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« her the right of breaking treaties from interrupting the thread of this « at pleasure, by appropriating portion of our narrative, by notice “ Malta, England will then have ing the few unimportant military “ arrived at pacific sentiments.- events of the year. Those opera“ Envy and hatred have but their tions, having been exclusively di.

rected against the British posses. Here closes our account of the sions, have already found their place affairs of France, during 1804. To in the preceding chapters. avoid repetition, we have abstained

« day.”



Situation of the greater Part of Europe at the Opening of the Year.-Great

Power of France.Magnanimity of Russia.-Disputes in the Empire af Germany on the Subject of the Equestrian Order.Bavaria and Austria terminated.Effects produced by the Murder of the Duke D’Enghien on the Powers of Europe-on Russia.--Character of the Emperor Alerander -remonstrates against the Conduct of France, at the Diet-ill seconded, and why-Votes of Hanover and Pomerania-Baden and Brandenburgh. Great Opposition of Character between the Emperor Alexander and Bona. parte-ill Understanding between them.-State of the great Powers of Europe at the Close of the Year.-Conduct of Sweden. Austria assumes the hereditary Dignity of Emperor--Effects thereof:--Disputes between America and Spain, on the Subject of Louisiana-terminated.--Affairs of St. Domingo_Murder of the remaining white InhabitantsDessalines, a Negro, chosen Emperor--his Conduct-marches against St. JagoJamaica.

THE course of the present year ville and Amiens, Switzerland,

is so barren in events of any Lombardy, Holland, and Tuscany, importance, save those in which were left in that state of dependent England and France were imme. alliance with the French nation, diately or indirectly coacerned, that that scarcely the appearance of having, in the preceding chapters, right remained to Austria or Russia bestowed much attention on the af- to question his conduct, should fairs of those countries, (under the Bonaparte choose to annex them to. head of the latter, those of Sweden his empire, separately, or altoge. and - Russia are necessarily inclu. ther. With respect to Spain, and ded) little remains to be narrated even Portugal, his power over those with respect to the remaining unfortunate countries seemed every powers of Europe. Indeed the day to be more confirmed and absopolitics of the continent seem lute. These states appeared to to have undergone a complete have been abandoned to his disere. alteration since the revolutionary tion by the treaty of Amiens; and war, which has given so great a if he did not take immediate possespreponderance to France, that the sion of them, it was because he only doubt is, how much or how knew, that he could at any little moderation she might think time effect this object, and that it' proper to use in the farther exten. would create less alarm, among the sion of her already enormous do. other powers of Europe, to subjuminions. By the trcaties of Lune. gate them gradually, by the vari

ous acts of intrigue and interfer- ed by the indemnities. That body, ence, to which their weak govern- considering itself under the immements but too much exposed then diate protection of the head of the

We have seen, however*, that, Empire, appealed to the emperor unawed by such immensity of of Germany, who immediately in. power, the magnanimity of Russia terfered, and sent a most dignified did not slumber. In pressing for and energetic remonstrance, in the the execution of a treaty, which had capacity of its supreme chief, to for its objects the guarantee of the the court of Munich; and also, independence of Naples, and that of at the same time, assured the equesprocuring an indemnity to the king trian order of his support, by of Sardinia for the loss of his domi- ulterior means, against the elector. nions, he had at once increased the There could be little doubt but that, bitter enmity of the French ruler, in this proceeding, the elector had and acquired the confidence and either been secretly stimulated by admiration of whatever yet remain. France, or else had relied, with colle ed independent in Europe, who fidence, on the support of that saw, in this generous and noble power in any aggressive project he conduct, a principle of action, might forn, which should tend to which might, at a future moment, the diminution of the influcnce of check the strides towards universal Austria; but, to his utter disapmonarchy of the restless Corsican. 'pointment and mortification, a short The fruits of the line of conduct period had only elapsed, after the which the emperor Alexander had delivery of the imperial declaration thus chosen, were perceptible in in favour of the order, when the some uneasy inovevents on the part French embassador to the Bavarian of France, and were not unuseful government expressed the displeato the cause of England, as it oc sure of the first consul, at the concasioned the removal to Italy of duct of the elector towards the head many of those battalions, which sta- of the Germa: empire; which, of tioned at Boulogne, were to form a course, terminated the affair. In part of the invading army destined the whole of this transaction, as to conquer Great Britain.

well as upon the seizure of OberAt the commencement of the pre- haus, by the Bavarian troops, which sent year, Austria appcared active- occurred the year before, Austria ly employed in repairing the losses evinced a sufficient share of energy which her armies had sustained in and decision, to convince France, the late war, and in placing her mi. that her spirit was not so broken, litary establishments on the best nor her consequence at sọ low an possible footing. The Germanic ebb, as to allow herself to be inempire had, at this period, been for sulted with impunity. Bonaparte some time agitated in consequence had, in these instances, certainly en. of some very arbitrary measures re- deavoured to ascertain how far that sorted to by the elector of Bavaria, power would bear the attenipt to dito oppress the equestrian order in minish her weight and consequence his territories in Franconia, acquire in the Germanic body, without hat

