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shining, clothed with appressed bristles. Flowers pentandrous. Calycine segments lanceolate, acute, deeply toothed, bristly. Filaments glabrous. Stems several, rising from the rootstock, 2-4 ft. long, procumbent, naked. Branches fascicled, leafy at the tips, beset with appressed silvery bristles, which change to brown as well as the calyses. Flowers solitary, or in pairs, nearly sessile, involucrated by bracteas. Corollas large, of a brilliant salmon colour, glabrous outside ; 'the limb spreading, with oblong blunt lobes; the upper lobes marked with deeper-coloured spots. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 846.) There is a subvariety of this kind, having the flowers pale pink and striped. A procumbent shrub, from 2 ft. to 3 ft. high, a native of Japan, Aowering in May and Junc. Introduced in

1833, but, at present, extremely rare in British gardens. R. reticulatum D. Don's MSS., Don's Mill., p. 846.; A. reticulata Hort. Leaves broadly ovate, acute, rather coriaceous, sparingly hairy, glaucous, and reticulately veined beneath. Stems erect, 1 ft. or 2 ft. high, stiff. Leaves stiff, if in. long, rounded at the base, bright green, and shining above, beset with a few appressed bristles, as well as the young shoots. This is a shrub, a native of Japan, or the mountains, where it grows from 1 t. to 2 nt. high, which was introduced in 1834, by Mr. Knight of King's Road, Chelsea; but, as it has not yet flow. ered in England, very little is known about it.

* R. Farreræ Taté, Swt. Fl.-Gard., 2d ser., t. 95., Don's Mill., 3. p. 846. ; A. Fárrere Hort.; and our fig. 958.; has the branches stiff, villous while young, but glabrous in the adult state. Leaves stiff, coriaceous, ovate, obtuse, ending in a short cartilaginous mucro, attenuated at the base, nerved, and reticulately veined, hairy on both surfaces, with somewhat recurved ciliated edges. Petioles ciliated at the base. Flowers terminal, solitary. Calyx pilose, 5-lobed. Corolla spreading, with undulated segments, lilac, or pale purple-red. It is a dwarf deciduous shrub, with decandrous flowers. A native of China, whence it was brought by Captain Farrer, in 1829. It flowers in March, but very little

is known of its habit. * R. decumbens D. Don MSS., Don's Mill., 3. p. 846.; A. decumbens

958 Hort.; has the stem decumbent; leaves ovate, acute; flowers pentandrous ; segments of the calyx ovate, acute, ciliated; fowers crimson (Don's Mill., 3. p. 846.) It is a native of China, whence it was introduced by Knight and Tate in 1823. It flowers in April and May.

B. Indian Azaleas not yet introduced. .R. scabrum Don's Mill., 3. p. 846.; A. scabra ; R. máximum Thunb. Fl. Jap., p. 181. ; has the leaves ovate, mucronulate, and acute at the base, coriaceous, and from 14 in. to Sin. long. The flowers are of a deep rose colour, and bell-shaped, with the corolla 3 in. in diameter. It is a shrub, a native of Japan, in woods on mountains.

R. mucronatum G. Don ; A. mucronata Blum. Bijdr., p. 853. ; is a shrub, a native of China ; and, according to G. Don, “perhaps the same as R. ledifolium” (A. i. 'álba Lindi.).

R. Burmánni G. Don; A. rosmarinifdlia Burm. ex Blum. Bijdr., p. 853., but not of Roth ; has the leaves linear-lanceolate, long-acuminated, with recurved margins, clothed with silky down on both surfaces. Flowers pentandrous. It is a shrub, a native of Japan.

. R. mollis G. Don; A. móllis Blum. Bijdr., p. 853.; has the branches pilose; the leaves oblong-lance olate, acute, narrowed at the base, ciliated, very soft beneath; the flowers in fascicles. Calyx rery short. Tube clothed with silky tomentum. It is a shrub, a native of China

. R. Loureirina G. Don; A. punctata Lour. Coch., p. 113.; has the leaves lanceolate, quite entire, rugose about the edges, smooth. Corolla white, dotted with red, as also the calyx, anthers, and germs. Flowers terminal. (Don's Mill., 3. p. 846.) It is a shrub, a native of Cochin-China, where it grows to the height of 4 ft. or 5 ft.


