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* 28. F. (A.) ELLIÓPTICA Bosc. The elliptic-leaved Ash. Identification. Bosc, l. c.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 56. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 3 pairs of leaflets, pilose beneath, oblong,

mucronate, a little toothed. Buds fulvous. Branches brownish black. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 56.) A tree, a native of North America. Introduced in 1824, and flowering in April and May. There are plants of this sort in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges.

4 29. F. (A.) FU'sca Bosc. The brown-branched Ash. Identification. Bosc, I. c. ; Don's Mill., 4. p. 56. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves with 3 pairs of leaflets, glabrous above, but the veins villous beneath ;

leaflets oblong, mucronate, unequally toothed. Branches brown. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 56.) A tree, a native of North America. Introduced in 1823, and flowering in April and May. We are not aware of this sort being in British gardens.

* 30. F. (A.) RU'FA Bose. The rufous-haired Ash. Identification. Bosc, I. c.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 56. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 2 pairs of leaflets, beset with rufous hairs beneath, lanceolate, acuminated, cuspidate, unequally toothed. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 56.) A tree, a native of North America Introduced in 1822, and lowering in April and May; but we have not seen the plant.

† 31. F. (A.) PANNO'sa Vent. et Bosc. The cloth-like-leaved Ash.
Identification. Vent. et Bosc, 1. c. ; Don's Mill., 4. p. 56.
Engraving. The plate of this species in our last Volume.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves with 3 pairs of leaflets, villously tomentose beneath,
petiolate, ovate, quite entire, attenuated at both ends. Buds fulvous.
Petioles glabrous. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 56.) A tree, a native of Carolina.
Introduced in 1820, and flowering in April and May. There are plants of
this sort in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges; and there is a tree, at Ham
House 67 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk is 2 ft. 8 in., and of the head
48 ft. A portrait of this tree, as it appeared in the autumn of 1835, will
be found in our last Volume. As far as the present gardener, Mr. James
Loudon, has observed, this tree has never flowered.

* 32. F. Bo'schi G. Don Bosc's Ash.
Identification. Don's Mill., 4. p. 55.
Synonyme. F. nana Bosc, but not Willd.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 3 pairs of glabrous leaflets, oblong, acuminate, and toothed. Common

petioles winged at the base. Buds blackish. Branches cinereous. Flowers naked. (Don's Mill, iv.
p. 55.) A tree, a native of North America, lowering in May and June.

. 33. F. (A.) POLEMONIIFO'LIA Poir. The Greek-Valerian-leaved Ash. Identification. Poir. in N. Du Ham., 4. p. 66,; Don's Mill., 4. p. 54. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. E. nana Desf. Hort. Par. et Arb., 1. p. 104. ; F. nàna (appendiculáta) Pers. Enck., 2. Spec. Char., fc. Leaflets usually 4–5 pairs, quite glabrous, sharply toothed,

ovate, nearly sessile, approximate, 6–7 lines long, and 3 lines broad, acute. Petioles a little winged; common petioles winged. Branches of a livid lead-colour. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 54.) A branched shrub, a native of North America, flowering in April and May: Introduced in 1812. There are plants bearing this name in the collection of the Messrs. Loddiges, but we can see nothing in their leaves resembling any species of Polemònium.

1 34. F. (1.) TRI'PTERA Nutt. The three-winged-fruited Ash. Identification. Nutt. Gen. Amer., 2. p. 232.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 56. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaflets obovate, entire, tomentose beneath, oblique at the base. Samara broad,

elliptic-obovate, mostly 3-winged, attenuated at the base, 1.seeded. Seed 3-sided. (Don's Mul., iv. p. 56.) A tree, a native of South Carolina, in oak forests, not yet introduced.

* 35. F. chine'nsis Roxb. The China Ash. Identification. Roxb. Fl. Ind., 1. p. 150.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 55. Spec. Char., &c. Leaflets from 3 to 7, lanceolate, serrated. Panicles axillary and terminal.

Leaves glabrous. Lateral leaflets on short petioles, and smaller than the terminal one, which is protruded on a winged petiole. Branches erect. Flowers apetalous. Panicles drooping. Style long and curved. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 55.) A tree, growing to the height of from 19 t to 20 ft. ; a native of China; and flowering in April. We have not heard of this species being in Britain,

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1 36. F. SCHIEDEA'NA Schlecht. Schiede's Ash. Identification. Schlecht. et Cham. in Linnæa, 6. p. 1.; Don's Mill., 4. p 55. Synonyme. Fagara dubia Ræm. et Schult., 3. p. 288. Spec. Char., &c. Glabrous. Leaves with 3 pairs of sessile, lanceolate, bluntish, quite entire leaflets,

or with a few obsolete serratures in front; the old ones the longest, and attenuated at the base; all thin, shining above, and paler beneath. Common petiole channeled. Samara nearly linear, with the wing hardly dilated in front, elliptic-oblong, obtuse at the apex, ending in an oblique little point. Calyx deeply 5-parted. Stigmas 2. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 55.) A tree, 10 it. to 15 ft. high; a native of Mexico, in warm situations. Not yet introduced.


OʻRNUS Pers. The FLOWERING Ass. Lin. Syst. Diándria Monogynia,

or Polygàmia Dic'cia. Identification. Pers. Ench., 1. p. 8.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 6.; Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. 6.;

Lindl. Nat. Syst. Bot., p. 308.; Dyn's Mill., 4. p. 56.
Synonymes. Fráxinus sp. of the older authors; le Frène à Fleurs, Fr.; die blühende Esche, Ger. ;

Oren, Hebrew ; Oreině mēlia, Greek.
Derivation. From oros, the Greek word for a mountain,
Gen, Char., &c. Flowers hermaphrodite, or of distinct sexes. Calyx to

parted or 4-toothed. Corolla 4-parted; segments long, ligulate. Stamens with long filaments. Stigma emarginate. Samara l-celled, l-seeded, winged. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 56.)-Trees, natives of Europe, North America, and Asia ; with impari-pinnate leaves, and terminal or axillary panicles of flowers, distinguished from those of the common ash, by having corollas. Culture and price as in the American species of Fráxinus.

* 1. O. EUROPÆ'A Pers. The European Flowering, or Manna, Ash. Identification. Pers. Ench., 1. p. 9. ; Sav. Trat., ed. 2. t. 1. ; Don's Mill., 4. p. 56. Synonymes Fraxinus O'rnus Lin. Sp., 1510., Smith Fl. Græc., 1. t. 4., Mill. Ic., t. 1., Lam.

m., 9. t. 858. f. 2, Woodv. Med. Bot., 1. p. 104., Church, et Stev. Med. Bot., 2. t. 53., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; F. Oʻrnus, and F. paniculata Min. Dict., No. 3. and No. 4. ; F. Borífera Scop. Carn.,

No. 1250. ; F. botryöldes Mor. Prælud., 265. ; F. vulgatior Segn. Ver., 2. p. 290. Engravings. Fl. Græc., 1. t. 4 ; Mill. Fig., t'l.; Lam. II., $. t 858. 1. 2.; Woodv. Med. Bot., 1.

p. 104. i. 36. ; Church. et Stev. Med. Bot., 2. t. 53. ; N. Du Ham., t. 15. ; and the plates of this species in our last Volume. Varieties. Oʻrnus rotundifolia and 0. americana, described below as species, are, without doubt, only varieties of 0. europæ'a; and there is another variety, introduced from the Continent in 1835, of which there are young plants in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges, bearing the name of F. O'mus

globífera. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 3—4 pairs of lanceolate or elliptic, attenuated,

serrated, stalked leaflets, which are entire at the base, villous or downy beneath. Flowers greenish white. Peduncles axillary, solitary, shorter than the leaves. Flowers complete or hermaphrodite. Young branches purplish or livid, with yellow dots. Buds cinereous. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 56.) A tree, from 20 ft. to 30 ft. high ; a native of the south of Europe. Introduced in 1730, and flowering in May and June.

