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literally, and without a figure, “ to make the weak things confound the strong, and things that are not to bring to nought things that are."
So much for our Author's learning; and we have laid a tax on bis gratitude, for having exposed what might otherwise have been undiscovered by the eyes of any--but critics by profeffion, “ whole fenses have been long exercised” by the minutest of all possible enquiries.
We cannot do this writer ample justice (a matter we are always scrupulous in discharging !) without exposing some good qualities of his heart, as well as of his head, in order to exhi. bit the tout ensemble of his character.
As a specimen of his decency, take the following very modeft conceffion : « Could reason fubserve these beneficial and important ends, in which is comprised every thing that relates to our felicity here, and the consummation of it hereafter, then we might court, yea deify her as our all. But then too (borresco referens) we might instantly consign our Bibles to the flames; throw by the lamp of revelation as a superfluous and unnecessary guide ; take a Bolingbroke, a Hume, or a Priestley, for our oracle; join in the profane cry with a W. againft the influences of the Holy Ghost; think and speak as degradingly of the Son of God, as the execrable and abandoned author of an Essay on Woman; hail a restoration of the halcyon days of Gentilism and infidelity, and unite in a solemn apotheofis of dame Reason.' (N. B. The singular modesty of this delectable paragraph is chiefly obvious, in not printing Dr. Warburton's name at full length! We are the more particular in noting it, left the decency of Alumnus fhould, like his learning, pass unobserved.]
For the Author's most unaccountable and superlative disinterestedness, we need go no farther than his own declaration. • Reader, you may eafily perceive what the world's reason, prudence, and virtue are, by their effects on our modern rationalists and prudentialifts. They are three idols which spring from that accurfed, many-headed hydra, self. They are three phantoms which delude their fascinated vocaries into the inextricable mazes of pride and enthusiasm; and for any thing they can do in a way of enlightening, sanctifying, and saving, a sinner, they are in fact three nothings. And yet, when placed upon the head of self, they form a kind of triple crown.'-To be sure, our Author, like other faints, is beside himself!
His humility and candour will serve to bring up the rear of his other virtues. • I am (says this meek servant of the truth, who hath renounced felf) bold to declare, and am ready to demonft, ate, that no life was ever begun well, spent well, or concluded well, where the governing principles of the heart were Rev. Mar. 1780.
those of Mr. Young.' 'Tis time for Mr. Young to look to himself, to intruft his cargo' (as Alumnus moft elegantly expresses himself) in a safe bottom, considering what multitudes have foundered in their voyage ;-have been ingelphed in the dreadful charybdis of self-righteousness, or totally fhipwrecked againft the rocks of ignorance, pride, and unbelief.' See, Oh! see, the end of the savings and contradictions of the fanatic followers of Arius and Socinus !'
We fhall conclude our account of this tract with a wellknown story, and we wish that all “ the babes and fucklings" (the Alumni) of the true, old fanatic rurfe would make a proper use and improvement of it, before they ransack dictionaries, and rack their poor brains, in order to turn language out of its original channel, and apply to others, what the venerable fanction of time, and all the authorities of wit and wisdom, reason and revelation, have appropriated to them as their exclufive right and property. The story is a fhort one ; and it is fimply this.-A gentleman walking through the wards of Bethlem Hospital, was accosted by a poor Maniac, who complained of his hard and unmerited fortune, and bewailed the case of his fellow-fufferers, and then observed, that “ the people without the walls of Bedlam, and not those within, were, in reality, mad; and availing themselves of their fuperiority in point of number, had confined the few that were in their fenfes, only. for having more understanding than themselves.”
Now this, Alumnus, was as Ihrewd an attempt as thine, at turning the world upside down ;-or, as thou thyfelf calleft it, turning the tables. Each was conceived with equal wisdom; and we truft that each will be attended with equal success.
Mutato nomine, de to
Art. IV. Political, Mifeellaneous, and Philosophical Pirce, &c.
Written by Benjamin Franklin, LL. D. and F. R. S. Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, &c. &c. Now first colleaed, with Explanatory Plates, Notes, and an Index to the wbele, 8vo. 6 s. in Boards; or in 4to to match the Auchor's Philoso. phical Papers, 10 s. 6 d. in Boards. Johnson. 1779. HOUGH these cannot properly be called the pofthumous
works, yet-when we reflect on the Author's present fituation, and that he has entered on his 75th year, we cannot help considering, and lamenting over them, as the relics of the great philosopher, politician, and prophet, as the event has turned out, whose name is prefixed to them; and who, notwithftanding the present boltile character that he bears to this country, appears, from many papers contained in this colle&ion, to have taken fincere pains, before the American dispute arrived at its present formidable magnitude, to preserve the unity of the British empire :-or, to use his own apposite allufion, who
long endeavoured with unfeigned and unwearied zcal, to preserve from breaking that fine and noble china vafe-the British empire :'-well knowing, that being once broken, the separate parts could not retain even their share of the strength and value that existed in the whole ; and that a perfect re-union of those parts could scarce ever be hoped for.'-Dead to us, however, as We have just now represented him, we shall still indulge the expectation, that his great talents may yet be employed in arranging and cementing the parts of this shattered vale ; and of giving to the whole all the folidity of which it is now capable.
