Page images
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

2-if meat to the value of iii d. ob.

Thursday.--At Dynner. The Manner of Punishment of Of. Two of the masters commens hare

ences and making of Orders. meat to the value of jjid.

There is among them no certaine

punishment for offences; but such At Supper.

offences and misdemeanors as are Two of the masters commens have committed, are punished by the judgmeat to the value of ii d. ob.

ment of the elders or benchers, who

punish the offender, either by payFryday.-At Dinner. ment of money, or by putting him Two of the masters commons have he shall take no meate nor dryoke

forth of commens; which is, that

among the fellowship, untill the Saturday.-At Dinner. elders list to revoke their judgment. Two of the masters commens have

Item, at certain tymes in the

yeare, the beachers and utter-bameat to the value of ijii d. ob.

risters do resort together, and there At Supper.

do consult and advise themselves,

concerning the causes of their house, Every one of the masters come and make decrees and orders cona mens and clerks commens have four cerning such things as they think eggs.

meet to be reformed in the house; - The Stypend of the Officers by the and that they call a parliament. Yeare.

The Manner of Divine Services The stewards wages by the yeare,

in the Church, and their charges

thereanto. piji marks.

The chief butlers wages by the Item, that they have every day yeare, xxxiii s. jiiid.

three musses said, one, after the The second butlers wages by the other; and the first masse doth beyeare, vis. viïd.

gin in the mornyng at seaven of the The third butlers wages by the clock, or thereabouts. The festiyeare, vis. viii d.

vall days they have mattens and masse The chief cokes wages by the soleninly sung; and during the ma.

tyns singing, they have three masses
The manciple, or students ser- said.
vant, his wages by


xxvis. Their chardges towards the salary väid.

or mete and drynke of the priests The under cookes wages by the is none; for they are found by my yeare, xxs.

lord of St. John's, and they that The laundress of the clothes of are of the fellowship of the house, 41 19 the house, her wages yearly, vis.viiid. are charged with nothing to the

Also at Christmasse the three priests, saving that they have eighteen butlers hare in reward of every offering days in the yeare, so that gentleman of the house, xiid. and the chardge of each of them is xviiid. some give them in reward more. Also at Easter the cookes manciple

Their Order for Payment of Debts have in reward of every gentleman

due to the House. xiid, or thereabouts.

Item, if any of the fellowship be

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

me jis * ycare, xls.

d be



indebted to the house, either for his

Library. diet, either for any other duty of the

They now have no library, 19 house, he shall be openly in the hall

that they cannot attaine to theknot. proclaymed ; and whosoever 'will

ledge of divers learnings, but to the pay it for him, shall have an enjoy his lodging and chamber that is great chardges, by the buying

such bookes as they lost to studi. so indebted.

They had a simple library, in white Apparell.

were not many bookes besides the They have no order for their ap- that it stood allways open, and tár:

Jaw, and that library, by means parell; but they may go as him listeth, so that his apparell pretend the learners had not cach of them a to no lightness or wantonnesse in the key unto it, it was atte the las

robbed of all the bookes in it, wearer ; for even as his apparelli doth shew him to be, even so shall Their usage in time of Pestilence. he be esteemed among them.

If it happened that the plaque o The Fashion of their House in the pestilence be any thing nigh the Night.

house, then every man goeth home In the night time they have not loss of learning ; for if they kit

into his conutry, which is a great their gates shut, so that every man

some-house nigh London to resort may go in and out through the house all seasons of the night, which unto, they might as well exercise

their learning as in the temple on is occasion that their chambers are often times robbed, and many other

till the plague were ceased. misdemeanors used.


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small]

Of the Muscles, with their Tendons, tion, as to produce the motion of

being the Instruments by which which the joint admits. For in. Animal Motion is performed.-stance, the sartorius, or taylor's From Paley's Natural Theology. muscle, rising from the spine, run

ning diagonally across the thigh, and It will be our business to point taking hold of the main bone of the out instances in which, and proper- leg a little below the knee, enables ties with respect to which, the dis. us, by its contraction, to throw one position of these muscles is as strict. leg and thigh over the other; give ly mechanical, as that of the wires ing effect, at the same time, to the and strings of a puppet.

ball and socket-joint at the hip, and 1. We may, observe, what I be- the hinge joint at the knee. There 17 lieve is universal, an exact relation is, as we have seen, a specific mecha

between the joint, and the muscles nism in the bones for the rotatory which move it. Whatever motion motions of the head and hands; the joint, by its mechanical con. there is also, in the oblique direcstruction, is capable of performing, tion of the muscles belonging to that motion, the annexed muscles, by them, a speeific provision for the their position, are capable of pro- putting of this mechanism of the ducing. For example; if there be, bones into action. And mark the as at the knee and elbow, a hinge consent of uses. The oblique mus. joint capable of motion only in the cles would have been inefficient same plane, the leaders, as they are without the articulation: the articucalled, i. e. the muscular tendons, lation would have been lost, without are placed in directions parallel to the oblique muscles. It may be the bone, so as by the contraction or proper, however, to observe with relaxation of the muscles to which respect to the head, although I they belong, to produce that motion think it does not vary the case, that and no other. If these joints were its oblique motions and inclinations capable of a freer motion, there are are often motions in a diagonal, no muscles to produce it. Whereas, produced by the joint action of at the shoulders and hip, where the muscles lying in straight directions. ball and socket-joint allows, by its But whether the pull be single or construction, of a rotary or sweeping combined, the articulation is always motion, tendons are placed in such a such, as to be capable of obeying position, and pull in such a direc. the action of the muscles. The ob.

