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OR, A

D I C T I O N AR Y

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES,

AND

MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE;

Constructed on a PLAN,

BY WHICH

THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS

Are digested into the FORM of Distinct
TRE A TI SE S OR SYSTEMS,

COMPREHENDING

The HISTORY, THEORY, and PRACTICE, of each,
according to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements;

AND FULL EXPLANATIONS GIVEN OF THE
VARIOUS DETACHED PARTS OF KNOWLEDGE,

WHETHER RELATING TO

NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL Objects, or to Matters ECCLESIASTICAL,

Civil, MILITARY, COMMERCIAL, Loc.
Including ELUCIDATIONS of the most important Topics relative to Religion, Morals,

MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of LIFE:

TOGETHER WIT II

A DESCRIPTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, &c.

throughout the WORLD);
A General History, Ancient and Modern, of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States;
An Account of the Lives of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,

from the earliest ages down to the present times.

AND

Corapiled from ibe writings of the beft Authors, in fiverul languages; the most approved Diclionaries, as well of general science as of its partie
cular branches ; tbe Transaktions, Journals, and Memoirs, of Learned Societies, both at home and abroad; the Ms. Lectures of

Eminent Profesors on different sciences ; and a variety of Original Materials, furnisted by an Extenfio e Correspondence.

THE THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, GREATLY IMPROVED.

ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.

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Entered in Stationers Hall in Terms of the ad of Parliament.

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ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

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A N G

Α Ν G Angerema NGEREMANIA, a province of the kingdom dergone many alterations in the course of ages since its Angers nia

ll of Sweden, bounded on the N. by Lapland and conftruction, yet the architecture is fingular and deli

Angle. Angers.

Bothnia, on the E. by the gulph of Bothnia and Me. serves attention. Here lies interred with her ancestors
delpadia, and on the W. by Jemti and Herndel. It is the renowned Margaret, daughter of René king of Si.
full of rocks, mountains, and forests; and there is one cily, and queen of Henry VI. of England. She ex-
very high mountain called Scull. It has excellent iron- pired, after her many intrepid, but ineffectual, efforts
works, and lakes abounding with fish.

to replace her husband on the throne, in the year 1482,
ANGERMOND, a town of the duchy of Berg, at the castle of Dampierre in Anjou. Near the church
in Germany, on the E. side of the Rhine, subject to of St Michael is the handsomeft square in the city, from
the Elector Palatine. E. Long. 6. 20. N. Lat. 51. 10. whence runs a street which has the name of the church.

ANGERONA, in mythology, the name of a pa- On one side of this street is the town-house; which has gan deity whom the Romans prayed to for the cure a fine tower, with a clock, raised upon an arch, which of the quinzy; in Latin, angina. Pliny calls her serves for a passage into the great square. There are the goddess of filence and calmness of mind, who ba- two large bridges, which keep up a communication nishes all uneasiness and melancholy. She is repre. between the two parts of the city, and in the lesser of fented with her mouth covered, to denote patience these there is another square, which serves for a marand refraining from complaints. Her ftatue was set up, ket. The university of Angers was founded in 1398, and sacrificed to, in the temple of the goddess Volu- and the academy of belles lettres in 1685. This pia, to show that a patient enduring of affliction leads last consists of thirty academicians. At the end of to pleasure.

the suburbs of Breligny are the quarries of Angiers, ANGERONALIA, in antiquity, solemn feasts held so famous for the fine flate which is got from thence. by the Romans the 21st of December, in honour of The pieces are of the thickness of a crown piece, and Angerona, or Angeronia, the goddess of patience and a foot square. All the houses in Angers are covered filence. Feftus and Julius Modestus, quoted by Ma- with this Nate, which has gained it the appellation of crobius, Saturn. lib. i. cap. 10. derive the name from the Black city. The walls with which king John of angina, quinzy;" and suppose the goddess to have England surrounded it in 1214 remain nearly entire, been thus denominated, because the presided over that and are of very great ciroumference. W. Long. 0. 30. disease.-Others fuppose it formed from anger, "grief, N. Lat. 47. 28. pain;" to intimate that she gave relief to those afficted ANGHIERA, a town of Italy, in the duchy of therewith. Others deduce it from anges, “ I press, I Milan, and capital of a county of the fame name. It cluse," as being reputed the goddess of silence, &c. is feated on the eastern side of the lake Maggiore, in

ANGERS, a great city of France, and capital of E. Long. 9.5. N. Lat. 45. 42. the duchy of Anjou, with a bithop's fee. It is feated ANGINA, in medicine, a violent inflammation of a little above the place where the Sarte and the Loire the throat, otherwise called quinzy. See MEDICINElose themselves in the Maine. This last river divides Index. the city into two equal parts, called the High and the Angina Pelloris. See MEDICINE-Index, Low Town. There are twelve parishes in the city ANGIOSPERMIA, in the Linnaan system of boand four in the suburbs, which contain upwards of tany, the second order in the class Didynamia. It con. 36,000 inhabitants. Besides these, there are eight lifts of those plants, of that class, whose seeds are inchapters, and a great number of convents for both sexeso closed in a pericarpium. In this order the stigma is Its greatest extent is along the declivity of a hill, which generally obtuse. These are the personali of Tournereaches quite down to the river side. The castle was fort. built by St Louis, about the middle of the 13th cen. ANGITIÆ LUCUS or NEMUS (Virg.) situated tury. "The walls, fosses, and numerous towers which on the west side of the Lacus Fucinus. The inhabi. yet fubfift, evince its former magnificence; and its fi. tants are called Lucenfes, by Pliny. Angitia was fituation in the centre of the city, on a rock overhang- Iter of Medea, who taught antidotes against poison and ing the river, conduces to give it an air of grandeur, serpents, according to Sil. Italicus. But Servius on though at present in decay. It was the principal refi- Virgil says, that the inhabitants called Medea by this dence of the kings of Sicily, as dukes of Anjou, but name for the same reason. The town is now called Luco. is now in a state of total ruin. The cathedral of An ANGLE, the inclination of two lines meeting one gers is a venerable ftructure; and although it has un- another in a point. See GEOMETRY. Vol. II. Part I.

А

ANGLE

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