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disgust. First corrupted and degraded by man, they take a tenfold and terrible vengeance for the wrongs
OBSERVATIONS ON THE INFANT SCHOOL
SYSTEM. they have suffered, by spreading in every direction the most luathsome of all bodily diseases, and a degree of It is very seldom that circumstances are favourable to mental corruption infinitely more appalling. To the an entire and faithful statement of the advantages or theatre these miserable outcasts look as a principal disadvantages attending the system of infant schools, means of support, in its neighbourhood they are in- because the subject is seldom expatiated upon, except variably settled, and to it they seem to be as necessary in serinons, or books designedly intended to gain the adjuncts as the stage itself or any of its trappings. contributions of the charitable in order to support these This fact, independent of all other considerations, institutions. It is, however, the wish of the writer of renders the playhouse a heavy curse to the neighbour- these remarks, who has had the benefit of observation hood in which it is established.
of several infant schools during several years, to state I fear the foregoing remarks will not be thought as impartially as possible the impression made upon his very flattering by my fellow-parishioners; upon review- mind, both respecting the benefits and the disadvantages ing them, however, I think they contain only what attending the system. Disadvantages, he conceives, truth and justice demand. Nothing can be farther unquestionably attach to it; and as in most other sysfroin my inteution than to represent Clerkenwell as tems of human invention, cannot wholly be avoided; inferior in its moral condition to the rest of London : while at the same time the benefits immensely preponindeed I think the parish would gain much in com- derate. He will endeavour to state both of them sepaparison with many others. The staple trade is watch rately. His observation will have respect to circummaking; and the inhabitants are undoubtedly entitled stances as they are, not as they might become upon into a high character for industry; while every part of provement. the world in which a watch is found will bear testimony Among the disadvantages resulting from the circumto the ingenuity and superior excellence of their stances respecting infant schools as they now exist may workınanship. There is a Savings Bank in the parish, be reckoned one, that the persons who propose themto which a multitude of its prudent inhabitants con- selves for the office of masters and inistresses are genetinually resort; and on the Sabbath, most of the places rally not sufficiently informed, or rather educated, themof worship are filled with bearers, respectable in ap- selves, to admit of their occupying the situation with pearance and attentive in their deportment. It cannot the greatest advantage to the children. When the age bedenied, however, that there is still abundant room of children in an infant school is considered, which is for the labours of the Christian Philanthropist, and a from two to seveu years old, that age the piost imporsud call in the parish for increased exertions in the tant of all others to the future habits and moral chacause of truth and virtue.
racter of the children, it will be acknowledged that the The chief topographical curiosity in the parish, is teachers ought to be persons of the best common sense, the “New River Head," -- the fountain-head of that who have themselves imbibed hubits of propriety of wonderful system of hydraulics by which the greater every kind, who are well informed upon the subject of part of London is supplied with the purest water that education, who are aware of the dangers to be avoided, is used by its inhabitants. May it soon be equally and of the good to be aimed at. Here however I must famous for an abundant supply of the water of life,' acknowledge, that, as far as my observations go, such that every virtue may spring up and bear fruit in it a persons are rarely found among the teachers of infant hundredfold, and that throughout its whole extent true schools. They are not unfrequently enthusiastie, selfpiety may “grow as the lily, and cast forth its roots opinionated, and impeded by all the disadvantages of as Lebanon."
ignorance. Yet the salary paid them (seldoin less than J. C. 100l. per annum) ought assuredly to secure persons
well educated and trained to the office of instructors.
It has been ascertained as a fact, that the majority of TRANSMIGRATION OF SOULS.
persons thus employed at present have been inechanics The
doctrine taught by Pythagoras and embodied into of some kind or other, who, finding business not answer, the Pagan religion, that the soul of man, never dying, have undergone six weeks or two months' training at tenanted new-born bodies in succession, was, with all its
some central school, and thenceforward commence a high colourings, and however adorned with all the labour, which requires perhaps more than any other aa imagery of poetic fiction, as the bard's inventive intelligeut miud, much knowledge of the human heart, mind disposed, but a corruption of the Christian Re- and an acquaintance with the sentiments of the best surrection. Notwithstanding the fabulous embellish- writers on education. With all the native conceit of ments and romantic exaggeration of the philosopher ignorance, the teachers of infant schools are generally and his sociales, the doctrine of the resurrection shines impatient of any suggestion from others. I have known forth in all the glory of uncorrupted truth, and forms instances, in which intelligent visitors have ceased to that immoveable foundation on which Christianity has advise, froin very discouragement itself: and upon a been founded ;- it is, of a truth, that rock on which a change of the master being suggested, it has been rehouse if built cannot be overthrown, though the wind plied, that it is a doubt whether a better could be oband seas rise up against it. It has been universally
tained. Hence the masters have been permitted to go acknowledged from all periods of the world; and were on in a noisy, inefficacious mode, out of despair of it not preserved in the sacred volume, and stamped amending the preceptor, or of exchauging him for a with the attestation of the Most High, yet even then we
better. have a glorious hope of immortality implanted within The preceding remarks will be deemed important by us, never to be cradicated, to which the dying agonies each reader, in proportion as he understands the value of each infidel adds a confirmation, which no violence of proper qualifications in the teacher of an infant can shake, or sophistry gainsay.
school in respect to the moral and intellectual welfare of the children.
