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ON THE PAPER TYPE AND LEATHER

USED IN OXFORD BIBLES AND PRAYER BOOKS

The departments of the Oxford University Press-the paper mill at Wolvercote, near Oxford, the printing house at Oxford itself, the binderies in Oxford and London, all have the advantage of well-established standards of workmanship recognized by Grands Prix at recent Exhibitions, and are continually set new problems of production as new demands arise in any quarter of the world, or new materials or methods become available in any of the trades.

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THREE BOOKS ON THE THINNEST PAPER

THE SAME THREE BOOKS ON

AVAILABLE BEFORE THE INTRODUCTION

OXFORD INDIA PAPER

OF OXFORD INDIA PAPER

The inclusion in a single volume of the whole of the books of the Bible makes great demands upon the skill of the paper maker, the printer, and the binder. It has long been usual for the customer to demand from his bookseller the largest possible type in the smallest possible book. What has been done and what can be done may be seen by comparison of an Oxford Bible of 1916—say the Brevier Clarendon 16mo (6{ x 44) with its 1,616 pages one inch thick, weighing 144 ounces—with the first Oxford Bible of 1675 quarto (the page 8{ x64) which, without the Metrical Psalms and the Prayer Book bound with it, has 1,156 pages nearly two inches thick and weighing some 3 lb. 7 oz., or even with the nineteenth-century books herein illustrated.

The qualities of Oxford India paper—its unrivalled combination of thinness and opacityare further illustrated by many pages of this Catalogue. Not only the Bible but other books such as the Oxford Books of Verse, the Oxford Poets, the Oxford Homer and other Classical texts, exceed a thousand pages, and are nevertheless brought quite satisfactorily within a single cover (see pp. 147-151).

The ordinary Wolvercote paper, used in the Testaments, the cheapest books in the world, has a standard of its own.

Of the types used by the Press, some few specimens are given on pages 444, 477, 480 ; they range from the beautiful founts reproduced from the original matrices procured for the Press by Bishop Fell in 1660 to the newest Clarendon, strong and clear, eminently adapted for weakening powers of sight, or imperfect lighting. It has not been possible, within the compass of this Catalogue, to give full particulars of all, or most, or even of some of the thousands of styles of binding in which Bibles and Prayer Books are produced, from those appropriate to the lecterns and altars of cathedrals to the smallest and cheapest editions designed for private use. Even the prices given are not more than specimens and approximations which may serve for the purpose of consultation between the customer and his book

seller : the retail sellers of Bibles are always in possession of exact particulars, and are * generally able to give highly skilled advice. The following paragraphs contain most of the names in common use, with non-technical explanations :

Of the more highly prized bindings—those which are specially suited for the larger or more sumptuous editions—Levant morocco, often styled simply Levant, is a goatskin made into leather by processes for which France enjoys a high reputation : next perhaps is Turkey morocco, also a goatskin, made into leather very largely in England and France; Niger, a goatskin imported from Nigeria, has been recently introduced ; Madras is made from an Indian goatskin. Cowhide and Pigskin are also valued for their tolerance of hard wear. Seal, from its suppleness and durability, lends itself admirably to the binding of Bibles and Prayer Books not of the largest size.

Of the calf bindings Russia (from the country which still produces the best), with its well-known pleasant smell, comes first. Calf and tree' Calf are not used so much as formerly for the outsides of books, but a Calf lining is a very desirable luxury. Velvet Calf is by a special process given a soft pile.

Of the sheepskins Rutland (with a distinctive cross grain) approaches perhaps most nearly to morocco ; the leather comes principally from France. Persian is leather from India ; so is Velvet persian, a similar leather with a soft pile, admirably adapted for dyeing in all manner of colours and shades. Basil is suited for hard wear by schools and other professional users of books. Lambskin, on the other hand, is used for dainty books. French appears to be a generic term, with a host of varieties included under it, or similar to it. Seal grain, Paste grain (pasting is part of the process of manufacture), and Egyptian, Italian, Arabian, and Algerian are others of this class. Moroccoette and Levantine are strong leather-like cloths.

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Boards mean that the cover of the book is stiff ; Bevelled Boards, that the top, bottom, and fore-edge of the boards are sloped to make sharper edges; limp, that the cover is thin and pliable. Gilt by itself generally (gilt extra always) means that there is a gilt design upon the cover, or at least upon the back of the book, in addition to the usual gilt lettering. Blind is used for ornament not gilded or inked but simply impressed on the leather or cloth. Gilt edges means that the edges of the paper composing the book are gilded; red under gilt edges (r/g in the booksellers' lists), that the edges are coloured before being gilded ; solid, that the edges have not been gilded until the back of the book has been rounded, and the paper edges become concave-this procedure solidifies the gold leaf and affords the greatest possible protection from dust and dirt. Gold roll is a gilt tooling or binders' ornament worked inside the edges of the cover; gilt line, a line similarly worked.