$ iv. Propagation and Culture of the half-hardy Species of Rhododendron and

Azalea. The soil best suited for these plants is heath mould, or peat as it is commonly called, mixed with fine loam and vegetable mould. For rearing plants from seed, and simply growing the species, such a compost, or even peat alone,

or sandy loam, will suffice; but, for producing large plants, which shall flower profusely, the essence of rotted dung, or of some other manure in which animal matter is included, requires to be added. The splendid specimens of Azalea and Rhododendron which annually attract so much attention in the April and May exhibitions of our Horticultural Societies have, in general, all been grown in very rich soil, and often watered with liquid manure. The Indian azaleas more particularly require a rich soil, in order to flower freely and abundantly, and produce those splendid pyramids of blossoms which are so much admired at our shows. On the other hand, when the Indian species of Rhododendron and Azalea are to be treated as half-hardy, they ought to be grown in soil which is poor rather than rich, and kept dry, more especially in autumn, in order to insure the production of no more wood than can be ripened.

The situation most suitable for balf-hardy rhododendrons and azaleas would appear to be a border in front of a wall facing the east; because almost all the species of the order, and more especially all the Indian species of the genera Rhododendron and Azalea, are natives of woods on mountains, and thrive best when somewhat shaded. The best mode, where it is intended to have a good collection, and to display the plants to the greatest advantage, would be to plant them in a conservatory, with a movable roof and sides, both of which could be taken away in summer; or in an open space between two walls, built in the direction of north and south; and on which walls a temporary roof might be placed in the winter season, such as is recommended for the half-hardy Leguminaceæ (p. 197.), and the half-hardy heaths (p. 1103.). If the Indian, or tree, rhododendrons were grown by themselves in the open ground, being evergreens, they might be covered, during winter, with a roof of boards or thatched hurdles, with only

a few windows here and there, as is practised with orange trees in the north of Italy, and sometimes about Paris.

Propagation. The Indian tree rhododendrons are propagated by layers, or by grafting on R. pónticum or R. catawbiense; and they may also, though with difficulty, be increased by cuttings of the growing wood, planted in sand, and then closely covered with a bell-glass, and put into heat. AU the Indian azaleas are very readily propagated by cuttings of the young wood. Both rhododendrons and azaleas ripen seeds in our greenhouses; and these should be sown immediately after being gathered, or very early in the spring, in fat pans or pots tilled with sandy peat, or peat mixed with a little loam and sand. The seeds should be covered as slightly as possible, and then placed in a very


gentle heat in a frame, or in a shady and moist part of a green-house, taking care that, as soon as the plants begin to come up, they may be placed close to the glass to receive the direct influence of the light, shading them, at the same time, from the sun's rays. The greatest care should be taken to keep the temperature and moisture as equal as possible, and to expose the tender seedlings to the morning and afternoon light; but to exclude the mid-day sun. As soon as the plants have got two or three leaves, they should be transplanted into other pans or pots, filled with the same kind of soil, and shifted into pots of a larger size as soon as these are nearly filled with the roots. This process may be continued for two or three years, when the plants will have attained the height of from 2 ft. to 4 ft., accordingly as they have been kept in a higher or lower temperature. The azaleas may be forced forward with the heat of a stove, so as to make two, or even three, shoots in a year; but the rhododendrons do not so readily admit of expeditious culture. Both rhododendrons and azaleas, whether of the hardy or half-hardy species, force readily; and, by that process, or retardation, may be made to flower at any season of the year.


KA'LMIA L. The Kalmia. Lin. Syst. Decándria Monogynia. Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 545.; Gærtn. Fruct., 1. p. 305. t. 63.; Juss. Gen., 158.; Nutt. Gen.

Amer., 1. p. 267. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 850. Synonyme. American Laurel. Derivation. Named by Linnæus in honour of Peter Kalm, professor at Abo, in Sweden; author of Travels in America in 1753.

