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pondence with all the great reformers of Europe, and exercised a watchful care over the Protestant churches, by which he was reverenced as an oracle. His writings were printed in twelve volumes, folio.

The terrors of the inquisition compelled the nobility of the Belgic provinces in 1566, to form an association for the purpose of gaining some religious liberty. To quell their tumults, a powerful army was sent from Spain, under command of the duke of Alva. A bloody war ensued; and under the heroic conduct of the prince of Orange, both the Spanish and Roman yoke were cast off, and the reformation was completely established

upon the German model, in 1578. A few Scotch nobles early conveyed the light of divine truth from Germany into their own country; but the power of the Papacy prevented its spread. Two distinguished preachers, Patrick Hamilton and George Wishart were burnt alive, for opposing her corruptions. Providence, however, raised up John Knox, a man of astonishing boldness and zeal, who broke down every barrier, and gave truth free course. This great reformer was born in 1505. The writings of Jerome and Austin opened his mind to the abominations of Popery, and led him to preach boldly at St. Andrews. From the arm of persecution, he retired into England, and became chaplain to Edward VI. At the accession of queen Mary, he went to the continent, and associated freely with Calvin. His enemies at home, accused him of heresy, and burnt him in effigy at Edinburgh, which drew from him his “ First blast of the Trumpet, against_the monstrous regiment of women," meaning the queens of England and Scotland. In 1559, he returned to Scotland ; and in a very short time, by the power of truth, completely overturned the Papal dominion, and established the Presbyterian form of government. He died November 4th, 1572. His funeral was attended at Edinburgh, by many nobles, and by Morton the regent, who exclaimed over his grave, . There lies he, who never feared the face of man.'

In Ireland the affairs of religion assumed much the same character as in England.

Throughout Spain and Italy, great numbers of all ranks and orders became dissatisfied with Popery, and rejoiced in the light of the reformation. In Naples, great commotions were excited by the preaching of Bernard Ochino and Peter Martyr. But the inquisition, by racks, gibbets, and other tortures, prevented any great and lasting change in the religion of those countries.

CHAP. 12.

PRINCIPLES OF THE REFORMERS.

267

The fundamental principle of the reformers, was the sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures, as a rule of faith and practice. They rejected therefore, the authority of tradition, of popes and councils. They believed that no man is able to make satisfaction for his sins, and that the only way of justification, is by faith in the blood of Christ. They rejected, therefore, penance, indulgences, auricular confession, masses, invocation of saints, pilgrimages, monastic vows, purgatory and other ways of salvation, devised by the church of Rome. They believed in the doctrine of the Trinity, in man's entire depravity, in predestination, in the renewing and sanctifying operations of the Holy Ghost, and in the eternal happiness of the righteous, and endless misery of the wicked. These were their leading sentiments, and have since been called the Doctrines of the Reformation,

In the monarchial governments of Europe, there was but little change in the form of Church order; as the diocesses and jurisdiction of archbishops and bishops corresponded with the civil divisions and ordinances; and as the episcopal government was calculated to uphold the regal. But in Switzerland and the Low Countries, where republicanism was established, and men were left to conform more to the simplicity of the Gospel, a form of government extremely simple, and preserving a parity of rank was generally adopted. Knox saw its conformity to the Gospel, and recommended it to his countrymen, by whom it was received, notwithstanding the power and infuence of the reigning monarchy, and the English church.

The blessings of the Reformation can be duly estimated only by those who have a full view of the evils of Popery, as existing in the middle ages. By it, the world was delivered from a most horrible yoke of spiritual bondage; life and immortality, as revealed in the Gospel, were brought to light, and the way was opened, that in Jesus Christ, all nations of the earth might be blessed

CHAPTER XIII.

Modern Christendom. Roman Church. Her efforts for self-pre

servation.-Order of the Jesuits. Missionary operations and

cstablishments. Persecution of the Protestants. Expulsion of is the Moors from Spain. Massacre on St. Bartholomew's day.

Edict of Nantez. Its revocation. Inquisition.. Auto de fe. Downfal of Popery.-Reverses in the East. Disaffections in Europe. Suppression of the Jesuits. French revolution. Principles and rites of the Roman Church. Character of her Popes and Clergy since the Reformation. Monastic orders. Present state of Popery in the World.

The reformation formed a glorious Era in the history of the Church and world. We no longer find one ecclesiastical power reigning supreme and universal. The Man of Sin is broken. Italy, Spain, Portugal, the Belgic Provinces under the Spanish yoke, remained Papal. But Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Brandenberg, Prussia, England, Scotland, Ireland, and Holland, had become Protestant governments. Germany was about equally divided. In Switzerland the Protestants had a little the preponderance. France was often near changing her religion, but finally became decidedly Papal, though she retained in her bounds millions of Protestants.

