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not but remind and refer his high has been sported with by this goco-estates to the declarations he has vernment, and solemn treaties vioalready caused to be made on that lated, even before they were carsubject by his comitial legation on ried into execution. The maritime the 22nd of August, of the pre nations every day experience its tyceding year, and on the 25th of last ranny. There no longer exists any month.

theoretical principle of navigation, any written convention, which have

not been scandalously violated on Circular Note from M. Talleyrand, every shore, and in every sea.

French Minister of Foreign Af: Neutral states know, that even in fairs, to all the Agents of his Ma- using the rights which still remain jesty the Emperor of the French. to them with the most timid circum. Dated Aix-la-Chapelle, Sept. 5, spection, they expose themselves to 1804.

insult, to pillage, and to extermina.

tion.--Those states, in fine, which You must, Sir, have observed and have the unhappiness to be at war, known, according to my instruc no more rely on any reciprocal printions at the time of the communi- ciple of moderation and justice. cation of the note of lord Hawkes. All the bonds existing betwcen them bury to the foreign ministers resid- and the neutral powers are broken. ing in London, the impression which Approach to the coasts and entrance this publication of the strongest into the ports and islands, though maxims of political and social mo situate at the distance of 200 leagues rality could not fail to produce on from the station of their squadrons, the mind of the government with have been prohibited by simple prowhich you reside. I think I ought clamation.--Thus the English goto return to the subject. I there- verument has hitherto opposed to fore send you, oflicially, a copy of every power, according to its parthis note, and expressly charge you, ticular position, a maxim injurious by order of his majesty, to make to its honoui, and subversive to all it the object of a special confer- its rights. It now attacks them alence with the ministry.—The pro- together, and the more completely ject which the English government to attain its end, directs its blow has conceived for the last half cen- against morality itself, and, if I tury, gradually to abolish the tute. may so speak, against the religion of lary system of public law which public law. unites and engages all civilized na. In every conntry, and at all tions, developes itself with a fearful times, the ministry of diplomatic progression. Will other govern. agents was held in veneration amongst ments refrain from making opposi- men. Ministers of peace, organs tion to such an enterprise till there of conciliation, their presence is an no longer exist any moral bond omen of wisdom, of justice, and which may preserve their rights, happiness. They speak, they act guarantee their engagements, and but to terminate, or prevent, those protect their interests ?—The pow. fatal differences which divide princes, ers of the continent have seen with and degrade a people, by the pas. what audacity the faith of oaths sions, murders, and miseries, which VOL. XLVI.



are the offspring of war. Such is of more shamelessly. His majesty the object of the diplomatic minis- the emperor thinks that it is time to try; and it must be said, that it is put an end to the disastrous career to the observance of the duties it of principles, subversive of all so. imposes, it is to the generally re- ciety. You are ordered, in consespectable character of the men who quence, to declare to the gorern. exercise this sacred ministry in Eu- ment where you reside, that his marope, that it owes the glory and the jesty will not recognize the English happiness it enjoys; but these hap- diplomatic corps in Europe, so long py effects torment the jealous ambi- as the British ministry shall not abtion of the only government which stain from charging its ministers with makes itself an interest in the ruin, any warlike agency, and shall not the shame and the servitude of other restrict them to the limits of their governments. They wish that di- functions. The miseries of Europe plomatic ministers should be the in- proceed from its being deemed obligastigators of plots, the agents of tory every where to observe maxims troubles, the directors and regula- of moderation and liberality, which tors of machinations, vile spies, being just but by reciprocity, are cowardly seducers--they order them only obligatory with respect to those to foment seditions, to provoke and who submit to them. Hence governto pay for assassination; and they ments have as much to suffer from their pretend to throw over that infamous own justice as from the iniquity of a ministry the respect and inviolabi- ministry which recognises no law but lity which belong to the mediators its ambition and its caprice. The of kings, and the pacificators of na. miseries of Europe proceed also tions. - Diplomatic ministers, says from public right being considered lord Hawkesbury, ought not to under a partial point of view, where. conspire in the country where they as it has life and strength only from reside, against the laws of that coun its integrity. Maritime right, con. try; but they are not subject to the tinental right, the right of nations, same rules with respect to states at are not parts of public right that which they are not accredited. Ad can be considered and preserved in mirable restrictions! Europe will an insolated manner. The nation swarm with conspirators, but the that pretends to introduce arbitrary defenders of public right must not rules into one of those parts, loses complain. There will always be all its claims to the privilege of the some local distance between the whole. The systematic infractor of leader and the accomplices. The