The anonymous Editor, who has taken pains thus to collect, and preserve their own intrinsic merit will perpetuate-the fcattered productions of the American patriot and philosopher, appears to be a zealous friend of Dr. Franklin; but at the same time, a friend who will not disgrace him. Tam Marti quam Mercurio, he appears well qualified to attend him both in his political and his philosophical capacity. In the former, by annotations fubjoined to each piece, he gives the reader all the information which he has been able to procure, with respect to the occafion on which it was written, and other circumstances relating to it. In the latter, the philosophical Editor appears likewise a fit companion for his Author; and in the last piece particularly, on the Aurora Borealis, adds many pertinent ob. servations or conjectures, in the form of notes. The opinions and feelings of the Editor, with respect to his Author, may be beft collected from his own warm expreffions in the preface to this volume,
. The times appear not ripe enough for the Editor to give expreffion to the affection, gratitude, and veneration, he bears to a writer he has so intimately studied : nor is it wanting to the Author; as history lies in wait for him, and the judgment of mankinil balances already in his favour. The Editor wishes only that other readers may reap that improvement from his production:), which he conceives they have rendered to himself. -Yet perhiaps he may be excused for stating one opinion: he conceives that no man ever made Jarger or bolder guesses than Dr, Franklin from like materials in politics and philosophy, which, after the scrutiny of events and of fact, have been more completely verified. Can Englifomen read these things, and not figh at recollecting that the country which could produce their Author, wiis once without controversy their own ! - Yet he who praises Dr. Franklin for mere ability, praises him for that quality of his inind, which stands lowest in his own esteem. Reader,
• In a letter to Lord Howe, published in this collection.
whoever you are, and how much foever you think you hate him, know that this great man loves you enough to wish to do you good :
His country's friend, but more of human kind.' The papers contained in this collection are disposed under five divisions. Under the first of these, the Editor has collected and arranged such pieces of the Author, as naturally fall under the head of General Politics. In the second, are contained papers upon American subjects, written before the present troubles : particularly, plans of union for the colonies, proposed in 1754; letters concerning taxation and representation; papers relative to Canada; regulations of Indian affairs, and other matters previous to the last peace. The third division contains various papers relative to America, written during the troubles ; comprehending, among other matters, a prophetic letter of the Author, as we may now justly term it, on the causes of the American discontents before 1768,' and their probable effects; --his equally prophetic answers to the questions proposed to him, during his examination before the British House of Commons, reJative to the repeal of the Stamp Act, in 1766:-his answers to certain pertinent queries relative to the American discontents, and the means of removing them, proposed to him by his friend, Mr. Strahan, in 1769:- his examination, and part of the proceedings before the Privy Council, relative to the dismission of Governor Hutchinson :- -his memorable answer to a letter of Lord Howe's, notifying his commission for composing the American troubles :--rules for reducing a great empire to a 1mall one, together with some other letters and papers. In the fourth divifion are contained various papers relative to provincial politics only; particularly those of the province of Pensylvania : and in the fifth and last, the Editor has collected all the miscellaneous and philosophical pieces of Dr. Franklin that have come into his hands, and which are not elsewhere extant in print.
From a work of so miscellaneous a nature, and which contains feveral papers that have been before separately published, we find it difficult to make a proper selection. Some specimens however will be expected from us; nor can any, from such a pin, be unacceptable to our readers. Under the first division, we mect with the following excellent parable against persecution ; the per ufal of which we are forry to have occafion, at this time of day, to recommend to the members of the present Protefiant Alocation. The Author of this parable, as the Editor has been informed, has often imposed it upon his friends and acquaintance, as a part of a chapter of Genesis.
• A Parable against Persecution.” (1. And it came to pass after theie things, that Abraham fat in the door of his tent, about the going down of the fun.
" 2. And behold a man bowed with age, coming from the way of the wilderness leaning on a staff.
• 3. And Abraham arose, and met him, and said unto him, Turn in, I pray thee, and wash thy feet, and tarry all night; and thou shalt arise early in the morning, and go on thy way.
4. And the man said, Nay; for I will abide under this tree.
* 5. But Abraham pressed him greatly : so he turned and they went into the tent: and Abraham baked unleavened bread, and they did eat.
66. And when Abraham saw that the man blessed not God, he said unto him, Wherefore doft thou not worship the most high God, Creator of heaven and earth?
7. And the man answered and said, I do not worship thy God, neither do I call upon his name; for I have made to myself a god, which abideth always in my house, and provideth me with all things.
• 8. And Abraham's zeal was kindled against the man, and he arose, and fell upon him, and drave him forth with blows into the wilderness.
9. And at midnight God called unto Abraham, saying, Abraham, where is the stranger?
. 10. And Abraham answered and said, Lord, he would not worship thee, neither would he call upon thy name; therefore have I'driven him out from before my face into the wilderness.
11. And God said, have I borne with him these hundred ninety and eight years, and nourished him, and clothed him, notwithstanding his rebellion against me; and couldst not thou, who art thyself a finner, bear with him one night?
• 12. And Abraham said, let not the anger of my Lord wax hot against his servant: lo, I have sinned, forgive me I pray thee.
13. And Abraham arose, and went forth into the wilderness, and fought diligently for the man, and found him; and returned with him to the tent; and when he had en treated him kindly, he sent him away on the morrow with gifts.
• 14. And God spake again unto Abraham, saying, for this thy sin fhall thy seed be afflicted four hundred years in a strange land :
15. But for thy repentance will I deliver them, and they fhall come forth with power, and with gladness of heart, and with much substance.'
As another specimen of this division of the work, we shall felect some parts of a popular and useful production of the Author; which, we are told, his countrymen read with much avidity and profit; intitled, “The Way to Wealth, as clearly shewn in the preface of an old Pensylvanian Almanack, intitled, Poor