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C HA P. government of the colony.—It may be divided into districts,

each to contain, as near as can be, 50,000 acres, or 100 grand
lots, and be subdivided into tythings of 5000 acres, or 10
grand lots each. Every district to have one head constable,
and every tything, one petty constable, or tything man,
who should have power to call the tything together, on eve-
ry emergency.—The head constable to be captain of the
militia in his district, and to nominate such of the tything
men under him, as he should chuse for officers.-Every
proprietor, or proprietors, of 500 acres to furnish one man
for the militia, whereby there would, in every district, be
100 militia ; and the civil police there would consist of one
head, and ten petty, constables.—The tything man to be
elected annually in each tything; but the head constable to
be named annually by the president and council, to be pos-
sessed at least of 500 acres, and to be responsible, to the pre-
fident and council, for the safety and peace of the district;
as the tything men would be responsible to him, for that of
their respective tythings.-In parts of the colony distant
from the seat of government,



proper sident and council to name a chief, who might have the power of a justice of peace, and be also at the head of the militia of the several districts under his inspection; and where his command was extensive, he should be assisted by proper persons to collect the taxes, if any, superintend the public works, and see that the orders of government were duly executed, &c. The chief and his assistants to have some salary ; but the head constable, tything men, &c. to serve without salary.”

168. “ Wherever there shall be towns established, that contain 500 or more males, above the age of fifteen, every such town to be considered as a district in itself, wherein

for the pre


every ten families shall constitute a tything, and shall an- CHA P.
nually chuse a tything man who shall act as constable; and,
from among the tything men so chosen, the president and
council shall annually nominate a mayor and three alder-
men, who shall preside over the town, and take charge of
the police for the year.—Each family, in every town, shall
also be obliged to find a man for the militia; and they shall
be enrolled and exercised under such persons, from among
their own townsmen, as the president and council shall an-
nually appoint, who, as well as the mayor and aldermen,
shall serve without salary, fee or reward.”

169. To these valuable hints from his lordship, I have
only to add, that the defence of the colony ought to be
committed to a distinct department of the government or
direction, in order to protect the colony from hostile attacks
by land, by fea or by noxious animals,

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170. Many may think that in a colony or community,
where the public good is the interest of every individual, a
public treasury would not be a material consideration.
But when the necessity of the three following institutions is
considered, it will soon be found, not only that the raising
of colonial finances will come to be unavoidable, but also
that a board of the direction must be established for apply.
ing them to these necessary uses, viz.

I. Public charities, such as public institutions for orphan
children, for all useful persons after the age of fixty, or
when they become incapable of labour; for hospitals, &c.

II. Public works useful, ornamental and recreative, such as public buildings, highways, bridges, harbours, gardens, &c.


III. Public defence, such as fortifications, arms, ammunition, &c.


Political arrangements,

171. Comprizing also foreign affairs. This is placed the last of all public functions, because it is the link by which every individual within a colony, and every colony with it's mother country, neighbours, and other countries, are connected together in relations whose basis is, or ought to be, mutual friendship and assistance. The order which connects individuals in society is called police and polity; and that which connects nations and colonies, politics. Both are equally necessary, and require specific departments in the direction ; the two former, namely police and polity, are referred to the 4th department in the 1st class, $ 179; the fuctions of the last, or politics, may be referred to the three following objects.

I. The political balance, between the colonists, or subfcribers, and the direction, or the government, both in the colony, and in Europe.

II. The political balance, between the colonial establishment, and other mercantile companies, or colonies, in Europe, or elsewhere.

III. The political balance, between the colonial establishment, and the neighbouring African nations, which require a different mode of intercourse and treatment, as being uncivilized.




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Si quid novisti rectius iftis,
Candidus imperti; si non, his utere mecum.

HOR. DE Art. Poet.

172. N the seventh chapter, I have made such observa

tions as appeared to me useful and expedient, for the first establishment of a new colony in Africa; and in the eighth, I have delivered my opinion respecting some of the permanent regulations. Still some of my readers may perhaps expect a more specific and practical plan than what I have yet proposed; for most men are much aslisted in comprehending and deciding upon a subject, by having it reduced to something like a system. It hath been well observed, by Dr. Watts, that method and system, though lately too much neglected, are nevertheless excellent auxilliaries to the mind, in forming an adequate idea of any subject that comprises many mutually dependent parts. And, if there be any subject in which system is peculiarly necessary, the science of government is certainly that subject. To gratify (therefore the lovers of order) I insert, with a few necessary alterations, the following Propositions, which I had the honour to lay before the subscribers to the Bulama Association, for their confideration, at a meeting held on the 29th of April 1794:

PROPOSITION I. 173. That those who may be disposed to subscribe to such an undertaking, form themselves into a company


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TROPICAL PRODUCTIONS on the western coast of Africa, between the 6th and the 14th degrees of north latitude *.

174. That such company select from among themselves a court of directors to manage the whole concern; to sell land; to engage colonists; to receive money or commodities; to pay money, and dispose of commodities; to appoint their own officers and agents, both in Europe and in the colony; to send out vessels, to trade wherever it may be found beneficial for the whole concern, &c. and to lay a proper and satisfactory account of their proceedings, before a general meeting of the subscribers, every year.

175. The directors of this court ought to consist of two classes. The first clafs should have the care of the cultivation of the people, or the introduction of morals and civiliz

* My reasons for selecting this part of the coast, for the subject of my book and map are-ift, That it is much nearer to Europe than any equally productive portion of the coast.—adly, That owing to the trade-wind and currents, as well as the sınaller distance, voyages to and from this part, can be performed sooner than to parts lower down, and incomparably sooner than to any island in the West Indies (see 9 6, note)-3dly, That the harbours are better on this part, than any known harbours on the Western coast of Africa.—4thly, That this part of the coast is more fertile than any part convenient for European navigation, and particularly than the tract of coast immediately to the northward of it.-5thly, That the inhabitants appear, upon the whole, to be more disposed to peace and industry, than on any other portion of the coast.—6thly, That very little of this portion of the coast is occupied, or claimed, by European powers.—7thly, That this part is less infested by the slave-trade, than any other portion of the coast, where that traffic is at all carried on.—8thly, That, on account of navigable rivers and the good disposition of the the inland people, the interior countries are more easily accessible, from this part of the coast than almost any other.

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