The the rights of nations, places himself ministers of lord Hawkesbury will out of that right, and renounces all pay for the crimes they cause to be interest founded upon the maritime committed ; but they will have that right and the continental right. His prudent deference for public mo. majesty the emperor, regrets his hav. rality, not to be at once the instiga. ing to order measures which are a tors and the witnesses. Such max real interdiction pronounced against ims are the completion of audacity a state; but all reflecting men will and hypocrisy. Never were the be at no difficulty to see, that, in opinions of cabinets and the con. this it is only necessary to entertain scien xs of any people made game facts. The English ministry, by the



generality of their attacks, have gle individual, France recovered placed coasts, isles, ports, neutrals, tranquillity at home, and acquired general commerce in a state of in: abroad the highest degree of consiterdiction; in fine, they have just deration and glory ;-That the plots proclaimed the prostitution of the formed by the House of Bourbon, in most sacred and most indispensible concert with a ministry, the implaministry, to the repose of the world. cable enemy of France, warned llis majesty thinks it his duty to ex France of the danger which threa. cite the attention of all govern- tens it, if losing Buonaparte she ments, and to warn them, that with. continued exposed to the agitation, out new measures, adopted under inseparable from election. the conviction of the present dan- That the consulship for life, and the ger, all the ancient maxims upon power granted to the first consul of which the honour and independence appointing his successor, are not of states rest, will be immediately adequate to the prevention of in. annihilated.

trigues at home or abroad, which (Signed) Ch. Mau. Talleyrand. could not fail to be formed during

the vacancy of the supreme power:

- That in declaring that magistracy Decree passed by the Tribunate on hereditary, conformity is observed the 3d of May, 1804, and .car

at once to the example of all great ried up to the Conservative Se- states, ancient or modern, and to nate on the 4th of May.

the first wish of the nation expres.

sed in 1789;—That, enlightened The tribunate considering, that and supported by this experience, at the breaking out of the revolu- the nation now returns to this wish tion, when the national will had an more strongly than ever, and exopportunity of manifesting itself presses it on all sides ;—That in all with the greatest freedom, the gene- political changes it has been usual ral wish was declared for the indi. for nations to confer the supreme vidual unity of the supreme power, power on those to whom they owe and for the hereditary succession of their safety ;—That when France that power;—That the family of the demands for her security a heredi. Bourbons having by their conduct tary chief, her gratitude and affecrendered the hereditary government tion call on Buonaparte;—That odious to the people, forced them France will preserve all the advanto lose sight of its advantages, and tages of the revolution by the choice drove the nation to seek for a hap- of a new dynasty, as much interest. pier destiny in a democratical formed for their safety, as the old one of government;— That France hav. would be for their destruction ;ing made a trial of different forms That France may expect from the of government, experienced from family of Buonaparte, more than these trials only the biseries of from any other, the maintenance of anarchy;—That the state was in the the rights and liberty of the people greatest peril, when Buonaparte, which chose them, and all those in. brought back by Providence, sud. stitutions best calculated to support denly appeared for its salvation;- them;—That there is no title more That under the government of a sia- suitable to the glory of Buonaparte,

U u 2


and to the dignity of the supreme for ever the triumph of equality chief of the French nation, than the and public liberty, and present to title of emperor.

the nation and to the government The Tribunate, exercising the the double guarantee they are in right given them by the 29th article want of. We have been constantly of the constitution, have come to guided by this grand truth, that the . the following vote: That Napo. sovereignty resides in the French leon Buonaparte, the first consul, he people, in the sense that every thing, proclained emperor of the French, without exception, ought to be done and in that capacity invested with for its interest, its happiness, and the government of the French re. its glory. It is in order to attain public;—That the title of emperor this end, that the supreme magisand the imperial power be made tracy, the senate, the council of hereditary in his family in the male state, the legislative body, the elecline, according to the order of primo- toral body, the electoral colleges, geniture ;—That in introducing in. and the difierent branches of the to the organization of the constituted administration, are and oughi to be authorities, the modifications ren. instituted.-In proportion as I fix dered necessary by the establishment my attention upon these great ob. of hereditary power, the equality, jects, I am still more convinced of the liberty, and the rights of the the verity of those sentiments which people shall be preserved in all their I hare expressed to you, and I feel integrity.-- This vote shall be pre more and more that in a circumstance sented to the senate by six orators, as new as it is important, the councils who shall explain the views of the of your wisdom and experience were tribunate.