Description. Low evergreen shrubs, highly ornamental in their foliage and flowers; natives of North America ; of easy culture in peaty soil, and propagated by layers, seeds, or cuttings.

e 1. K. LATIFO'lia L. The broad-leaved Kalmia. Identification. Lin. Sp., 560. ; Bigel. Med. Bot., p. 133. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 296. ; Don's

Mill., 3. p. 850. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. Mountain Laurel, Calico Bush, Calico Flower, Amer. Engravings. Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 175.; Wangh. Amer., t. 25. f.50. ; Catesb. Car., 2. t. 98. ; Trew

Ehrh., t. 38. f. 1. ; Pluk. Mant., t. 379. f. 6.; and our fig. 959 Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves on long petioles, scattered, or 3 in a whorl, oval,

coriaceous, smooth, and green on both surfaces. Corymbs terminal, downy, and viscid. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 850.) Flowers white, tinted with pale pink, delicately spotted. A shrub, very elegant when in flower, growing to the height of from 3 ft. to 10 ft. ; a native of North America, from Canada to Carolina, on the sides of stony hills. It was introduced in 1734, and flowers in June and July. This shrub, in its native soil, continues flowering great part of the summer ; and, according to Kalm, forms one of the greatest ornaments of those parts of America where it is indigenous ; and it is only in particular places where it thrives; though, according to Michaux, on the Alleghanies it occupies tracts of more than 100 acres. These are generally rocky, sterile, and near water. After it was intro

959 duced into England, it was for several years very unsuccessfully cultivated, till Mr. Peter Collinson procured some plants of it from Pennsylvania, where the climate being nearer to that of England, than either that of Carolina or Virginia, the plants obtained from it grew vigorously, and flowered in Mr. Catesby's garden at Fulham, for the first time in England, in 1741. Leaves of this species are poisonous to cattle and sheep, but not to deer. The wood is very hard, and is used by the Indians for making spoons and other domestic utensils. Michaux states that, of all the American woods, that of the Kálmia latifolia the most nearly resembles the European box; so that it might be probably worth while to import it for the use of wood-engravers.

. 2. K. ANGUSTIFOLIA L. The narrow-leaved Kalmia. Identification. Lin. Sp., 561. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 296. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 850.; Lodd. Cat.

ed. 1836. Synonyme. Sheep Laurel, Amer. Engravings. Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 331. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 502.; Catesb. Car., S. t. 17. £. 1.; Trem

Ehrh., i.:38. f. 2.; and our fig. 960.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves petiolate, scattered, or 3 in a

whorl, oblong, obtuse, rather rusty beneath. Corymbs
lateral. Bracteas linear. Peduncles and calyxes clothed
with glandular pubescence. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 850.)
Flowers dark red. This shrub is called sheep laurel,
because it is considered poisonous to sheep. A shrub,
growing from 1 ft. to 2 ft. high ; a native of North
America, from Canada to Carolina, in bogs, swamps,
and sometimes in dry mountain lands. It was intro-
duced in 1736, and flowers from May to July.

960 Variety. * K. a. 2 ovata Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., i. p. 296., is a native of New

Jersey, on the mountains, with broader leaves and a taller stem.

2 3. K. GLAU'CA Ait. The glaucous-leaved Kalmia.
Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2., p. 64. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 296.; Don's Mill., Sp. 850
Synonyme. K. polifdlia Wangh. Act. Soc. Berol., 8. p. 129. t. 5.
Engravings. Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 177. ; Lam. I., t. 363. ; L'Hérit. Stirp. Nov., 2. t. 9.; Lodd. Bot

Cab., t. 1508.; Wangh. Act. Soc. Berol., 8. p. 129. t. 5. ;' and our fig. 96i. Spec. Char., $c. Branchlets somewhat 2-edged.

