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might, in case of being pushed, support each other, and a trench was thrown up to secure the troops in case of a sally. But the arrival next day, Sabbath the thirteenth, of general Carpenter, with the regiments of Cobham, Molesworth, and Churchhill, and a great many country gentlemen, among whom was the earl of Carlisle, lord Lumley, colonel Darcy, &c. &c. placed the fate of the insurgents beyond all doubt, and left them nothing but despair. Wills, on the arrival of general Carpenter, showed him the dispositions he had made, and, after acquainting him with all that he had done, offered to resign to him the command as his superior officer. Carpenter approved of all that had been done, and refused to take the command, saying, “ he had begun the affair so well, that he ought to have the glory of finishing it.” Their united counsels, however, and especially the additionol force which they had now at command, enabled them to make several new arrangements in the dispositions of their forces, greatly to the disadvantage of the rebels. The horse, having been stationed on one side of the town, in a situation unfavourable for bringing them into action, were drawn off in parties, and stationed where they could be much more effectively employed. Fishersgate, too, which opened into a marsh or meadow, running down to the river Ribble, where there were cwo good fords, it being the highway towards Liverpool, for the want of a sufficient number of troops had not yet been blocked up, nor any attack made upon the barricade at the upper end of the street, in consequence of which, a number of the rebels had already made their escape-some of them even before the general's face—was now shut up by colonel Pitt, with two squadrons of horse, which effectually prevented any more from escaping, for a few of the more determined, when they perceived that a surrender would be inevitable, attempting to get out this way, fell in among the dragoons, and were instantly cut to pieces.

These dispositions, which completely cut off the insurgents from all possibility of escape, were no sooner understood by them than their spirits failed, and their conduct became much more like that of madmen, than the deliberations of determined and hardy warriors. Instead of cordially con

certing plans for their defence, or boldly attempting to make good their retreat from a place where they behoved very soon to be overwhelmed by superior numbers, or starved for want of sustenance, they began to pursue different purposes, and to quarrel with one another. The English gentlemen, who had so eagerly urged, and so weakly conducted this most foolish expedition, thought now of nothing but surrendering upon such terms as they could obtain, while the Highlanders, with characteristic barbarity, determined to rush upon the enemy sword in hand, and, dying like heroes, make their lives as costly a purchase to the enemy as possible. In this, however, as they had been in many other cases, they were over-ruled, and were not allowed to stir.*

The gentlemen having resolved upon capitulating, as, indeed, there was little else left for them to do, colonel Oxburgh, an Irish papist, who had been in reality commanderin-chief since they entered England, though Forster was nominally so, offered his services to go out and treat with his majesty's officers, many of whom he pretended were of his special acquaintance, who he believed, or at least affected to make others believe, could not do other than grant him the most favourable terms the circumstances of the case would admit; but, as his mission was without the consent, or even the knowledge of the army, in order to conceal it, the soldiers were told that general Wills had sent to offer them honourable terms if they would lay down their arms, “ so blinded,” says Patten, were we with their tory lies to the last-but certain it is that gentleman, [Oxburgh) had his design been known, had never seen Tyburn; for he had been shot dead by the consent of all the common men before he had gone out of the barrier.”+ Out, however, he did go, and to his mortification, could obtain no better terms than an unconditional surrender, with a promise that they should not immediately be cut in pieces, but reserved till further orders arrived concerning them. This was no very cheering message to carry back to an armed, enraged, despairing, and, of consequence, unruly multitude, but he could obtain no other,

Patten's History of the Rebellion, p. 112.

t Ibid. p. 113.

nor any longer time than one hour to consider of it. Before the expiration of the hour, captain Dalziel, brother to the earl of Carnwath, went out to endeavour to procure some better terms, at least for the Scots, the greater part of whom were utterly ignorant of what was going on, and had never entertained a thought of surrendering, but he only made matters worse, by satisfying the English general how desperate their situation was, and he gained nothing but a little longer time. About three o'clock in the afternoon, colonel Cotton, with a dragoon, and a drum beating a chamade before them, came up the street from the king's general. The colonel alighted at the sign of the mitre, * where the chief of the rebel commanders were assembled, and told them he came to demand their positive answer. It was told him in reply, that there were disputes between the English and the Scots, that obstructed the unconditional surrender to which the former were willing to submit, but that, if the general would grant them a cessation of arms till the next morning, the terms he had offered would certainly be accepted. After colonel Cotton had been the bearer of several messages, the general agreed to grafit them the time desired, provided they threw up no new intrenchments in the streets, nor suffered any of their people to escape, and that they sent out the chief of the English and the Scots ás securities for the performance of what they had promised. To this they agreed, and the earl of Derwentwater and brigadier M‘Intosh were delivered up as hostages.t · The rage of the common men when they heard how the negotiations had ended, and the consequent confusion in the town was indescribable. One was shot dead, and several wounded, 'merely for mentioning a surrender; and the general, had he appeared in the streets, would certainly have been