Neither uniformity of faith nor ecclesiastical government has existed among those who have received the Scriptures as their guide. On the contrary, a great variety of religious sects has risen in the reformed churches. And if some are confident that they behold the true Church descending in one to the exclusion of the rest, still the historian is bound to trace the course of all who profess to be followers of the Lord Jesus. These have been found, since the reformation, among

The Roman Catholics, or ADHERENTS TO THE Pope,
THE GREEK AND EASTERN CHURCHES, und
THE PROTESTANT, or REFORMED Churches.

The Roman CHURCH.

The effect of the reformation upon the Roman Pontifss, was to excite them to the greatest efforts to retain their power and extend their dominion in the earth. They removed a few evils which had been most severely animadverted upon by the reformers, and prosecuted the most ingenious methods to

CHAP. 13.

ORDER OF THE JESUITS.

269

strengthen the internal constitution of their falling church. Colleges and schools were established that their youth might be more enlightened; and wield, with more dexterity, the weapons of controversy. But they prevented the circulation of all books which exposed the foundation of their superstitions; raised the edicts of Pontiffs, and the records of oral tradition, far above the authority of the Scriptures; proclaimed the Vulgate edition of the Bible authentic ; forbade the use of any other,,oby interpretation of Scripture which should differ from than the church and ancient doctors; and ordered the sacred volume to be taken away from the common people.* Finding their power and resources diminished at home, they grasped after the most amazing dominion among distant Pagan nations. They suffered no opportunity, also, to pass unimproved, by which they might regain what Luther and his companions had so triumphantly wrested from them.

The two great instruments which they employed to effect their purposes, were, the Order of the Jesuits and the Inquisition.

The order of the Jesuits was tounded in 1540, by Ignatius Loyola, a wild fanatic. Before the close of the reformation, the ancient Franciscan and Dominican orders, had lost much of their influence and authority; so that the rise of some new order seemed necessary to save the sinking church. Loyola, ambitious of founding one, which should be more potent than any I which had existed, presented his plan to Pope Paul V., and declared it revealed from heaven Paul was afraid of the estab. lishment, and refused bis approbation, until Ignatius added to the three vows of poverty, chastity, and monastic obedience, a fourth of entire subservience to the Pope ; binding the members of his order to go, without reward, in the service of religion, whithersoever the Pope should direct them. cured, at once, the Pope's sanction, and the most ample privileges. The Jesuits were established, and in less than half a century filled every country on the globe with their order. In 1608 they numbered 10,581. In 1710, 19,998.

Their form of government was a perfect despotism. A general of the order was appointed by the Pope for life, to whom regular reports were annually made from every branch, and to

whom every individual was perfectly known and entirely sub: missive. Their discipline was altogether povel. Other monks

This pro

* In the French church they were never able to carry this order into execution. There the common people have ever had the Bible.

had sought the solitude of the cloister; and practised rigorous austerities; bad their peculiar habit, and appeared dead to the world. But the Jesuits were never known from men of the world. They had no peculiar dress or employment. They mingled in all the active scenes of life ;-were physicians, lawyers, merchants, mathematicians, musicians, painters, artists, that they might have the easier access to men of every rank and condition, and promote the purposes of the Pope without being known. Every candidate for the order was obliged to confess all the secrets of his heart, every thing in, lating to his temper, passions, inclinations, and life, to his superior; and was required to serve for a considerable period, and to pass through several gradations of rank before he could become a professed member. Every Jesuit was compelled to act as a spy upon the conduct of every other Jesuit. The roles of their order were hidden from strangers, and even from the greater part of their own number. They became instructers of youth in all the schools of Europe ; confessors and spiritual guides to merchants, nobles, and sovereigns; they mingled in every transaction, and gave laws to empires. They established houses of trade in most parts of the world, and amassed vast treasures, And wherever they went, in whatever they were engaged, they were active missionaries of the Romish faith; being actuated by an astonishing attachment to their order and the church of Rome, and a most bitter and violent opposition to the Protestant religion. They were, for a long period, the pest of the world; and they were denounced by one state and another. But by their superior knowledge, soft manners, and a morality wbich authorized the most atrocious crimes--treachery,robbery, murders, for the promotion of a good end, especially the good of the Roman church, they continued exceedingly popular; and the Pontiffs found them of such eminent service, as to absolve them from every crime, and protect them from every adversary.

The first, and by far the most distinguished of all their missionaries was Francis Xavier. In 1541, he sailed to the Porluguese settlements in lodia; and, in a short period, baptized several thousands of the natives into the Romish faith. Meeting with such success, he prepared to go to China, and attempt the conversion of that vast empire ; but was suddenly cut off, in 1552, in the 46th year of his age, and in sight of his object. Had Xavier been possessed of the true knowledge of the Gospel, thousands might have risen up and called him blessed. He no doubt had a true missionary spirit, and the best missionary. habits. His labours were wonderful.

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