[ocr errors]

lique muscles attached to the head stance, the biceps and brachiaus ta. are likewise so disposed, as to be ternus muscles placed in the front capable of steadying the globe, as part of the upper arm, by their couwell as of moving it. The head of a traction bend the elbow; and with new born infant is often obliged to such degree of force, as the case rebe filletted up. Asterwards the headquires, or the strength admits of drops, and rolls in every direction. The relaxation of the muscles after So that it is by the equilibre of the the effort, would merely let the muscles, by the aid of a considerable fore-arm drop down. For the and equipollent muscular force in back stroke, therefore, and that constant exertion, that the head the arm may not only bend at the maintains its erect posture. The elbow, but also extend and straight muscles here supply what would itself with force, other muscles, the otherwise be a great defect in the longus and brevis brachicus externa, articulation ; for the joint in the and the anconcæus placed on the neck, although admirably adapted hinder pa of the arm, by their to the inotion of the head, is insuf. contractile twitch, fetch back the ficient for its support. It is not fore-arm into a straight line with tà only by the means of a most curious cubit, with no less force than that structure of the bones that a man with which it was bent out of it. turns his head, but by virtue of an The same thing obtains in all the adjusted muscular power, that he limbs, and in every moveable part eren holds it up.

of the body. A finger is not bent As another example of what we and straightened without the cos. are illustrating, viz. conformity of traction of two muscles taking use between the bones and the mus.' place. It is evident, therefore, tha cles, it has been observed of the the animal functions require that different vertebræ, that their pro. particular disposition of the me cesses are exactly proportioned to cles which we describe by the name the quantity of motion which the of antagonist muscles ; and they other bones allow of, and which the are accordingly so disposed. Every respective muscles are capable of muscle is provided with an adrer producing

sary. They ad like two sawyers in 2. A muscle acts only by con a pit, by an opposite pull; and notraction. Its force is exerted in no thing surely can more strongly indi other

way. When the exertion cate design and attention to an end ceases, it relaxes itself, that is, it than their being thus stationed; than returns by relaxation' to its former this collocation. The nature of the state, but without energy. This is muscular fibre being what it is, the the nature of the muscular fibre; purposes of the animal could be an and being so, it is evident that the gwered by no other. And not only reciprocal energetic motion of the the 'capacity for motion, but the limbs, by which we mean motion aspect and symmetry of the body, with force in opposite directions, is preserved by the muscles being can only be produced by the instru- marshalled according to this order, mentality of opposite or antagonist e. g. the month is held in the midmuscles; of flexors and extensors dle of the face, and its angles kept abswering to each other. For in- in a state of exact correspondency,


[merged small][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

too s when we reflect upon the number of back part of the globe, where it is For det. * muscles, not fewer than four hun. safe, and where it incumbers no. Propetu í body, known and named, * how se decorate contiguous they lie to each other, in in the figure of the muscles may be a'r og crossing one another, sometimes fixed law, that the contraction of a opposite ment, which leaves. to each its li. & lite me perforating one another, an arrange. Therefore the subject for mechanism

by two muscles drawing against, tion, by slender strings or wires. If and balancing each other. In a he- the muscles, which move the fingers, miplegia, when the muscle on one had been placed in the palm or back side is weakened, the muscle on the of the hand, they would have swel. other side draws the mouth awry. led that part to an awkward and

3. Another property of the mus- clumsy thickness. The beauty, the cles, which could only be the result proportions of the part, would have of carc, is their being almost uni- been destroyed. They are there

versally so disposed as not to ob- fore disposed in the arm, and even 199 struct or interfere with one ano. up to the elbow; and act by long

ther's action. I know but one in- tendons, strapped down at the DJ AX ** stance in which this impediment is wrist, and passing under the liga

2180 71perceived: we cannot easily swallow ment to the fingers, and to the joints e fornecer whilst we gape. This, I understand, of the fingers, which they are seved hot mom is owing to the muscles employed in rally. to move. In like manner, the *** the act of deglutition, being so im- muscles which move the toes, and med ett plicated with the muscles of the many of the joints of the foot, how twice the lower jaw, that, whilst these last gracefully are they disposed in the

are contracted, the former cannot calf of the leg instead of forming an i no law is act with freedom. The obstruction unwieldy tumefaction in the foot it.

fresh is, in this instance, attended with self? The observation may be rebize bus little inconveniency; but it shews peated of the muscle which draws in evert so what the effect is where it does exist, the nictitating membrane over the

and what loss of faculty there would eye. Its office is in the front of the og resten be, if it were more frequent. Now eye, but its body is lodged in the 4 dred and forty-six in the human thing,

5. The great mechanical variety layers, as it were, over one another, thus stated. It appears to be a embedded in one another, sometimes muscle shall be towards its centre.

on each occasion is, so to modify berty and its full play, must neces. the figure, and adjust the position 1.43 sarily require meditation and coun of the muscle, as to produce the

motion required, agreeable with this 4. The following is oftentimes law. . This can only be done by the case with the muscles. Their giving to different muscles a diveraction is wanted where their situa. sity of configuration, suited to their tion would be inconvenient. In several offices, and to their situation which case the body of the muscle with respect to the work which they is placed in some commodious posi. have to perform. On which action at a distance, and made to count we find them under a multi. communicate with the point of ac- plicity of forms and attitudes; some

* Keill's Anat. p. 295, ed. 3d. VOL. XLVI.



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

for more

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »