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CHAP. 12.

IN ENGLAND,

261

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gratification of his passions than for the Church of God. He was bound in marriage to his brother's widow, Catharine of Arragon, aunt to Charles V. She was a woman of but little loveliness, and by her he had no male issue. Desirous of this, and being captivated by the charms of Ann Boleyn, he applied to the Pope for a divorce, on the ground that Catharine was his brother's widow. The Popa, dreading the anger of Charles, contrived various pretexts to delay an answer to the request, and at length summoned Henry to Rome. Impatient of delay, and enraged at this final summons, Henry followed the advice of Thomas Cranmer, a secret friend of Luther, and referred the subject to the learned universities of Europe. They decided that the marriage was unlawful. Catharine was divorced, and Ann Boleyn became queen, November 14, 1532.

Henry was now completely alienated from the Pope, and was determined to make the court of Rome feel the weight of his anger. He caused himself to be declared Supreme Head of the church of England; suppressed the monasteries; applied their revenues to new purposes; and entirely overturned the power and authority of the Pope in his realm.

Thus was the reiormation effected in England, for the gratification of the passions of a wicked monarch. But it was a very different reformation from that in Germany.

That was a reformation in doctrine. This was a transfer of supreme power from the Pope to the king. Most of the monstrous corruptions of Popery still remained, and occasioned for many years much trouble to the friends of true religion.

The eyes of all Europe had long been turned to a general council, as the only instrument of effecting religious peace on the continent; and the emperor pressed the Roman Pontiff to convene one. Clement at length named Mantua as the place for it, but the Germans refused to have their disputes decided in Italy.

In 1541, Charles V. appointed a conference at Worms, between Eckius, Gropper, and Pflug, on the part of the Catholics ; and Melanchton, Bucer, and Pistorius on the part of the Protestants. Here Melanchton and Eckius disputed for three days, but it was all in vain.

In 1545, the Pope, with the consent of the emperor, issued letters for the convocation of a council; and Charles endeavoured to persuade the Protestants to consent to its meeting at Trent. But they were firın ; the patience of the emperor was exhausted; and, in his anger, he determined to resort to arms. The Protestants immediately took measures for defence. But while they were standing in this critical condition, and before

The empe

the storm burst upon them, they were deprived of the man who had been their chief counsellor, supporter, and guide. Lother died in peace at Isleben, the place of his nativity, Feb. 18, 1546, and in the 63d year of his age.

This wonderful man was raised up by Divine Providence, and endowed with suitable capacities, to be the instrument of the greatest and most important revolution ever effected on our globe. If he had faults, he had also natural and moral endowments possessed by no other man, and which qualified him to withstand the whole power of the papal dominion. His native firmness did not forsake him in his last hours. He conversed freely and fervently with his friends on the bappiness reserved for good men in a future state, and fell asleep. His funeral was attended with great pomp. He left several children. His posterity have been respectable in Germany.

The Papists expressed indecent joy at the news of his de. cease, and his friends were greatly dispirited; but both parties soon found that Luther was not dead. He lived in the hearts of his followers. He lived in the doctrines which he taught, and which were too firmly established in Europe to be destroyed.

A dark day, however, awaited the Protestants. ror and Pope had mutually agreed upon their extirpation. The meeting of the council of Trent was the signal for hostilities. This famous council was convened in 1546, and was composed of 6 cardinals, 32 archbishops, 228 bishops, and a multitude of clergy. The Protestant princes, in the diet at Ratisbon, protested against its authority. The emperor proscribed them at once, and marched his army against them. The Protestants defended themselves with great spirit, but were deleated in battle, with much bloodshed, near Muhlberg, April 24, 1547. The elector of Saxony was taken prisoner, and the landgrave of Hesse, the other chief of the Protestant cause, was persuaded to throw himself upon the mercy of Charles.

The ruin of the Protestants seemed at hand. The emperor required the Lutherans to submit their cause to the council of Trent. Most of them yielded. A plague, however, dispersed the council, and nothing was done. The prospect of reassembling it was distant, and the emperor caused a form of faith and worship to be drawn up, which he imposed upon both parties. This was called the Interim. But it pleased neither party. No sooner was it published at Rome, than the indignation of the ecclesiastics rose to the greatest height. They called the emperor Uzzah, as touching the ark. The Protestants in. veighed against it as contaiping the abominations of Popery,

CHAP. 12.

COUNCIL OF TRENT.

263

covered over with little art. Such as refused to submit to it, were obliged to meet the arms of the emperor; and as their number was considerable, his whole empire was involved in the greatest calamities.

In 1548, the principal reformers assembled at Leipsic, to form rules for the regulation of their conduct. Melanchton, who had taken the place of Luther, gave it as his opinion, that the Interim might be adopted in things that did not relate to the essential points of religion, i. e. in things indifferent. A schiśm ensued which nearly proved fatal to their cause. Had their opponents seized the opportunity, they might have overthrown them.

