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tion he has paid to the coffumé, to which the sentiment and diction, as well as action of each personage religiously accord. • The only thing (says the Observer) a dramatic writer, whose fable is Eastern, has to confider is, to select his images with judgment, to take care they have a local propriety, contain allusions to the mythology and customs of the Dramatis Personæ, are taken from surrounding objects, and belong to ideas familiar to those WHO SPEAK.' We beg leave however to remark to the Author, that images, selected with judgment, should not only belong to ideas familiar to those who speak, but should avoid allusions totally foreign to the knowledge or apprehensions of those who hear. This management of local proprieties requires a taste and address not so happily displayed in the tragedy of Zoraida, as in some other plays founded on Eastern stories. Part of the Turkish mythology is popular, and generally known. Such allusions are preferable to a parade of Oriental pedantry; as a proof of which let the reader of Zoraida compare Almaimon's description of the Mahometan paradise (p. 28) to Caled's beautiful verses on the same subject in Hughes's Siege of Damascus !

The whole of the diction of this tragedy abounds in imagery. We agree with the Author, that the tragic style demands fome elevation, and that the use of images is admiffible: but, not to feem unnatural, they should appear to be the spontaneous effufions of the speaker, rather than the laborious affectation of the author. They should not run out into long and luxuriant descriprions, and they ought to be level to the understanding of the auditor. A writer might as well introduce Eastern characters speaking in the Oriental tongue, and contend for its propriety, as to overload his dialogue with references and allusions equally intelligible to the generality of the audience. Perfpicuity without meanness, says Aristotle, is the virtue of style; plainly intimating, that though the diction may be raised, its basis should be fimplicity. The personages of Zoraida are always on the stretch after expression; their language abounds in forced images, used by Princes and Attendants, Princelles and Confidantes, Ottomans and Ægyptians, indiscriminately.

The beginning of the Fourth Act will serve as some specimen of the style of this tragedy, though less full of imagery, local or general, than many other passages :

How fatally delusive are the dreams,
The golden dreams of happiness, which flatter
Unhappy mortals with fantastic hopes
That ne'er must know completion Pow'rs of heav'n!
For what am I reserv'd-Yet come what may
One comfort ftill is mine ; my lord Almaimon
Is safe remov'd from danger-But behold,

Give it way,

With downcast mien, and eye in tears fuffus'd,
Where Zulima returns; her looks declare
My doom is fix'd, and Azraël waits his prey.

Enter ZUL IM A.
Zor. Thou need't not tell me that che soldiers phrenzy

Still mocks restraint, and clamours for my life

Thy weeping eyes my destiny reveal.
Zul. Alas, my injur'd friend ! far other griefs

Conspire against your happiness; at length
The demon of adversity has lanc'd

His sharpet arrow.

Whence these fatal words?
This horror on thy brow?

I cannot speak;
Grief choaks my pow'rs of urt'rance.

And end this horrible suspense.

Zor. Almaimon-mercy Speak

Is murder'd.

Strike, strike me to the ground some pitying angel!
Zul. Would I had Nept in everlasting peace

Ere my sad eyes the dreadful fight had view'd,
Had seen that honour'd form, whose bloody robe

Too well I knew, disfigur'd all with wounds.
Zor. Enough; the measure of my woes is full,

And heav'n has seal'd my doom-I will not weep;

Down, swelling sorrow.

Do not look so wildly.
Oh patience, princess, patience !

Patience, said it thou?
Talk't thou of patience i-Yes, I will be patient,

Not one fad high fhall heave my struggling bosom, 24. Yet fand not thus in speechless grief absorb’d,

With looks that speak unutterable anguish.
Peshaps my fire, Moralmin, has encounter'd
An equal fate; his venerable form
Perhaps lies mangled, to the birds of heav'n
A deftin'd vi&im; yet I do not charge
The skies with crueley, but bear my loc

With patient refignation.

Doft thou talk
Of refignation to a wretch fo curft,
So agoniz'd as I am ? Hence, vain comforter !
Nor mock my sorrows more.--Away-my soul
Is mated to despair.-Thou parent earth, (Falling down.
Receive thy wretched daughter ! On thy bosom
Here will I lie, and drown thee with my tears,

Till thou entomb me in eternal relt.
Zul. On scene of matchless woe! behold her droop,
Like some fais bloffom, which she winds of heav'n'

Have torn'in anger from its parent tree,

And to the doft hurld prostrate.
Zor. (half riing ) Saidit thou murder'd ?

All mangled too! Some pirying pow'r untune
Each lab'ring sense, hurl headlong from her throne
Uprooted reason! Come, terrific madness!
Come, let me clasp thee! In thy native fierceness
Cloche my wild eye balls, fire my heated brain,
And let the ravings of my frantic lips

Become my desperation !

Dwell not, princess,
Oh dwell not thus, in fearful medication
On sorrows irretrievable. Exert
The native energy of noble minds,

And sise superior

Woman! canst thou free me
From memory's scorpion sting? controul the course
Of Dettiny and Death, or wake the slain
To second being ? No; release me, heav'n!
Release a wretch to misery predestin'd,
And in the tomb, beside my murder'd lord,

Let my pale corse be laid !

Accursed Osman!
This is thy cruelty.

Vindi&ive lightnings
Blast his perfidious head! Stern pow'rs of vengeance!
Since nor distress nor innocence can bend
Your flinty rigour, be severely just
And strike him to the center ! From your dens,
Ye blackelt demons, rise, his double heart
Haunt with your furies ; place before his view
His aggravated crimes, then drag him down
To everlasting punishment !

