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be concluded, or the succession to the crown settled as it had been in England. Her majesty was, at the same time, advised to put the town of Newcastle in a proper state of defence—to secure the port of Tynemouth, and to repair the fortifications of Carlisle and Hull. It was also requested that the militia of the four northern counties should be called out, a competent number of regular troops stationed on the borders, and a squadron of ships ordered to cruise on the Scotish coast to shut up

ber commerce and prevent her from communicating with France. These measures, happily, were never put into execution, the Scotish parliament having appointed commissioners for the Union, which occasioned the repeal of the act by which they were authorized, before the time specified for their commencement arrived. Had it been otherwise, the consequence would in all probability bave been a war between the two countries, the result of which could scarcely have been other than fatal to Scotland, and she must have submitted to such terms as the conquerors chose to impose upon her.

It is also worthy of remark, that the benefits of the Union were greatly retarded, and all the evils that unavoidably attended it increased and accelerated, by that detestable faction which laboured so assiduously to prevent its completion. The treaty itself was planned by consummate wisdom, and great liberality on the part of the English, and by Englishmen has, for the most part, been executed with good faith. There was no attempt made to infringe it in the smallest particular, till the Scotish Jacobites, by a protracted series of intrigues, and a new train of perjuries, wriggled themselves into power in the last and disastrous years of queen Anne, and probably, to fulfil in some degree their own predictions, as well as to forward the interests of the pretender, kept trenching upon it every day, till happily the sudden death of the queen put an end to their power, and gave their villanous practices another direction. Since that time no further attempts have been made upon it, and the encroachments then made, as they were, even by the unprincipled faction that made them, admitted to be contrary to its spirit, and were avowedly intended to promote its dissolution, inight have been long since rectified, had those whom they most deeply concerned, shown like zeal or cordiality in the matter. Upon the whole, though we neither approve of that bribery and corruption by which this union was established, nor dare pronounce it in all respects perfect, we admit that few treaties have been made in the world, that have been productive of so many blessings. The most deeply felt evils that attended it—and no great political change can be effected without encountering evils of considerable magnitude-were transient and local ; its benefits have been permanent and universal. It has given competence to the cottage, elegance to the palace, and stability to the throne. It has imparted health to the body politic, and a resistless energy that has been felt and acknowledged in every quarter of the world, and it has been a principal mean of establishing that heaven-derived flame, whose vivifying heat, emanating from the shores of Britain, is already felt in many distant lands, and the light of which, we trust, shall at no distant period irradiate the utmost ends of the earth.

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From an Original Preture by Anthony l'esne in the possesswm vt Earl Bauchamp,

Published by Huchie, Fullarten & collasoon.

1. Fularten & Einburgh.1826



Book I.


National feelings consequent on the UnionIntrigues of the French court-Negotiations of colonel Hooke-Meeting of the first Union Parliament-Preparations for invading Scotland French fleet chased by admiral Byng-Dispersed, and partly destroyed, ia a tempest-Dissolution of Parliament-New Parliament and its proceedingsRetrospect of ecclesiastical affairs. The old Dissenters-Mr. John Hepburn, The

Genera Assembly of the Church of Scotland, TAE treaty of Union having been ratified by the legislature of both countries, the Scotish parliament was dissolved on the twenty-eighth day of April, and on the first day of May, one thousand, seven hundred, and seven years, the kingdoms of Scotland and England became one, henceforth to be designated the Kingdom of Great Britain. This, though an event that, properly modified, had long been desired by the wise and the good of both nations, was one that could not fail, in the nature of things, to excite painful reflections, if not tumultuary and angry feelings, in the bosoms of the less enlightened, especially among Scotishmen, who being of the weaker party, and most likely to be benefited by the measure, had, perhaps, according to the general constitution of our nature, the best right to be, or to pretend to be, very much offended. Scotland, though the poorer, was by much the more ancient of the two kingdoms, having subsisted, according to her best historians, as an independent nation, from a period prior to the Christian era. When her more opulent, but less spirited sister, bent beneath the power, and submitted to become the pupil of Rome, she, intrenched among her barren heaths, and behind her snow-clad mountains, bade defiance to the conquerors of the world, preferring wild, sometimes lawless, liberty and independence, to

submission, though accompanied with security and civilization. True, indeed, she had maintained this independence with extreme difficulty, and, through the imbecility and obstinacy of her last dynasty of kings, it had been reduced to a mere shadow; but still it bore the name, and with men in general, though we may lament, we cannot deny the fact, that names are all in all.

At the same time it must be admitted, that there was, in the circumstances of the case, much to excite regret in the most peaceably disposed, and to awaken suspicion among the best informed and most conscientious part of the community. Twenty years had yet scarcely elapsed since the abdication of James VII. put an end to a tyranny, civil and ecclesiastic, the most relentless that had ever afflicted a nation professing to be Christian, and on that occasion, the managers, both in church and state, had sat down upon a constitution far short of what had been previously attained, and of what, after so much bitter experience, might reasonably have been expected. Instead of being guided by those clear and determinate principles which had been unfolded by the Reformers and patriots of a former and a better day, and which had been sealed with the blood of the noble host of confessors and martyrs of the Scotish church, they had given themselves up to fancied maxims of interest and expediency, in consequence of which, while they duped themselves, they disappointed the just expectations of the people. Far from exploring the sources of so many evils, and purging out from among them, those who had been the abettors of such profligate apostasy, and the ministers of such wanton tyranny, every thing like inquiry was studiously avoided, and every incumbent, provided his morals were at all tolerable, who was willing to abide by, or, in other words, to receive his salary upon the footing of the new order of things, remained in his place;* thus adding to the already enormous catalogue of public evils, the guilt of open falsehood and undisguised hypocrisy. The consequences, which had already become ap

* See declaration by the moderator, that this assembly would depose no incumbents, simply for their judgment anent the government of the church &c. Unprinted Acts of Assembly, 1690, Ses. 6th.

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