Leaves opposite, on short petioles, oblong, smooth glaucous beneath, with revolute edges. Corymbs terminal, compound, bracteate. Pedicels and calyxes glabrous. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 850.) A very handsome, upright, small shrub, from 1 ft. to 2 ft. high, with pale red flowers. According to Nuttall, the flowers are disposed in terminal compound corymbs, each corymb composed of 3 racemose corymbules; and the pedicels and calyxes are said by him to be clothed with powdery viscid pubescence. A native of the bogs of Canada, and on the borders of the mountain lakes of New York and Pennsylvania, and of the Island of Sitcha. It was introduced in 1767, and flowers in April and May. The flower is comparable to a miniature parasol : the corolla to the covering, the stamens to the rays that keep the covering dis

961 tended, and the style to the handle. Variety. K. g. 2 rosmarinifòlia Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., i. p. 296. — Leaves linear,

. more revolute on the margins, and having the under surface green. Mr. Pursh discovered this variety in a bog near Albany, and is

inclined to think it a distinct species.

. 4. K. cunea'TA Michx. The wedge-shaped-leaved Kalmia. Identification. Michx. FI. Bor. Amer. 1. p. 257.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 296.; Don's Min., 3. p. 850. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves scattered, sessile, cuneate-oblong, glandularly pu

bescent beneath, minutely armed at the apex. Corymbs lateral, few-flowered. Branches twiggy. Leaves deciduous. Flowers hite, red at the bottom, disposed in sessile, lateral, fastigiate clusters. (Don's Mill., iii. 850.) A shrub. 1–2 ft. high, a native of Carolina, on the mountains. It was introduced in 1820, and flowers in May and June.

• 5. K. hirsu'ta Walt. The hairy Kalmia. Identification. Walt. Fl. Carol., 138.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 296. ; Michs. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1.

p. 257. ; Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 138. Synonyme. K. ciliata Barir. Itin., 18. Engravings. Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 138.; and our fig. 962.


Spec. Char., fc. Branches, leaves, and calyxes very hairy.

Leaves opposite and alternate, almost sessile, elliptic. Peduncles axillary, solitary, 1-flowered, longer than the leaves. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 850.) A beautiful little shrub, but difficult to cultivate; growing to the height of from 2 ft. to 3 ft. Leaves small, like thyme. Flowers large, red. A native of South Carolina and Georgia, in barren pine woods. It was introduced in 1786, and flowers from June to August. From the small size of the leaves, and the diminutive habit of growth of the plant, it might be admitted among the genus Erica, in what might be called a miscellaneous ericetum; taking care to plant it in a suitable soil.

Genus XXII.




p. 850.

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MENZIE'SIA Smith. The Menziesia. Lin. Syst. Octándria Monogynia. Identification. Smith Icon. ined., 56.; Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. 251. ; D. Don in Edin. Phil. Journ.

17. p. 170. Derivation Named in honour of Archibald Menzies, F.L.S., &c., surgeon and naturalist to the

expedition under Vancouver; in which he collected many specimens of plants on the north-west coast of America, New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, &c. Description. Deciduous shrubs, natives of North America.

* 1. M. FERRUGI'NEA Smith. The rusty-flowered Menziesia. Identification. Smith Icon, ined., 1. p. 56. t. 56. ; Pursh F1, Amer. Sept., 1. p. 264. ; Don's Mill., 3. Synonyme. M. urceolàris Salisb. Par. Lond., No. 44.

963 Engravings. Smith Icon. ined., 1. p. 56. t. 56. ; and our fig. 963. Spec. Char., fc. Corolla urceolate, with rounded lobes.

Leaves and branches hairy. Leaves obovate-lanceolate. Flowers of a rusty colour. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 850.) A shrub, growing to the height of from 3 ft. to 4 ft.; a native of the north-west coast of America, particularly on the Columbia River, and on the Island of Sitcha. It was introduced in 1811, and flowers in May and June.

1 2. M. GLOBULA'ris Salisb. The globular-flowered Menziesia. Identification. Salisb. Par. Lond., t. 44.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 264. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 850. Synonymes. M. Smithii Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., p. 235. ; Azalea pildsa Lam. IV., 491.; M. pildsa

Pers. Ench., 1. p. 420. Spec. Char., &c. Corolla globose, with rounded lobes; leaves and branches hairy. Leaves lanceolate. Flowers yellowish brown. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 850.) A shrub, growing to the height of from 3 ft. to 5 ft.; a native of Virginia and Carolina, on high mountains; plentiful on the Cacapoore Mountains, near Winchester, in Virginia. It was introduced in 1806, and flowers in May and June.


