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mixture of these two substances a saline matter, folubie in water, susceptible of a crystallization somewhat like that of alum, and which, by being exposed to a red heat, is transformed into a kind of faline glass. The importance and utility of this discovery are palpable.

III. Umslændliche Nachricht von der Hamburgischen Handlungs Academie : 1.e. A circumsiantial Account of the Commercial Academy at Hamburgh. By J. G. Busch, Professor of Mathematics, and Inspector of this Establishment. 12mo. Hamburgh. 1778. We are the rather inclined to announce this small publication, as it may be of use to those parents who wish that their sons, before they enter on actual business in counting-houses, should acquire the previous knowledge which may afterward prove useful and ornamental to them.

We are aware that the best school for business, is business itfelf; but still, in every branch, there are certain elements which must be gained by study, independent of practice. Such, in the case of merchants, are languages, a certain degree of hiftorical and geographical knowledge, and a general acquaintance with the theory of commerce. If to this be added, the useful application of the years of inactivity to which many young men are exposed before they can come into actual employment, we think we may recommend this establishment as likely to afford confiderable advantage. We must add, that the interior constitution of it appears to be judiciously framed.

We refer those who wish to be farther informed concerning this institution, to the circumstantial Account above mentioned, or to Mr. Ebeling, the director of the Academy.



For MARCH, 1780.

POLITICA L. Art. 10. A Defence of the Act of Parliament lately passed for the

Relief of Roman Catholics: Containing a true State of the Laws now in Force against Popery : In Answer to a Pamphlet, intitled,

• Appeal from the Protestant Association to the People of Great Britain, &c.” In a Letter to a friend. By a Proteitant, 8vo. 6d. Johnson. 1780. N our Review for January, we delivered our opinion respecting IN

the merits of the pamphlet, to which this letier hath given a more particular reply. We are happy to find our sentiments confirmed by a writer of such abilities and candour, as the Author of this letter evidently appears to possess. He conducts his argument with spirit and propriety: while the consistent Protestant, and the friend of humanity, appear in every page. We fincerely with that its circulation may be as extensive as that of the “ Appeal.” It is, we think, a sovereign antidote to the malignant poison which the


ministers of Pseudo-Protestantism have been so affiduous to scatter abroad, to infect the mind with the most contagious part of that very religion which the Association professes to oppose and controul.

The principal and avowed object of our ingenious letter-writer is, to Mew that the idea of toleration, as exhibited by the Author of “ the Appeal,” is so exceedingly defective, as by no means to deserve the name ;-that his objections to the A& for Relief of Roman Catholics, are principally founded on an entire misapprehension of its nature; and therefore-that he and his associates, in their endeavours to raise a ferment in the nation, and to excite mutual ani. mofities, amongst the inhabitants of these kingdoms, so far from deserving to be considered as guardians of the constitution, are in fact, whether they know it or not, abettors of persecution, and enemies of civil and religious freedom.'—This is the object of the pre. fent liberal and sensible pamphlet; and we think the Author hath fully accomplished his generous design.

As a specimen of his manner of discusing so important an argu. ment as that in which religious liberty is concerned, and as a justice cation of the applause we have honefly bestowed on the design and execution of the tract before us, we shall present our Readers with a passage or two, extracted from the conclusion.

• But it is not merely on account of the consequence; to be apo prehended from their repeal, that this Author wishes to have all the laws against Popery stand in full force: he desires it likewire by way of retaliation for the cruelties of the Papists. The statuses again ft Popery, notwithstanding their severity, he tells us, are mild, when compared with the bloody edi&s now in full force against Protestants in Popish countries. Whilft Papists in England are claiming toleration, Protestants in France are exposed to perfecution by the repeal of the edia of Nanız: and in other Popish countries, Protestants are by law condemned to death. Astonishing contralt (adds he) that needs only to be considered, to evince the impropriety of the late repeal. —Now the plain English

of this is--that we must persecute Roman Catholics, because the Roman Catholics have persecuted us! Is this the language of a follower of the meek and lowly Jesus ?-of him, who said, " Whatsoever ye would that men should do onto you, do ye even so to them?"-Of him, who taught us to love our enemies, and to do good to those who hate us ?-I challenge him to produce any thing in Popery more opposite and hostile to the {pirit of that New Testament which he professes to venerate.'

