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lony, who form the before-mentioned raw materials or CHA P.
productions by means of industry into some shape for use;
and the third or last, the class of merchants in the colony,
who are chiefly occupied in traffic and negociation, both
within and without the colony. It is of very great import-
ance, that

that every inhabitant, from the beginning, may class
himself yearly under either of these three, and that the im-
posts may be laid by the colonial legislature, in such propor-
tion, that the first class be taxed the lowest, and the last the
highest, and that the right of voting, in all cases, shall be con-
fined to the first class only *.

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195. That no colonist be allowed to possess more than a
certain portion of land, say acrest.


196. That, in order to prevent certain obvious irregularities, as much as possible, every colonist that remains unmarried after the age of years, shall pay a tax to the community of per cent. on his property, and all married people shall be encouraged in that state by an exemption from certain taxes.

197 That no colonist be arrested or imprisoned for debt,
* See the Plan of a free Community on the coast of Africa, entirely independent
of all European laws and Government, 4to. 1789, p. 23.

+ “ Experience has shown the inconvenience of private persons possessing too
large quantities of land in our colonies, by which means the greatest part of it must
lie uncultivated; and the inhabitants are thrown at such a distance that they can
neither allist nor defend one another.” Reasons for establishing the Colony of
Georgia, p. 29. --See the Note to Prop. II.
R 2


CHA P. at the instance of another; but that it may be the creditor's

own fault, if he part with his property on trust *.



198. That every ufeful mechanical invention, especially such as are calculated to abridge and facilitate human la. bour, in clearing and cultivating the soil, be particularly encouraged.--See § 132 et feq.

* Every individual belongs to the community, and not to any other individual. He cannot therefore be sold for money, far less for credit; because credit is often given by insidious men, or debts bought up by them, in order to inveigle and confine their competitors; and competition is the very life of an industrious communi. ty. The number of persons who are lost to fociety, to their families and themselves, by imprisonment for debt, is very great. Sixty years ago, it was calculated that four thousand were annually cast into prison for debt in England, and that one third of their debts were never thereby recovered.—(See Reasons for establifhing the Colony of Georgia, printed in 1733; page 18.) If the number of such victims has increased, as it is natural to believe it has, with the trade of the kingdom during that period, few thinking men will be disposed to rejoice at an extension of commerce which has brought such an evil in it's train. I am, indeed, credibly informed that, in the be. ginning of the present year (1794) no fewer than 27,000 persons were confined for debt in the gaols of England and Scotland. What a number to be thus shut up from the eyes, and, I fear, too often excluded from the hearts, of their fellow subjects!—But it is to be hoped that the promoters of colonization in Africa, will effe&tually prevent this afflicting evil from entering into any of their establishments, always remembering that one of their primary objects is, the abolition of the save. trade!-Sce $ 142, Query LI.

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by the Portuguese, Spaniards, French, Dutch and Austrians.

199. MOS

OST men yield a readier assent to facts, showing

what has already been done, than to arguments, proving what it is practicable to do. For the information then of persons who may be inclined to subscribe, or to embark as colonists, in any new undertaking of this kind, it may not be improper to introduce into this work, a short history of those modern European colonies which have already been established, or attempted, in Africa, on the principles of commerce, and of those which are now forming on the principles of humanity *. But it seems unnecessary to describe the temporary fettlements or factories.

THE PORTUGUÉS E t. 200. The Portuguese explored the coast of Africa, before * The interests of commerce and humanity were at first so successfully reconciled by the Dutch, at the Cape of Good Hope, that the sketch hereafter given of the first establishment of their colony in that part of Africa, deferves particular attention. Upon the whole, it appears to me to afford a very good model for forming colonies in general.

+ The following short account of the Portuguese colonies in Africa, I have compiled from the Atlas Maritimus et Commercialis, London printed 1728.-Morti. mer's and Postlethwayt's Commercial Dictionaries, both printed in London, 1766. - Tableau General de Commerce, Londres, 1787.–The Report of the British Privy Council, London 1789.-And the volumes already published of the Encyclopædia Britannica, 3d. edition now printing at Edinburgh.-It may be observed, however, that the present state of Portuguese Africa is different from what it was at the period which furnished the materials for these works.



CHA P. any other modern European nation; but from an ungenerous

reserve on the part of their government, or from some other Portuguese first explored

cause unknown to me, they have been so sparing in their the African communications, that I caňnot pretend to describe their cocoast.

lonies with that certainty and precision which I wish*. Among other causes of confusion, unsettled orthography is not the least. For example in the kingdom of Congo, we meet with Congo, Kakongo, Cango, Coango, names in the application of which geographers do not seem to be agreed. Thus much, however, is certain, that the Portuguese, posses. sions in Africa are far more important than those of any other European nation; and that in the hands of an active people, they could not fail to become the sources of immense power and opulence.

201. Portuguese Africa, as it may not improperly be called, extends on the west from about 5 deg. of north lat. to 10, some say 15 deg. south. Here, instead of being cooped up within the narrow limits of trading factories, as they are on other parts of the western coast, they are settled in colonies, under a regular government, and have built several large and well fortified towns. The soil, which is rich and well watered, they have, in several places, taught the natives to cultivate; for this kind of instruction forms no considerable part of the policy of the Portuguese clergy, who have taken

* I have the satisfaction of informing the reader, that since the above was written, the following sketch has had the advantage of being reviewed, and corrected in a few places, by Colonel Bolts, a gentleman whose knowledge of the eastern parts of Africa is allowed by those who have the honour of his acquaintance, to be very extensive. Having spent many years in the eastern parts of the world, he published in

1772, “ Considerations on India affairs," in three vols. 4to; and, I believe, he has it now in contemplation to lay also before the public the result of his personal and acquired knowledge of the East of Africa, noi only of the coast, but of the inlane country



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so much pains to convert the natives, that it is thought they CH A P.
have been the means of making many of them better christ-
ians than themselves. Thus much at least appears, that the
religion these fathers have taught the natives has contribut-
ed to soften their manners, if not to mend their morals, (See

36, et seq. and § 146). As a proof of this, we are assured,
that in many parts of this country, they are cloathed in the
European fashion, to which they are so habituated that,
even were the Portuguese to leave the country, they would
not soon abandon it.

202. Awerri, though in the kingdom of Benin, is subject Awerri. to the government of the Portuguese, who have here a caltle and a garrison; also a church and a monastery. It is worthy of remark, that though the river of Benin is very fatal to the English and Dutch seamen who frequent it, yet the Portuguese, who dwell farther within the country, do not experience any peculiar insalubrity of climate. This is one instance, among many, which might be adduced, to make it probable, that the interior of almost all of the western parts of Africa is more healthful than the coast. (See § 76, and 80.) : 203. Angola was first discovered by the Portuguese in Angola. 1484. They afterwards conquered several of it's provinces, and rendered the native king tributary for the rest, as his successors have since continued. Their acquisitions may extend 240 leagues along the coast, and, in some places, 100 within the land. The capital is St. Paul de Loanda, which has a good harbour. It is the seat of the government, and, every three years, receives a new governor from Portugal. The country has been cleared, drained and cultivated in so many places, as to improve it's climate very considerably. Some years ago, a number of people from Biscay were sent out to work the excellent iron mines in Angola; but they mis


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