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An account of ancient monuments and fortifications in the Highlands of Scotland, forms a long article, in a letter from Mr. James Anderson to George Wilson, Esq. Mr. Anderson reduces the remains of antiquities in Scotland to fix classes. I. Mounds of earth thrown into a sort of hemispherical form, which are sometimes found in the south of Scotland, and usually distinguished by the name of mote or moat, which, he supposes, from the name, and other circumstances, to have been erected as theatres of justice by our Saxon ancestors. II. The Cairns, which are evidently fepulchral monuments, to be met with in every part of the country. III. The long stones set on end in the earth, which are known to be monuments, intended to perpetuate the memory of some signal event in war. There, he supposes, to be of later date than the cairns, as there is hardly one of them whose traditional history is not preserved by the country people in the neighbourhood; and it is not difficult to reconcile these traditional narratives with the records of history. Mr. Anderson conjectures, that this kind of monument was first introduced into Britain by the Danes. IV. Large stones placed in an erect position and circular form, which, being less known than the former, and confined to a narrower district, are more particularly described. Their situation and form are said to intimate, that they have been places destined for some kind of religious worship. Mr. Anderson has examined a great number of them, and finds, that by restoring the parts which have been demolished, they would all coincide very exactly with a plan here given, and drawn from one ftill very entire, at a place called Hill of Fiddess. These, without doubt, are druidical temples. V. Circular buildings, consisting of walls composed of stones, firmly bedded on one another, without any cement, and usually distinguished by the word Dun. A particular account, with a print annexed, is given of the remains of one of these buildings, called Dun- Agglefag, in Ross-shire. Mr. Anderson concludes, that these have been places of religious worship, and observes, that though every erection of this kind has the syllable Dur prefixed to the name of the place in which it stands, yet the particular building itself is always called the Druid's house, as the Druid's house of Dun-Beath, of DunAgglesag, &c. This remark seems rather to militate against Mr. Pope's opinion, as expressed above, concerning the Dune of Dornadilla ; though it must be acknowledged, this latter Tower or Dun, seems to differ in some respects from those here mentioned. VI. The most remarkable of all the Scottish antiquities are the vitrified walls; which consist of stones piled rudely on one another, and firmly cemented together by a matter that has been vitrified by means of fire, which forms a kind of artificial rock, that resists the viciffitudes of the weather, pero Rev, April, 1780.
haps better than any other artificial cement that has ever get been discovered. In the northern parts of Scotland, a particular kind of earthy iron ore, of a vitrescible nature, much abounds. Mr. Anderson supposes, that these walls were raised of dry stones, piled one above another, the interstices between them being filled with this vitrescible iron ore; after which, a fire was kindled, sufficiently intenfe to melt the ore, and thus to cement the whole into one coherent mass, as far as the influence of that heat extended. A particular description, attended with a print, is given of a fortification of this kind at Knockferrel, in Ross-thire, and several ingenious remarks are added, for which we must refer the reader to the article itself, only observing, that the writer inclines to consider these walls as entirely a British invention.
The derivation of the word Romance, formed an article in the last volume of Archaeologia * Mr. Warton, in his history of English poetry, had supposed it of French extraction. Mr. Drake derives it from the Spanish : Mr. Bowles again, in this volume, defends Mr. Warton's opinion. But it appears a very immaterial dispute, since all agree, that the word has its derivation from the language which the Romans introduced among the French and Spaniards, which was styled Romanh.
Mr. Pegge, in a differtation of seven pages, employs himself to amend and explain an historical passage of Gildas. His criticisms are learned and ingenious, and appear to be judicious and fatisfactory; but we cannot give our readers any juft idea concerning it, without extracting a greater part of the article than our limits will allow. The paflage is to be found, Gildas, cap. 15. and begins, Itaque illis ad sua revertentibus, &c. Mr. Pegge's translation is, “ On the departure of the Romans to their own home, a horrid crew of Scots and Picts disembarked, with the utmost haste and eagerness, from on board the corraghs in which they had crossed the Irish fea, and being sensible that our allies were withdrawn, with a declaration never to return, they, with more boldness than ever, seized the north-eastern, and remote part of the country, even up to the wall, expelling thence all the natives, or former inhabitants."
The seal of Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV. of France, and wife to our Charles I., affords a good plate. On the reverse is the queen, at full length, under a canopy, crowned, and in royal robes, with the scepter in her right hand, and the globe in her left. It is of brass, and appears to be finely cut. Mr. Brereton obferves, that the portion this queen brought with her was only 60,0co French crowns, which Charles soon disposed of, and made grants of lands to her in lieu of it, for lives and years, at Chertsey, and in several counties in England, which accounts for her having such a seal. Several leases granted by her, with this seal annexed, are still extant, and I have heard, says this gentleman, of one which appears to have been executed sometime after her death, the seal being always kept in England,
* Vid. Rev. vol. lvii. p. 255.