• As a private man, however, I believe Popery to be a corrupt religion; and therefore to be opposed. But how is this to be done? Not by force ; but by reasoning: not by penalties, but by perfuafion. If truth is to be maintained by the sword, Why was not Christianity so propagated at firf: Why did not the Divine Author, instead of the sword of the Spirit, arm his followers with swords of steel? He who could command legions of Angels to his affistance, might surely have established his clergy in spite of all opposition, throughout the habitable globe. What other reason can be assigned for his not doing this, but that which he himself has given, and which ought long ago to have put to silence every advocate for church-authority-MY KINGDOM IS NOT OF THIS WORLD.'


Art. 11. Four Letters from the Country Gentleman, on the

Subject of the Petitions. 8vo. 6 d. Almon. 1-80. Reprinted from Almon's news-paper, the London Courant; in which we have observed some well-written political essays. The Author, who signs himself a Country Gentleman, is a strenuous and able advocate for the county petitions. Art. 12. A Letter to Lord North. With Free Thoughts on

Pensions and Places. 4to. 6 d. Gainsborough printed, and sold by Bladon in Paternoster Row, London.

The production of a well meaning, but dim-fighted politician, who may be referred to Mr. Burke's printed speech (where he confiders the partial scheme of taxing placemen and pensioners) for better information. Art. 13. Obfervations on an Address to the Freeholders of Mid

dlesex, assembled at Free Mason's Tavern; delivered to the Chaire man, and read to that Assembly, December 20, 1779. With a clear Exposition of the Design and Plan, therein proposed, of a Republican Congrefs, for new modelling the Constitution. 8vo. 6d. Bowen.

A political sneer, intended to ridicule and explode a very serious performance. See our account of the Address, in our Catalogue for January, p. 81. Art. 14. Elay on Modern Martyrs : With a Letter to General

Burgoyne. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. T. Payne, &c. 1780. « It has been left, says the Author, to the ingenuity of modern times, ever busy in researches, and fertile in improvement, to dircover a new system of martyrdom ; a system into which neither wheels, nor flames, nor axes, are permitted to enter; but in which triumph results from punishment, and advantage springs from calamity; by which the insignificant may rise to importance, and the indigent so affluence, by the efficacy of mock misfortunes, and the emolument of lucrative heroism,'

The Author divides modern martyrdom into three species, all of them political, viz.

1. • Those who claim merit from the avowal of deliberate malignity; whose public virtue is diftinguished only by an opposition to public justice, and whose policy confilts in taking advantage of that disposition in some minds, that considers all government as an oppreslion, that feels all subordination as a misery.'-Under this head, the Reader will easily perceive that the Writer means to include fuch martyrs as Mr. Wilkes; again ft whom, however, the charge of malignity will not be readily admitted, by those who are perfonally acquainted with this jovial, witty, pleasant hero of the populace.

The second species of martyrdom— consists in the noble and difinterefied act of relinquishing some present advantage, in the fup. posed certain prospect of more exalted power, or more ample profit. Such a system is, indeed, from its nature, confined to the higher order of sufferers, and such as may be empbatically tiled the political, as those before described, may be rather termed the penal mare tyrs. To sacrifice the posielion of a lucrative employment, wears at the first glance so frong an appearance of fincerity, that we al. most overlook the folly of unfeadiness, and forget the treachery of defertion. Yet on a nearer view of circumstances and characters, we shall not consider the political martyr, merely as a convert to false popularity, but rather as a refined (though often disappointed) (pecularist, who weighs the chances of events, and calculates the fiuc. tuations of power with an almost arithmetical nicety.'


It is needless to lead our Readers into those intricate mazes in political conduct, which the ingenious Writer thinks it easy to unravel, by the help of this clue.

The third species of these self-created martyrs are, the self-proclaimed victims, who court the public favour, or pacify the public resentment, not only by voluntary but even by visionary sufferings. In the front of this venerable band appear the military martyrs, armed with recriminating invectives, hielded by new-formed con. nections, ftored with voluminous harangues, arrayed in all the pomp of burlesque inquiries, and adorned with all the trophies of partial approbation. In vain would common sense oppose her strength against the power of military eloquence ; in vain might the reprefent, that true valour would require no aid from the refinements of fophiftry, that real exploits would borrow no ornament from the pomp of declamation; that the commanders of former days established the glory, and extended the empire of their country, not by tedious recicals, but by actual and effe&tual enterprizes; that the proofs of meritorious service did not then rest upon the opinion of friendly witnesses, but on the records of impartial history, on the grateful applause of their countrymen, on the universal sense of mankind.