In 1552, the council of Trent was again assembled. Many of the Protestants attended. But every step. that was taken, tended to the destruction of the Protestants, and the re-establishment of the Papacy in all its terrors. Before its final close in 1563, this famous council had twenty-five sessions. In the view of the Papists, it illustrated and fixed the doctrine of the Roman church, and restored the vigour of its discipline. Its decrees, with the creed of Pope Pins IV. contain a summary of the doctrines of the Roman church. It widened and rendered for ever irreparable the breach between her and the Potestants. Among other things, it determined, " That the books to which the designation of apocryphal are given, are of equal authority with those which were received by the Jews and go primitive Christians into the sacred canon ;-that the traditions handed down from the apostolic age, and preserved in the church, are entitled to as much regard as the doctrines and precepts which the inspired authors have committed to writing ;that the Latin translation of the scriptures made or revised by St. Jerome, and known by the name of the Vulgate translation, should be read in churches and appealed to in the schools as authentic and canonical.” To the name and pretended authority of the Holy Ghost, anathemas were denounced against all who denied the truth of these declarations.

The Protestants, being persuaded that the emperor, under the cloak of zeal for religion, was labouring to destroy the liberties of Germany, Maurice, elector of Saxony, emboldenedby a secret alliance which he had formed with the king of France, and several of the German princes, fell suddenly, with a powerful army, upon the emperor, while he lay at Inspruck, with only a handful of troops, and compelled him to make a treaty, of peace with the Protestants, and to promise to assemble a diet within six months, in which all difficulties should be

per

manently settled. The diet, however, did not meet until 1555. It then assembled at Augsburg ; and there was concluded the famous Peace of religion, which firinly established the refor

mation. In this it was provided, " That the protestants who followed the confession of Augsburg, should be, for the future, considered as entirely exempt from the jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff, and from the authority and superintendence of the bishops; that they were left at perfect liherty to enact laws for themselves relating to their religious sentiments, discipline and worship; that all the inhabitants of the German empire should be allowed to judge for themselves in religious matters, and to join themselves to that church, whose doctrine and worship they thought the purest and the most consonant to the spirit of Christianity; and that all those who should injore or persecute any person under religious pretexts, and, on account of their opinions, should be declared and proceeded agaiust as public enemies of the empire, invaders of its liberty, and disturbers of its peace.

Through the bold and unremitted efforts, of Zuinglius and others, the doctrines of the reformation had gained firm footing 'in Switzerland. Zuinglius was a man of genius. He revolted from Rome before he had any intercourse with Luther; but would never probably have dared to attack the Pope as Luther did; or, if he had, have done it as effectually. The Papists early saw his greatness, and endeavoured to bribe him with gold. He differed from Luther on many points, and his followers were called Sacramentarians.

In 1525, he was attacked by the Anabaptists. They declared him, as they had Luther, to be wanting in spirituality ; called him the old dragon; rebaptized the people in the streets, and made rebaptization the criterion of the visible members of the Church of Christ. Zuinglius confuted them with arguments in a public conference; but they became furious, and ran through the streets and cried, “ Wo to Zurich! Wo to Zurich ! Repent or perish :" and seemed desirous to seal their doctrine with their blood. Finding them excessively riotous, the Senate made their profession capital, add one or two suffered death.

The cantons of Berne and Zurich had publicly avowed the reformation. But the other five cantons declared in favour of Rome, and war ensued. Zuinglius was slain in battle 1529, aged 47. Some Catholic soldiers found him in his blood, directed him to pray to the Virgin Mary, and offered to bring him a confessor. But he made a sign of refusal. “ Die, then,

CHAP. 12.

CALVIN

265

obstinate heretic !!! said they, and pierced him through with a sword. His remains were found and burned by the Catholics.

Another distinguished luminary soon arose, shedding divine light on the Swiss churches. This was John Calvin. He was born at Noyon, in Picardy, July 10, 1509. He was educated at Paris, for the Church, and obtained a benefice. But, disgusted with the superstitions of Rome, he turned to the profession of the law in which he made rapid advances. Becoming, however, acquainted with the doctrines of the reformation, he applied himself to the study of the holy scriptures, and resolved to renounce connexion with Rome, and defend the truth. In private assemblies in Paris, he became active in illustrating and confirming the doctrines of the Bible, and was near falling a sacritice to the Inquisition. The queen of Navarre protected him, and he escaped to Basil. There, in 1535, he published his great work, “ Institutes of the Christian religion,” which he dedicated to Francis I. His object was to show, that the doctrines of the Reformers were founded in scripture, and that they ought not to be confounded with the Anabaptists of Germany.

After publishing this work, he happened to pass through Geneva, where the reformers, Farel and Viret, entreated him, by ihe love of souls, to remain with them, and aid in their labours. Calvin yielded; and, in 1536, became their preacher and professor of theology. But the Genevese, though reformed in name, were not in life. The severity of his doctrine and discipline raised against him a spirit of persecution, and he and his companions were expelled from the city. “ Had I. been," said he, in the service of men, this would have been a poor reward ; but it is well. I have served him who never fails to repay his servants, whatever he has promised."

Calrin retired to Strasburg, where he established a French reformed church, and became professor of theology.

After two years, the Genevese earnestly desired his return, to which, after much solicitation, he consented, September 13, 1541. He immediately established a consistorial government, with power to take cognizance of all offences, and entered himselt on a most arduous course of labours. Here he continved in the theological chair, until 1564, when he calmly slept in Jesus.

He was a man of great mental powers, indefatigable industry, flowing eloquence, immense learning, strict morals, and ardent piety. Besides his Institutes, he published a valuable commentary on most of the sacred scriptures; he composed many works in favour of the reformation ; carried on an extensive corres

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