Within the space of a few years back, some persons, curious in antiquities, have observed a peculiar kind of red earthen ware among the cottage furniture of the fishermen, on the Kentish coast, within the mouth of the river Thames. The current tradition, concerning the great quantity of earthen ware of this kind, which has been found, is that some Roman veffel, freighted with these wares, must have been many ages ago cast away, since which, from time to time, parts of its lading have been dragged up by the fishermen's nets. The place of the wreck has been supposed to be somewhere about WhitftableBay. Thomas Pownal, Esq; has employed much attention and care to enquire into this fact. His brother, a commissioner of excise, at length prevailed with an old fisherman, who had two or three of these Roman pans in his poffeffion for domestic use, to attend him to the spot, known by the name of Puddingpan-fand, or rock. On the first hale of the net, along one fide of this shoal, they brought up a large fragment of brick-work cemented together, which might be about half a hundred weight, and with it pieces of broken pans. On farther trials they brought, up three entire pans. Mr. Pownal observes, that this spot has been long known not only to our fishermen, but also to our geographers, for the long land in the middle of the mouth of the Thames, but particularly what has been called the speck of it (perhaps from having been just there visible) the Pan-fand. It is so marked in all our oldest maps and charts. From the rocky feel of this speck, and from the mass of brick-work which was brought up, he concludes, that here are the ruins of build ings; at the same time, the quantities of earthen ware which have been discovered, indicate that there has been some store or manufactory of this kind at this place. Under this idea, Mr. Pownal has examined the ancient geography, and finds, in Ptolemy's second book of geography, iwo islands in the mouth of the Thames, Τολιαπις and Κωνος Νησος, the former is known to be the isle of Shepey, the second cannot be the isle of Thanet, on account of the latitude, which agrees with the spot under examination. After other confiderations in support of this supposition, he considers the ware here discovered, which is of two forts, the one red, the Ionian, or particularly the Samian, and this is most commonly found; the other of the dark Tuscan brown, or black. The first is of a coarser kind; the latter is thin, light, and of a finer texture. The vessels of
the first fort are of the species of Patera and Capedo; those of the second kind, by the fragments which are met with, seem to have been of the species of the simpula and lutini. From confidering the nature of these vessels, he is led to imagine, that this was a manufactory, especially employed in making the earthen vessels, which, according to the Roman ritual, were used in religious ceremonies; for it is known that earthen ware was employed for this purpose, and some of the vessels here found, are stamped in the manner such sacred utensils were directed to be. Mr. Pownal's observations are ingenious, learned, amusing, and, on the whole, they appear satisfactory.
We cannot avoid remarking, as a thing not improbable, that the vessel of earth, mentioned by Mr. King, in a former number, and already noticed in this article (so many of which the labourer fimply destroyed) might be of the species of the fimpula used in the Heathen religious rites; particularly, as Mr. King observes, how very small the aperture of this vessel, or kind of bottle, is ; and Varro, we think, somewhere speaks of the fimpo or simpulum, as a kind of cruet with a pipe to drop out wine. But to proceed :
In September 1777, on digging for the foundations of a new office for the Board of Ordnance, in the Tower of London, were found an ingot of silver, together with two gold coins, or aurei, of which an account is given by the President of the Society. The piece of filver, in the form of a double wedge, is four inches long, two inches and three-fourths broad, in the broadest part, one and three-fourths in the narrowest, and threeeighths of an inch thick in the middle. It is infcribed with the name of Honorius, meaning, in all probability, the Emperor of that name, who came to the empire in 393, when he governed in the west, as his brother and colleague Arcadius did in the east, and was the last of the Roman Emperors who preserved any power in Britain ; for, in the year 410, he restored to the inhabitants their freedom, and renounced all jurisdiction over them. The coins found at the same time confirm the belief that the Emperor Honorius is meant by the inscription on the silver, as one is of this Emperor, and the other two of his brother Arcadius. These aurei are said to be in high preservation, and of the most perfect weight, viz. feventy-three Troy grains each, which is precisely the fixth part of the Roman ounce. The President largely and learnedly confiders the subject.-Beside the above, there were discovered, at the same time, a stone with a Roman inscription, a small glass crown, destined, perhaps, for the ornament of some statue or image; a ring that seems to have been made of shell, with some letters obscurely marked; together with other coins and jettons of base metal. This article is accompanied with a plate.
Mr. Whitaker, in his History of Manchester, fupposes the English language to have been radically formed of Celtic, or British materials, and to have derived but little asistance from the Teutonic. The Rev. Mr. Drake, who speaks highly of Mr. Whitaker's performance, combats this fuppofition, and endeavours to prove, that the English language is purely Teutonic, radically derived from the Gothic and Saxon, the universal parent of most of the northern European tongues. To establish his point, he takes a part of a chapter in Ulphila's Gothic version of the Gospel, a work executed above fourteen hundred years ago, and confronts it with the same chapter of our present translation ; he apprehends, that the attentive reader will be amazed at the striking affinity between the two languages, notwithstanding the different mediums through which they have descended, and the many ages that have elapfed fince they have been separated. This subject Mr. Drake critically pursues through the greater part of the tenth chapter of St. John's Gospel.
Two vases which have been found on the Mosquito-shore, in South America, open a field for much enquiry and speculation. We are not expressly and exactly informed what is the size of these vases, only that the drawings are by a scale of one to four. Whether or not they are properly called vases seems uncertain : they appear to be supported by four legs, and in the form of some hooped tubs : one of them is larger than the other : how long they have been discovered we are not cold ; but they are now in the posletion of Lord Hillsborough, and have lain neglected among other things in an our-building. Governor Pownal, who writes an account of them, says, it is a decided fact, that they were made in South America, and on the Mosquito Shore : he observes, that they are curious exemplars of some of the first efforts of human ingenuity, and remains of what are become antiquities even among the Indians, who, he supposes, formerly used them for dressing some part of their food.
He was at a loss to discover the fubitance of these vessels, till he applied to the ingenious Mr. Bentley, who, on a trial with aquafortis, convinced him, that it was neither composition nor any lime-stone, but real granite. In a postfcript, the Governor adds, that the remains of ancient potteries have been discovered high up the Black river, on the Mosquito coast, and further says, that Father D’Acuina mentions, that some of the Indians, on the river of Amazons, had carried that manufactory to a great extent, so as even to establish a traffic with their neighbours for this ware. The potteries which are referred to, appear indeed to be very remarkable, and will give rise, no doubt, to some entertaining and curious disquisitions. Some specimens of the ancient pottery of this part of America,