Chapter 11.

ing recourse to the chances of war both as he was its solemn guarantee, in their vindication. The result of and as being an attack upon a the experiment served to convince country, which, so long as it could him, that there was a line of aggres. protect its own independence, must sion which he must not pass, so form the most powerful bulwark to long as he should think it prudent Russia, against the immeasureable to contime at peace with Austria. ambition, and revolutionary projects

The perpetration of the murder of France. of the duke D’Enghien ;--the tra But, however deeply Alexander gical and much-lamented fate of must have felt, as a sovereign, at that unfortunate prince ;--the cold. this outrage, perhaps even the con. blooded malice of the monster by sequences to which it manifestly whose command it was executed ; led, did not weigh more upon his and the shameful violation of the mind, than the moral turpitude of law of nations, and of the rights of the crime by which it was produced. the German empire, by which it Not contented, therefore, with was attended ;--made the deep- causing his embassador at Paris to est impression on every sovereign, remonstrate in the strongest manand on every feeling mind, in ner upon the subject (the conseEurope; but on none more than quences of which we have already that of Alexander, the youthful stated in our review of French af. and amiable sovereign of Russia. fairs) he presented, by his minister From the moment of the emperor's at Ratisbon, a formal note to the accession to his vast dominions, diet of the empire there assembled, his whole soul had been devoted inviting the states to unite their to the happiness of his own sub- endeavours with his, to take such jects, and to the guarding the steps and measures as their insulted peace and tranquillity of the other, country and dignity required at nations of the world. The object their hands; and called upon them, of all his public acts, appears in the first instance, to join with to have been the healing up those him in requiring ample satisfaction wounds which Europe had received from the French government for in the long war by which she had what had passed, and the assurances been desolated, and to secure the of that power, that no such insult independence of such of her states should again be offered to the Ger. as had survived that terrible contest. manic body. Great additional so. It is true, that, on the question of the lemnity was given to the represenGerman indemnities, he had co-oper- tations and remonstrances of the ated with l'rance, but as it should court of Russia upon this occasion, seem his motives were merely to bring by its not only having put itself that complicated qnestion to a spee- into deep mourning, but by orderdydecision, that the harmony of the ing all its ministers, at forcign courts, empire might be restored, and that to do the same, in memory of the no pretence should remain for dis. tragical fate of the duke D'Enghien; turbing its tranquillity in future. a step which the French govero. The violation of the German terri. ment affected to consider a direct tory, therefore, necessarily gave insult, inasınuch as it silently, but bit much paia on every account, forcibly, expressed the respect and


attachment of the Russian emperor ed and injury sustained, yet, fear. for the blood royal of France, and ful of the renewal of hostilities, in that he coosidered the execution which they must risk much, and which had taken place, as a barba. from which they could pot hope to rons, unqualificd murder!

derire any advantage (the seat of It was evident, from the line war too, probably, in their own which the emperor of Russia had territories) preserved an inflexible taken, that he wished to commit silence. Under these circumstances, the German powers into such ex. it is not surprising, that the votes pressions of resentment against of Hanover and Pomerania should France for her late conduct, as alone coincide with the sentiments might lead eventually to a renewal of the imperial note. That of the of hostilities, or, at least, if she former state, at the same time, resubmitted to the propositions that minded the diet, that a still greater were made, that her weight in Eu. violation of the treaty of Luneville, rope might be lessened by this and the independence of the em. timely check to her insolence and pire, had been committed by the tyranny. But, in these views, he unjustifiable seizure and continued was ill seconded by the greater of occupation of the dominions of the these states: and the lesser were in. king of Great-Britain in Germany. adequate to any measures of such That of his Swedish majesty, as weight and consequence. The king duke of Pomerania, was

still of Prussia, whose influence in the stronger, in expressing his abhornorth of Germany was decisive, rence of the conduct of France, had evidently attached himself so which he considered as doubly in. closely to the vicws and politics of jurious to himself, both as being an Bonaparte, that little hope remaia. estate of the German empire, and ed of his being induced, upon any in his sovereign capacity a guaprinciple of general polity, to give rantee of the treaty of Westphalia. up the narrow sellish system he had There was little chance of these adopted, or act with spirit for the sentiments having any effect upon general weal of Europe. The same the determination of their principle of action applied, in a tates ; and, indeed, they were degreater or less degree, to those states livered under circumstances widely who were immediately attached to different from those under which him. In answer, therefore, to the the majority of the latter were situac Russian note presented to the diet, ted. The elector of Hanover, whose the representatives of Branden. dominions were already over-run burgh, and of Baden, expressed by, and in possession of the French, their hope, “ that the first consul ran no risk in dictating such an inwould, of himself, be inclined to strument in London, and causing give such a full and satisfactory ex his minister to deliver it at Ratis. planation on the subject as might bon; while the king of Sweden, entirely correspond to the expecia- whose territories, save a narrow stip tion of his majesty the emperor of in Germany, were separated from Russia.” The great majority of France by the Baltic, had little to the other states of tlie German ein. fear from her resentment, were he pire conscious of the iosult offer. to express his sense of her conduct


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