AZALEA D. Don. The Azalea. Lin. Syst. Pentándria Monogynia.
Identification. D. Don in Edinb. Phil. Journ. ; Don's Mil., 3. p. 830.
Synonymes. Azalea procumbens Lin. and many authors; Loiseleuria Desf. ; Chamæledon Link

Enum., 1. p. 210.
Derivation. From azaleos, dry, or arid; in reference to the habitation of the plant.

Description. A diminutive, procumbent, evergreen shrub, a native of Britain and North America.

* 1. A. PROCU'MBENS L. The procumbent Azalea. Identification. Lin. Sp., 205. ; Pursh Fl Amer. Sept., 1. P, 154. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 851. Synonymes. Chamæledon procumbens Link Enum., 1. p. 210.; Loiseleuria procumbens Desf. Engravings. Fl. Dan., t. 9. ; Lin. Fl. Lapp., ed. 2., p. 60. t. 6. 1.2.; Eng. Bot., t. 865. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 762.; Bot. Misc., 2. p. 64. t. 53.; and our fig. 964.

Geography, fc. Native of Europe, on mountains; plentiful on the tops of mountains in Scotland, but rare on the mountains in the north of England. In North America, it is found wild in the alpine regions of the White Mountains, New Hampshire, and on Grandfather Mountain, Carolina, &c. A procumbent

S64 shrub, flowering in April and May, and requiring to be grown in sandy peat, either in a border or in pots, and in an airy situation. The flowers are small, and rose-coloured; and, according to Pursh, do not appear in Carolina till July. The same author says, plant has so much affinity to Lèdum buxifòlium Ait. (Leiophyllum thymifolium Pers.), that I have scarcely been able to persuade myself that they are distinct plants. Comparing specimens of different varieties of the latter, with those of A. procumbens from different countries, in Mr. Lambert's herbarium, I could find no other distinction between both, than that of the Lèdum being an upright little shrub, with decandrous flowers, which are white, whereas the present species has procumbent stems, and pentandrous red flowers. It most certainly ought to be taken from this genus, or else all the rest but this one united with Rhododendron.” (Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., i. p. 155.) This has been done by Mr. David Don, in his new arrangement of the order Ericàceæ, which has been adopted in G. Don's Mill, and which we have followed.


« This

Genus XXIV.

LEIOPHYÖLLUM Pers. The Leiophyllum. Lin. Syst. Decándria

Monogynia. Identification. Pers. Ench., 1. p. 477.; Spreng. Syst. 2. p. 276.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 851. Synonymes. Ammýrsine Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 280.; Fischera Swartz; Ledum buxifdium

Berg , Ail. Derivation. From leios, smooth, and phullon, a leaf; in reference to the smoothness of the leaves.

Description. Diminutive, but erect, evergreen shrubs, natives of North America, on mountains.

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ul. L. THYMIFO'LIUM Pers. The Thyme-leaved Leiophyllum. Identification. Pers. Ench., 1. p. 477. ; Spreng. Syst., 2. p. 215. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 83). Synonymes. Lèdum buxifólium Bergius in Act. Petrop., 1779, p. I. t. 3. f. 2., Ker Bot. Reg., t. 581., Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 66., Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 52. ; Lédum thymifolium Lam. Dict., 3. p. 459., and su., t. 363. f. 2.; Lèdum serpyllifolium L'Hérit. Stirp. Nov., 2. t. 10.; Ammýr. sine buxifdlia Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 301. ; Sand Myrtle,

New Jersey.
Engravings. Bergius in Act. Petrop., 1777, p. 1. t. 3. f. 2.;
Bot. Reg., t. 531. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., 1. p.66. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab.,

965 t. 52. ; Lam. Ill., t. 363., f. 2. ; L'Hérit. Stirp. Nov., 2. t. 10.; and our fig. 965.

Description, &c. A shrub, from 1 ft. high, a native of New Jersey, and the mountains of Carolina, particularly on the highest summits of the Catawba ridge. It is an elegant little shrub, growing in its native habitats, according to Pursh, to the height of about 6 in., and sometimes a foot; the delicacy of its leaves, and abundance

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