Here the Author approaches the main object of his view in this publication, viz. the arraignment of the conduct (military and political) of General Burgoyne; which is here exposed to a severity of investigation by no means new to this unfortunate commander, who, since his parole-return to England, hath sustained many attacks of this kind : herein experiencing the truth of the maxim'held by a celebrated French warrior—“ That a loft battle hath a long. tail.

Our Author takes leave of the General, with the following declaration of his inducements to the discussion of a subject by no means agreeable,' viz. • I will freely own, the firft motive that led me to this inquiry, was a desire of vindicating characters very powerfully, or at least speciously affailed. Every Itep I have proceeded in it, every view in which I have considered it, has uniformly tended to confirm me in this opinion, that you are not that oppressed officer, not that unprejudiced politician, which your speeches and publications have lo induftriously proclaimed you-that whatever misfortunes you may have suffered, whatever loffes you may have endured, have been the consequence of your own acts, or the effects of your own folicnation.-Had the case appeared otherwise to my mind, no consideration could ever have induced me to throw the least imputation on your conduct, or insinuate the fighteft doubt of your fincerity.-Art. 15. Speech of Edmund Burke, Esq; Member of Parlia.

ment for the City of Bristol, on presenting to the House of Commons (Feb. 11, 1780) “ A Plan for the better Security of the Rev. Mar. 1780.




Independency of Parliament, and the economical Reformation of the Civil and other Etablishments. ' 8vo. 25. Dodfley.

This noble and wonderful piece of oratory, of which we have here an authentic copy *, will immortalize the name of BURKE. Art. 16. I boughts on the prefent County Petitions. Addressed to

the Gentlemen, Clergy, and Freeholders, throughout England. By an Old-fashioned Independent Whig. 8vo. L. Davis. 1780.

This writer discountenances the petitions, on such grounds as seem to evince his thorough acquaintance with the state of parties in this country. In mort, he is a political sceptic, and does not credit even the Minority themselves for any degree of sincerity, in regard to this extraordinary manæuvre:- he does not believe they wish to obtain the prayer of their petition, left they should, themselves, be affected by it, when it may be their turn to have the distribution of the loaves and fishes. These cool thoughts were thrown out during the earlier fages of the county meetings; and the publication was, no doubt, intended to act as a damper.

M e DICA L. Art. 17. An Ansiver to the Letter addressed by Francis Riellay,

Physician of Newbury, to Dr. Hardy, on the Hints given concerning the Origin of the Gout, in his Publication on the Colic of Devon, &c. &c. By James Hardy, M. D. 8vo. 18. Cadell, &c.

When a man once mounts his hobby-horse, there is no topping him. 'Tis in vain for a friend to say, “ For God's sake, dismountthe vicious bealt will throw you-you will have your neck brokeyour joints dislocated or at least, you will get heartily splashed and bedaubed.”—It does not signify-on he goes-whip and spur-sill his career ends in a quagmire.

Dr. Hardy having laid down to himself as an undeniable position, " that the primary causes of the gout arise from the action of mineral Jubflances admitted into the human system,” will not recede from his point, though assailed by the most powerful arguments, both theoretical and experimental. If you tell him, that French gentlemen, who make their own wine, and are remarkably curious about it, would never be so absurd as to mix poison with it, and yet have their full thare of the gout-he answers you with a quotation from the Maijon Ruffique, in which you find three methods directed for preventing wines from turning four. The first of these is the suspending a ball of lead in the cask. Here nobody would deny the posibility of a noxious impregnation. The second is the fumigating with brim. fone, or, as we call it, the fiumming of wine. Now, mark the Doctor's ingenuity! This brimitone, he says, may be native sulphur -native fulphur often contains arsenic --consequently your wine may be impregnated with arsenic by this practice. The third method is boiling down the mult; concerning which, the Doctor thinks it fuf.


• Another edition has appeared, (but not printed under the Author's inspection) price is: 6 d. Published by Hey, in Paternotter Row.


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