Exeunt. The most beautiful scenes in this tragedy are, in our opinion, those which are founded on the discovery and remorse of Orman. They are not, like the catastrophe, and other parts of the fable, marvellous; but they are uncommon, yet not improbable. The conduct both of the Emperor and conspirator is extraordinary, but not unnatural. We are sorry to say that we find little elie to admire or approve, though there are several circumstances that remind us of other popular dramas. The conferences between Almaimon and Zirvad are counterparts of Friar Laurence and Romeo; Almaimon's attempt on the life of Zoraida is a second edition of Oroonoko with kmoinda ; and the proposed marriage of Zoraida with Selim, is a repetition of a fimilar situation in the Distreft Mother. In a word, the play and the observations taken together, Zoraida appears to be a tragedy, written by a receipt.



Art. III. Fanatical Divinity exposed; and the Gospel of Christ

vindicated; or, Remarks on a Sermon occasioned by the Death of the Rev. John Parsons, Rector of St. Martin's, Birmingham, and preached by the Rev. William Toy Young, Corate of the faid Parish. With a Dedication to the Auchor of Pietas Oxonienfis. By Alumnus. Svo. 1 s. Vallance, &c. 1779. HE Spectator hath given us a curious account of bites,

of various characters and descriptions. The literacy bite comes frequently in our way, and reminds us of the common proverb, Fronti nulla fides : i. e. There is no depending on title-pages.

Our Mr. Alumnus (which, by the way, is only Latin for a Nurseling] hath very dextrously followed his worthy predecessors in the trade and mystery of biting; for, instead of exposing fanatical divinity,' he hath mustered up all the light infantry of his wit, and brought forward all the heavy troops of orthodoxy, zeal, and damnation, in order to guard the standard of fanaticism, and push its dreadful triumphs beyond the lines of common sense and Christian charity.

“ But, perhaps, it may be faid, this knight of the fanatic poft skulks behind the entrenchment of equivocation. As he appears to know something of small Latin, he may make use of the word, expose, in a different sense from that in which a mere English reader might be ready to construe it. To expose, may mean to bring forward to public view-to display-to illustrate, &c." This, indeed, is literally true of the present performance, and with this interpretation, one part of the titlepage tells us no lie. But our Author's bite lies chiefly in the word, fanatical. It is in this word that he exposes his sagacity and erudition. Here begin -and here end the higher triumphs of his wit and humour! O! what a glorious thing is Latin! If thou art disposed, gentle reader, to doubt it, peruse what follows, and thou wilt be convinced that there is more in it than thou wast aware of.

" You will wonder (says Alumnus in his dedication to the author of Pietas Oxonienfis--you will wonder, perhaps, Sir, at one branch of the title prefixed to this pamphlet. An explanation of that matter will involve in it my apology too. You are not ignorant, that it is become a popular practice with the adversaries of the Gospel, when they are at a loss for argument in defence of their errors, and when hard pufhed by " the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God, to fly to the trite and paltry subterfuge of shouting, “ enthusiasm ! fanaticism !” Now, I thought, it might not be amiss, for once, to turn the tables on our opponents; and having wrested out of their hands a blunt weapon, with which, however, they do much mischief among the ignorant (thei gnorant !) and profane, to direct it against themselves, by evincing that to be fanaticism which they call religion, and vice versa.'


Now this is one of the most curious and original designs that was ever conceived by a daring genius: and if the execution were but answerable to the intention, we should, notwithstanding our long and well-known predilection for heresy, most cheerily clap the Author on the back, and cry out with Shakespeare.

“ It is sport to see the engineer hoist with his own petar." But it is not good manners to interrupt our Author in his bold attempt ; let him go on.

• A system which aggrandizes natural reason on the ruins of revelation, celebrates a thing called virtue to the discredit of that saving faith in the son of God, by which finners are justified, and from whence springs the fruits of holiness; and eitablishes human merit to the depreciating the gratuitous * mercy of the Most High; and the all-fufficient sacrifice of the Redeemer :fyftem, I say, of this nature is perfectly congenial with the spirit of Deism, and hath for its real birth-place, the Fanum, i.e, the Temple of a Heathen-priest, or the Portico of a Stoicphilosopher, rather than the temple of truth. He who adopts, or he who propagates such a spurious theology, is to all intents and purposes, fanaticus, a fanatic [2. E. D.]:

- the light that is in him is darkness, and the zeal that actuates him is composed of sparks of his own kindling.--Fanaticism, THEREFORE (viz. by the logic of Latin), is to be found, not with the humble and sober enquirer after truth, who, with his Bible in his hand, and his heart elevated to the fountain of wisdom, prays, “ What I know not teach thou me;" but with felfilluminated rationalists, and self-justifying moralists. And their system which makes so much of Self, Reason, Virtue, Works; and so little of the Lord Jesus Christ, is (and be it from this time forth for ever called) fanatical divinity.'

Thus (as the Author expresses himself) the tables are turned, with a witness ! And by the authority aforesaid - what if it be the authority of a “ word-catcher who lives on fyllables;" it is to all intents and purposes,' as infallible as the authority of a general council - be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted, that * from this time forth and for evermore,' sense and nonfense shall change hands, cast over, and figure into each other's places. Glorious revolution ! and to add to the wonder of so Atrange and fingular an event, all is to be brought about by the feeble etymology of a Latin word, of which Varro and Voffius cannot agree in settling the derivation. This, in truth, is

* Excellent logic ! gratuitous mercy! all-fufficient sacrifice! i. e. the free-gift was dearly fold and paid for to the uttermolt farthing!


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