Properties and Uses. This species, the following one, and, probably, all those of both the genera Fraxinus and Oʻrnus, extravasate sap, which, when it becomes concrete, is mild and mucilaginous. This sap is produced in more abundance by Oʻrnus europæ'a and 0. rotundifolia, than by any other species; and, collected from these trees, it forms an article of commerce

under the name of manna, This substance is chiefly collected in Calabria and Sicily; where, according to the Materia Medica of Geoffroy, the manna runs of itself from the trunks of some trees, while it does not flow from others unless wounds are made in the bark. Those trees which yield the manna spontaneously grow in the most favourable situations; and the sap runs from them spontaneously only during the greatest heats of summer. It begins to ooze out about mid-day, in the form of a clear liquid, which soon thickens, and continues to appear till the cool of the evening ; when it begins to harden into granules, which are scraped off the following morning. When the night has been damp


or rainy, the manna does not harden, but runs to the ground, and is lost. This kind is called manna in tears, or manna lagrimi; and it is as pure and white as the finest sugar. About the end of July, when the liquid ceases to flow of itself, incisions are made through the bark and soft wood; and into these incisions slender pieces of straw or twig are inserted, on which the manna runs, and, coating them over, hardens on them. This is the common manna of the shops, which is thus collected in the form of tubes; and it is called manna in cannoli, or manna cannoli

. Another and inferior sort is procured by making an oblong incision in the trees, in July or August, and taking off a piece of the bark about 3 in. in length, and 2 in. in breadth. This kind, which is called manna grassa, is the coarsest; but, as it is produced with least trouble, and in great abundance, it is also the cheapest. Sometimes, instead of cutting out a piece of bark, and leaving the wound open, two horizontal gashes are made, one a little above the other; in the upper of which is inserted the stalk of a maple leaf, the point of the leaf being fixed in the lower gash, so as to form a sort of cup to receive the manna, and to preserve it from dust and other impurities. The greater part of the manna of commerce is procured in the latter manner; and it is imported in chests, in long pieces, or granulated fragments, of a whitish or pale yellow colour, and in some degree transparent. The inferior kind is of a dark brown colour, in adhesive masses, and is moist and unctuous when felt. Manna from the ash has a peculiar odour, and a sweetish taste, accompanied with a slight degree of bitterness. It is considered aperient; was formerly much used in medicine; but is now chiefly used to disguise other drugs in administering them to children. This manna must not be confounded with the manna of the Scripture, which, as already observed (P.646.) is obtained from the Alhàgi Mauròrum, and is known in the East, in modern times, as the Persian or Syrian manna; or with the Arabian manna, which, Burckhardt tells us, is obtained from the tamarisk. A similar substance is also obtained from the larch in the south of France, where it is known by the name of manne de Briançon The rhododendron, the walnut, and the beech, also, yield an analogous substance, as, probably, do various other trees; for the sap of most ligneous plants is more or less sweet and mucilaginous; and, consequently, when collected in any quantity, susceptible of becoming concrete by evaporation. The manna of Lebanon is the gum mastic; and the manna of Poland is composed of the seeds of Glycèria flùitans. The seeds of 0. europæ'a and of 0. (e) rotundifolia are small, as exhibited in fig. 1065; they have an aromatic flavour, and are very generally em

1065 ployed, in Egypt, for seasoning food. (Dict. Clus. d'Hist. Nat.; Nouveau Cours d'Agric., &c.) This and the other species of Oʻrnus are commonly propagated by grafting on Fráx

1066 inus excélsior;

and as the stock in this case is a much more vigorous-growing plant than the scion, when the graft has been made a foot or more above ground, the stock enlarges on every side, so much more than the scion, as to produce the appearance of the base of a column, as in fig. 1066. c; and, if, after the scion of O'rnus had grown to the height of 20 ft. or 30 ft., it were headed down to 10 ft. or 12 ft. and budded or grafted with the common ash, the scion would enlarge on every side; and if again headed down to within a foot of the second graft, and regrafted with O'rnus, the appearance of the capital of a column would be produced, as



