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paffing under the name of particles. Upon these the queftion occurs, Whether, they can be feparated by a paufe from the words that make them fignificant? Whether, for example, in the following lines, the feparation of the acceffory prepofition from the prin→ cipal fubftantive be according to rule?
a difcontented air
The goddefs with
Two ages o'er his native realm he reign'd
Or the feparation of the conjunction from the word that is connected by it with the antecedent word:
Talthybius and || Eurybates the good
It will be obvious at the first glance, that the fore going reafoning upon objects naturally connected, is not applicable to words which of themselves are mere ciphers we must therefore have recourfe to fome other principle for folving the prefent question. Thefe particles out of their place are totally infignif icant: to give them a meaning, they must be joined to certain words; and the neceffity of this junction, together with cuftom, forms an artificial connection that has a strong influence upon the mind: it cannot bear even a momentary feparation, which deftroys the fenfe, and is at the fame time contradictory to practice. Another circumftance tends ftill more to make this feparation difagreeable in lines of the firft and third order, that it bars the accent, which will be explained afterward, in treating of the accent.
Hitherto upon that paufe only which divides the line. We proceed to the paufe that concludes the line; and the queftion is, Whether the fame rules be applicable to both? This must be answered by making a diftinction. In the first line of a couplet, the concluding paufe differs little, if at all, from the paufe that divides the line; and for that reafon, the rules are applicable to both equally. The concluding paufe of the couplet is in a different condition: it refembles greatly the concluding paufe in an Hexameter line. Both of them indeed are fo remarkable, that they never can be graceful, unlefs where they accompany a paufe in the fenfe. Hence it fol. lows, that a couplet ought always to be finifhed with fome clofe in the fenfe; if not a point, at least a comma. The truth is, that this rule is feldom tranfgreffed. In Pope's works, I find very few deviations from the rule. Take the following inftances:
Nothing is foreign parts relate to whole;
To draw fresh colours from the vernal flow'rs,
I add, with respect to paufes in general, that fup. pofing the connection to be fo flender as to admit a paufe, it follows not that a paufe may in every such cafe be admitted. There is one rule to which every other ought to bend, That the fenfe must never be wounded or obfcured by the mufic; and upon that account I condemn the following lines:
Ulyffes, firft in public cares, the found
Who rifing, high || th' imperial fceptre rais'd.
With refpect to inverfion, it appears, both from reafon and experiments, that many words which cannot bear a feparation in their natural order, admit a paufe when inverted. And it may be added, that when two words, or two members of a fentence, in their natural order, can be feparated by a paufe, fuch feparation can never be amifs in an inverted order. An inverted period, which deviates from the natural train of ideas, requires to be marked in fome measure even by paufes in the fenfe, that the parts may be diftinctly known. Take the following examples:
As with cold lips || I kifs'd the facred veil
The fame where the feparation is made at the clofe of the firft line of the couplet :
For fpirits, freed from mortal laws, with eafe,
The paufe is tolerable even at the clofe of the couplet, for the reafon juft now fuggefted, that inverted members require fome flight paule in the fenfe :
'Twas where the plane-tree fpreads its fhades around
Thus a train of reafoning hath infenfibly led us to conclufions with regard to the musical pause, very different from thofe in the first section, concern. ing the feparating by a circumftance words intimately connected. One would conjecture, that whereever words are feparable by interjecting a circumftance, they fhould be equally feparable by interjecting a paufe but upon a more narrow infpection, the appearance of analogy vaniflieth. This will be evident from confidering, that a pause in the fenfe distinguishes the different members of a period from cach other; whereas, when two words of the fame inember are feparated by a circumftance, all the three make still but one member; and therefore that words may be feparated by an interjected circumftance, though thefe words are not feparated by a pause in the fenfe. This fets the matter in a clear light; for, as observed above, a mufical pause is intimately connected with a paufe in the fenfe, and ought, as far as poffible, to be governed by it: particularly a mufical paufe ought never to be placed where a pause is excluded by the fenfe; as, for example, between the adjective and following fubftantive, which make parts of the fame idea and ftill Jefs between a particle and the word that makes it fignificant.
Abftracting at prefent from the peculiarity of melody arifing from the different paufes, it cannot fail to be obferved in general, that they introduce into our verfe no flight degree of variety. A number of uniform lines having all the fame paufe, are extremely fatiguing; which is remarkable in French verfi. fication. This imperfection will be difcerned by a fine ear even in the fhorteft fucceffion, and becomes intolerable in a long poem. Pope excels in the va→
riety of his melody; which, if different kinds can be compared, is indeed no lefs perfect than that of Virgil. From what is laft faid, there ought to be one exception. Uniformity in the members of a thought demands equal uniformity in the verbal members which exprefs that thought. When therefore refembling objects or things are expreffed in a plurality of verfe-lines, thefe lines in their structure ought to be as uniform as poffible; and the paufes in particular ought all of them to have the fame place. Take the following examples :
By foreign hands || thy dying eyes were clos'd,
Bright as the fun | her eyes the gazers strike:
Speaking of Nature, or the God of Nature:
Warms in the fun refrefhes in the breeze,
Paufes will detain us longer than was forefeen; for the fubject is not yet exhaufted. It is laid down above, that English Heroic verfe admits no more but four capital paufes; and that the capital pause of every line is determined by the fenfe to be after the fourth, the fifth, the fixth, or feventh fyllable. That this doctrine holds true as far as melody alone is concerned, will be teftified by every good car. At the fame time, I admit, that this rule may be varied where