* Colonel Cotton sent this same drum to beat à chamade before the doors of some houses, from which the king's men still continued to fire, to cause them to cease, on account of the cessation that bad been agreed to, but the poor fellow was shot dead upon his horse, as he was beating his drum, by some of the rebels who were averse to all thoughts of a surrender-an action that might have subjected them to military execution.

+ Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 322.

torn to pieces. He, indeed, escaped being shot at his own council table only by Mr. Patten striking up the pistol that was fired at him by lord Charles Murray, by which means the ball missing him, went through the wainscot into the wall of the room. By seven o'clock the next morning, however, the confusion being somewhat abated, general Forster sent out to acquaint general Wills that his associates were willing to surrender at discretion as he had demanded. M'Intosh being by, when the message was brought, said, “he could not answer that the Scots would surrender in that manner, for that they were people of desperate fortunes, and that he had been a soldier himself, and knew what it was to be a prisoner at discretion." Upon this the general said, “go back to your people again, and I will attack the town, and the consequence will be, I will not spare one man of you.” M‘Intosh went back, but came out immediately again, and said that the lord Kenmure and the rest of the noblemen, with his brother, would surrender in like manner with the English. *

The rebels having thus submitted to the king's mercy, colonel Cotton was sent in to take possession of the town, and to disarm the rebels. The generals Carpenter and Wills, at the head of part of the troops, entered the town in form, by the avenue leading to Lancaster; brigadier Honeywood, with the remainder, entered at the opposite end of the town, and, trumpets sounding, drums beating, and colours flying, both parties met at the market-place, where the Highlanders were drawn up in arms, which they immediately surrendered, and were marched into the church under a sufficient guard, the lords, gentlemen, and officers, being previously secured at the inns they had formerly occupied.+

The number of prisoners taken, including the seven lords, gentlemen, officers, &c., was one thousand four hundred and sixty-eight. Among these were two clergymen, Mr. Patten, and Mr. Irvine. Mr. Paul, the Cambridge clerk, having gone off with letters for some of their friends the day general Wills came to Preston, escaped for a time, but was taken at London

* Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 323. Patten's History of the Rebellion, pp. 117–120.

+ Patten's History of the Rebellion, pp. 128, 129.

men.

shortly after; and Mr. Buxton, we have already seen, disappeared in Derbyshire. Of the whole number four hundred and sixty-three were English, and of these seventy-five were noblemen and gentlemen, their followers and servants eightythree, private men three hundred and five. Of the Scots, one hundred and forty-three were noblemen and gentlemen; their vassals, servants, and others, eight hundred and sixtytwo, amounting in all to one thousand and five. In the engagement with the king's troops they had seventeen killed, and twenty-five wounded, and, notwithstanding the vigilance of the king's troops, a great many made their escape from Preston, especially after the capitulation. On the part of his majesty's forces there were wounded two captains, two lieutenants, one cornet, four ensigns, and seventy-two private

Killed, two captains, one ensign, and fifty-three sergeants and privates, in all one hundred and forty-six men.

Preston being insufficient to accommodate so many men and horses, general Carpenter sent part of his troops to Wigan that same day, and himself followed the day after, leaving general Wills to bury the dead, and take care of the prisoners, six of whom, viz. lord Charles Murray, a younger son of the duke of Athol, major Nairn, captain Philip Lockhart, brother to George Lockhart of Carnwath, captain John Shaftoe, ensign Erskine, and ensign Dalziel, brother to the earl of Carnwath, were shortly after tried at Preston by a court martial, found guilty, with the exception of ensigo Dalziel, and condemned to be shot. Lord Charles Murray, through the interest of his friends, was reprieved for a time, and escaped out of custody. The prisoners of the common sort, with some few of the gentlemen, were disposed of in the castles of Lancaster, Chester, Liverpool, &c. &c. and, for the most part, died by the hands of the executioner, or were sent to the plantations. Those of superior rank were, with a few exceptions, sent to London, and marched to their different prisons with every mark of contumelious indignity. They were particularly insulted by the rabble, that in disorderly crowds marched before them beating a warming-pan, crying

Vide General Wills' deposition at the bar of the house of lords.

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