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of fig. 1066. d. If, again, a stock of the common ash were grafted with O'rnus, and, after it had grown one year, were headed down to within 14 ft. or 2 ft. of the graft, and a scion of the common ash inserted ; and, at the end of the year, if the shoot produced were grafted with O'rnus at the same distance as before, and if this practice were continued, and O'rnus and Fraxinus grafted alternately at regular distances, till the stem had attained the height of a column, say of 10 ft. or 12 ft., the appearance, after the tree had grown for some years, would be as in fig. 1066. b; which is what architects call a rusticated column. Again, if O'rnus were made the stock, and the common ash grafted on it, and allowed to grow till it attained the height of a column, and if it were then grafted with O'rnus, the appearance would be as in fig. 1066. a, which is that of the Roman fasces, or of a column formed out of spears. The most singular tree of O'rnus europæ'a, perhaps, in Europe, is that noticed by Dr. Neill, as growing in the Leyden Botanic Garden in 1817. In the Journal of a Horticultural Tour &c., p. 153., an engraving is given of this tree, together with its dimensions; and fig. 1067. is a copy of this engraving, reduced to a scale of 1 in. to 12 ft. This tree was planted in the time of Boerhaave, and, it is reported, was grafted by the professor himself; it must, therefore, be considerably above 100 years old. Its trunk in 1817 was nearly 12 ft. high; and from the ground to the summit of the

1067 branches was about 24 ft. The sloping bark at the junction of the stock and graft was quite smooth and complete all round; a fact, Dr. Neill observes, that would seem to indicate that the stock and graft had originally been nearly adapted to each other with regard to size. “ All roundthe stem are numerous knobs and distorted protuberances, producing the most singular effect. In no place, however, is there any appearance of canker or disease, the bark being every where healthy. The stem is crowned by a thicket of irregular and crowded branches, which form, upon the whole, a fine round head.” (Hort. Tour, p. 134.) While the revise of this sheet is before us, we have received the dimensions and a portrait of this tree in its present state, through the kindness of Professor Reinwardt of Leyden. It is still a curious tree, but from age and decay considerably different from the figure above given.

Many oddities of this kind might be produced by the curious gardener. The idea of suggesting them occurred to us some years ago, on seeing a very remarkable specimen in the New Cross Nursery, which has been since removed. There is one at Purser's Cross, and some at Syon ; though the largest tree in the latter place (of which an engraving is given in our last Volume) appears to be either a seedling plant, or grafted under the surface of the ground, as no protuberances appear. At Kew, there is one, of which fig. 1068. is a sketch (e being a view from one side, and f a view from the opposite side), which is to our scale of 1 in. to 12 ft. There is also a fine specimen of Oʻrnus americana at Kew, grafted on the common ash; but, as the growth of the two species is nearly alike, there is less difference between the scion and the stock. (See fig. 1071. in p. 1245.) At Gunnersbury, the same

f effect, and to the same extent, has been produced by grafting the variegated on the common sycamore; and, indeed, a similar result may be obtained by grafting any slow-growing tree on a fast-growing one.

1068 Statistics. O'rnus europæ'a in England. In the environs of London, the largest tree is that at Syon, which is 58 A. high, and of which a portrait is given in our Third Volume; at Purser's Cross

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there is a tree 35 ft. high ; another, of the same height, at Ken Wood; and at Kew, one 30 R. high. South of London, in Devonshire, there is a tree at Endsleigh Cottage, which, in 15 years, has attained the height of 25 ft., with a trunk 9 in. in diameter. In Dorsetshire, at Melbury Park, a tree, 50 years planted, is 36 ft. high. In Surrey, at Bagshot Park, one, 30 years planted, is 20 ft. high North of London, in Berkshire, at White Knights, a tree, 24 years planted, is 30 it, high. In Cam. bridgeshire, in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, one, 40 years planted, is 40 ft. high. In Cheshire, at Kinmel Park, one, 20 years planted, is 24 it. high. In Oxfordshire, in the Oxford Botanic Garden, a tree, 40 years planted, is 30 ft. high. In Pembrokeshire, at Stackpole Court, there is a tree 70 years planted, and 40 it. high. In Shropshire, at Willey Park, a tree, 12 years planted, is 21 ft. high. In Worcestershire, at Croome, a tree, 40 years planted, is 40 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 22 in., and of the head 25 it. ; at Hagley, 10 years planted, it is 13 ft. high.

