?" she cried, imploringly. "There is one," said Loffmann, "but it is a dan- gratitude by our submission. We have left our gerous one." enmity in the clouds-do not let us return to it on
Loffmann sat at the other end of the car, seeming somewhat less disturbed, and now and then casting 'Oh, let us try it!” cried Ritter; "nothing can earth. Whatever this letter may announce, I declare a look of pity on Ritter and his sister; but the re-be worse than last night!" that I will accept my fate with peace and calmness." collection of their enmity and their reciprocal insults
"And for myself, I shall thank Heaven for having gained a friend," answered Christian, " even if it tells me of the ruin of all my hopes."
Florence gave the letter to her brother. He opened it with a firm hand, and turned slightly pale.
"You are in your own house, Loffmann," said he, turning to the young man.
"In my favor" cried Loffmann.
"You are master of all that belonged to your cousin ; his demesne is yours—”
"A demesne is not worth as much as the happiness