Yapp bindings have leather flaps which wholly or in part (“semi-yapp ') protect the edges of the book. Leather lined, calf lined, watered silk lining, mean that instead of paper, leather or calf or silk is used for the inside of the cover: a book thus lined is stronger, as the strength of the joint of book and cover is much increased. Silk sewn means that the sheets are sewn with silk instead of with thread, and are correspondingly less likely to be torn from the back.

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TYPES USED IN BIBLES

For some Specimens of Fell Types, see p. 477

GREAT PRIMER. I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and

and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as ENGLISH.

PICA. I will arise and go to I will arise and go to my my father, and will say father, and will say unto him, unto him, Father, I have Father, I have sinned against sinned against heaven,

heaven, and before thee, and

LONG PRIMER.
SMALL PICA.

I will arise and go to my father, I will arise and go to my father,

and will say unto him, Father, I have and will say unto him, Father, I sinned against heaven, and before have sinned against heaven, and thee, and am no more worthy to be before thee, and am no more wor

BREVIER.
BOURGEOIS.

I will arise and go to my father, and I will arise and go to my father, and

will say unto him, Father, I have sinned

against heaven, and before thee, and am will say unto him, Father, I have sinned

no more worthy to be called thy son: against heaven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son:

MINION CLARENDON.

I will arise and go to my father, and BREVIER CLARENDON.

will say unto him, Father, I have sinned

against heaven, and before thee, and am I will arise and go to my father, and

no more worthy to be called thy son: will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee, and

EMERALD, am no more worthy to be called thy son : I will arise and go to my father, and will say

unto him, Father, I have sinned against hea. MINION.

ven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to

be called thy son : make me as one of thy hired I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against

NONPAREIL CLARENDON. heaven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy

I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven,

and before thee, and am no more worthy to be NONPAREIL.

called thy son: make me as one of thy hired I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto

RUBY. him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, son: make me as one of thy hired servants.

Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son : make me

as one of thy hired servants.
PEARL CLARENDON.

PEARL
I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him,
Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee, and

I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one

I have sinned against heaven, and before thee, and am no more of thy hired servants.

Worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants
And he arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet

DIAMOND.
I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have
sinned against heaven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to be
called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants.

And he arose, and came tu his father. But when he was yet a great way

BRILLIANT. I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sensed against heaven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants.

And be wrowe, and came to his father. But when he wae yot a great way odt, his father

OF ALL AUTHORS AND EDITORS

AND SOME TITLES

The present issue of the Alphabetical List revised to December 31, 1923, and i comprising all books on sale at that date, is a general index to the Fourth

Edition (1924) of the General Catalogue, but is also issued separately for inde. ( pendent use. It comprehends the periodical announcements of the Press up to

and including Bulletin No. 268. For prices, &c., of Bibles and Prayer Books the booksellers should be consulted.

E.E.T.S. Early English Text Society.
O.C.T. Oxford Classical Texts.
O.E.T. Oxford English Texts.
O.F.P.T. = Oxford French Plain Texts.
O.H.F.S. = Oxford Higher French Series.
0.J.F.S. Oxford Junior French Series.
O.J.G.S. Oxford Junior German Series
O.J.L.S. Oxford Junior Latin Series.

Oxford Miscellany.
O.M.F.S. Oxford Modern French Series.
O.M.S. Oxford Moment Series.
O.P.

Oxford Poets.
i O.P.P. Oxford Pocket Poets.

O.P.T. Oxford Plain Texts.
O.R.P.T. Oxford Russian Plain Texts.
O.S.P.T. Oxford Spanish Plain Texts.
O.T.P. Oxford Technical Publications.
O.T.S. - Oxford Translation Series.
O.T.S.L. = Oxford Tudorand Stuart Library.
R.I. Rulers of India.
S.A. Standard Authors.
S.B.E. Sacred Books of the East.
S.E.C. Select English Classics.
W.C. World's Classics.
W.M. World's Manuals.
W.P. War Primers.

O.M.

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PAGE PAGE Acland, Sir H. W., in Boyle Lectures

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PAGE Addison, Joseph (continued)

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ABBREVIATIONS : 0(xford) Ploets), Classical) T(exts), E(nglish) T(exts), F(rench) P(lain) Texts), H(igher) F(rench) S(eries), J(unior) F(rench) S., J. G(erman) S., J. Llatin) S., M(iscellany), M(odern) F(rench) S(eries),

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