Oʻrnus europæ`a in Scotland. In Ayrshire, at Blair, it is 25 ft. high, with a head 26 ft. in diameter. In Banffshire, at Gordon Castle, it is 26 ft. bigh. In Clackmannanshire, in the garden of the Dollar Institution, a tree, 12 years planted, is 14 ft. high. In Fifeshire, at Danibristle Park, there is a tree 30 ft. high, with the trunk 14 in. in diameter, and the diameter of the head 30 ft. In Perthshire, in the Perth Nursery, a tree, 25 years planted, is 14 ft. high; the diameter of the trunk Sin., and of the head 12 ft.

O'rnus europæ`a in Ireland. In the environs of Dublin, at Terenure, 10 years planted, it is only 6 ft. high. In King's County, at Charleville Forest, 50 years planted, it is 34 ft. high. In Louth, at Oriel Temple, a tree, 45 years planted, is 41 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 2 in., and of the head 35 ft., on clayey soil; it flowers abundantly, but does not form any seed.

Oʻrnus europæ á in Foreign countries. In France, in the Botanic Garden at Toulon, a tree, 40 years planted, is 36 ft. high; at Clervaux, near Chatellerault, 29 years planted, it is 29 ft high. In Holland, in the Botanic Garden at Leyden, is the tree fig. 1067., which is 24 ft. high, the diameter of the stock, or base of the column, is 32 in., and that of the shaft proceeding from it, 16 in. In Austria, at Vienna, in Rosenthal's Nursery, a tree, 14 years planted, is 15 ft. high; at Brück on the Leytha, one, 45 years planted, is 30 ft. high. In Hanover, at Göttingen, in the

Botanic Garden, a tree, 20 years planted, is 16 ft. high. 1 2. O. (E.) ROTUNDIFO‘lia Pers. The round-leafleted Flowering, or Manna,

Ash. Identification. Pers. Ench., 2. p. 605. ; Don's Mill., 4. p. 57. Synonymes. Fraxinus rotundifolia Ait

. Hort. Kew., 3. p. 445., Vahl Enum., 1. p. 49., Willd. Sp., 4. p. 1105., Willd. Baum., p. 145. t. 2. f. 1.; F. mannifera Hort., Pluk. dlmn., 182. £. 4., Bauh., Hisi, 1. p. 177. f. 2. Engravings. Willd. Baum., t. 2. f. 1.; Pluk. Alm., p. 4.; Bauh. Hist., 1. f. 2.; and our fig. 1069. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 3—5 pairs of roundish-ovate, bluntly serrated,

almost sessile leaflets, which are narrow at the base, rather small, and glabrous. Petioles channeled. Flowers with purplish petals, polygamous. Peduncles axillary. Branches and buds brown. The flowers come out in the spring, before the leaves, like those of other species of this genus, as well as of that of Fráxinus. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 57.) A tree, native to Calabria and the Levant, &c., where it grows to the height of from 16 ft, to 20 ft. It flowers in April, and was introduced into Britain in 1697, where it attains the height of 30 ft. or 40 ft. What has been said of 0. europæ'a may be considered as applicable to this which, we have no doubt whatever, is only a variety of it. 1069

1 3. 0. (E.) AMERICA'Na Pursh. The American Flowering Ash. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer.

1070 Sept., 1. p. 9.; Nutt. Gen. Amer.

1. p. 6. ; Don's Mill., 4. p. 57. Synonymes. F. americàna Linn.

Sp., 1510. ?; F. O'rmus americana Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Engraving. Our fig. 1070. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves with 2–5 pairs of oblong or ovate-acuminated, shining, serrated leaflets, each 3–5 in. long, and 2 in. broad, and having the larger veins rather villous, glaucous, and paler beneath, the odd one rather cordate. Flowers with petals, disposed in terminal panicles. Branches brownish grey. Buds brown. Samara narrow, obtuse,

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