necessary to enable me to fix my ideas.-I request you then to make

known to me the whole of your Alessage from the First Consul to thoughts.--The French people can

the Conservative Serate, duted add nothing to the honour and glo. St. Cloud, April 25, 1804, in ry with which it has surrounded me, Answer to their Proposition of but the most sacred duty for me, as making him Emperor.

it is the dearest to my heart, is to

secure to its latest posterity those Senators,

advantages which it has acquired by Your address of the 6th last Ger a revolution that has cost it so minal has never ceased to be present much, particularly by the sacrifice to my tho!ights. It has been the ob- of those millions of brave citizens ject of my most constant meditation. who have died in defence of their You have judged the hereditary rights.--I desire that I might depower of the supreme magistracy clare to you, on the 11th of July, necessary, in order to shelter the in the present year. Fifteen years French people completely from the have passed, since, by a spontaneous plots of our enemies, and from the movement, you ran to arms, you acagitations which arise from rival quired liberty, equality, and glory. ambitions. It even appears to you, These first blessings of nations are that many of our institutions ought now secured to you for ever, are to be improved, in order to secure sheltered from every tempest, they

are preserved to you and to your your race, adds nothing either to children: 'institutions conceived and your glory or to your rights. The began in the midst of the storms of in. love and gratitude of the French terior and exterior wars, developed people have, for four years, enwith constancy, are just terminated trusted to your majesty the reins of in the noise of the attempts and plots government, and the constitution of of our most mortal enemies, by the the state reposed in you the choice adoption of every thing which the of a successor. The most august de. experience of centuries and of nomination, decreed to you, is then nations has demonstrated as proper only a tribute which the nation pays to guarantee the rights which the to its own dignity, and to the ne. nation had judged necessary for its cessity it experiences in giving you dignity, its liberty, and its hap- daily testimonies of respect and of piness.

attachment, which every day in. crcase.—How could the French

people find bounds to its gratitude, Oficial Account of the Procecdings when you place none to your care of the French Nation on confer- and solicitude for it? Preserving ing the Title of Emperor on Nu- the remembrance of the evils which poleon Buonaparte.

it suffered when abandoned to itself, On the 18th of May, the senate, how could it reflect without enthu. under the presidency of Camba- siasm on the happiness it has expeceres, decrees the organic senatus rienced, since providence inspired consultum, which confers the title it with the idea of throwing itself of emperor on the first consul, and into your arms? Its armics were establishes the imperial dignity here. defeated ; its finances were in dis. ditary in his family. It instantly order; public credit was annihi. decreed, that the members should lated; factions were disputing for immediately repair to St. Cloud, to the remains of our ancient splendor; present the organic senatus consul. every idea of morality, and even re. tum to the emperor. They set out ligion, was obscured; the habit of after the close of the sitting, accom, giving and resuming power, left the panied by several bodies of troops. magistrates without consideration,

- The senate, on its arrival, being and even rendered odious every kind immediately adınitted to an audience of authority.

Your majesty apof the emperor, the consul Camba- peared ; you recalled victory to our ceres, the president, presented the standards; you established order organic senatus consultum to the and economy in the public ex. first consul, and spoke as follows: pences; the nation, encouraged hy -Sire,-The decree which the sc. the use you made of your authority, nate has passed, and which it takes resumed confidence in its own re. the earliest opportunity of present. Sources; your wisdom allayed the ing to your imperial majesty, is only rage of party; religion saw her the authentic expression of a will altars raised up; ideas of justice already manifested by the nation. and injustice were awakened in the This decree, which confers on you minds of the citizens, when they saw a new title, and which after you, crimes followed by punishment, and securės the dignity hereditary to virtue signalized and rewarded with



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