Another disadvantage attendant upon infant schools “None is good but God; nothing is good without God; is, that the system itself does not provide for the learnheaven would be nothing withoui him; earth with him ing to read of the children, although in many schools would be made the beginning of heaven.”
a portion of the day, both in the morning and afternoon, is devoted to the work of teaching reading and dren unitedly exclaim, Jesus, Q. Where is Jesus now? spelling, and which is conducted generally in a separate A. In heaven. Q. Can Jesus see little children? A. Yes. room, or in a part of the room not otherwise occupied. Q. Will he hear them if they pray to him? Will he The method of teaching the letters and of teaching pardon their sins if they daily request it? Does God reading is very nearly that of the old system of the see you by night and by day? Does God hear every “school for children."
word I speak? Does God know iny thoughts? What The advantages of an infant school are numerous, and does God do when he hears us say a bad word or think are sufficient to counterbalance every defect.
a bad thought? A. He writes thein in his book.” 1. The children are thereby removed out of the way These, and a variety of similar questions, respecting of their parents during five or six hours every day, at a prayer, the duties whereby the sabbath-day is to he very moderate expense; the parents, and especially the observed, &c. are calculated to impress the inind with mother, being at liberty to pursue any avocation, or to those principles of religion, the presence of God, and attend to her domestic duties.
the duties by which he is honoured and served (that is 2. Habits of cleanliness are promoted among the to say, the principles of religion from whence good children at that age at which they are likely to become conduct fows), at a time when the mind is most susdurable; it being an universal requirement of these ceptible. The benefits of the system in this respect are institutions, that the children come with clean hands inestimable. and faces, with hair neatly combed but not curled, with Another benefit is, that the mechanical part of the clean and mended clothes, &c.
system is calculated to keep the children attentive. The 3. The writer cannot profess himself to be one of changes of posture are frequent. Now they stamp those who have formed high expectations from the their feet--they point- they bow-stoop-speak low intellectual culture to be expected from these institu- or loud - clap their hands - and mimic every idea by tions. The lessons indeed themselves exhibit a great gestures. Their lessons are games, and games they like array of various learning-arithmetical tables, poetical to play at. They combine exercise of body with exerquotations, grammar, geography, and even geometry! cise of mind. They have relaxation at proper intervals. It is important to remark, that the lessons are almost Public examinations delight them; and, what is of im. universally sung or chaunted. The writer has often portance, they delight their parents. Hence the chilmade the following experiment. Having heard the dren are generally happy: their countenances exchange children chaunt, without hesitation, and all together, that complaining expression so obvious in the children the Pence Table or the Time Table-such as, 60 seconds of the poor, for one of cheerfulness. The system also make a minute, 60 minutes one hour, 24 hours one day, brings the poor and the wealthy more into contact than 7 days one week, 4 weeks one month, 12 months one they would otherwise be. The poor see that their richer year, 365 days one year-- has desired the teacher to neighbours care for them: the wealthy learn that the bring to him the three or four of the children of both poor are grateful. The clergyman has an opportunity sexes whom he considered to be the cleverest and best of calling the parents together to address them after taught in the school. He has then asked them sepa- every public examination : the parents gladly attend. rately, how many days in the year, or weeks in a Hence an additional tie is instituted between the pastor month, or minutes in an hour, and he has almost always and the poor. When the children are removed to the found, that when dissociated from the chaunt, and from parochial schools, they are better adapted to enter upon the rest of the particulars of the table, and from the the instructions they receive there; and above all, their order of the table, the children gave a false answer. ininds are imbued with the early knowledge and fear of He suspects that almost all the knowledge apparently God. In a word, the benefit of the system is rather to possessed by the children in an infant school is of a be sought for in the cultivation of the heart and of similarly doubtful nature. Still he thinks good results good habits, than in the communication of knowledge to are to be anticipated from the questioning of the chil. the understanding. Yet, again I remark, how much dren in the history and doctrines and precepts of the depends upon the master and the inistress! scriptures, which is part of the system, and which, if
PASTOR kept up and persevered in with variety of questions, may be very useful. Still how much depends upon the The writer of the preceding observations would also teachers ! He once went into an infant school when the point out one lamentable defect attendant upon the master was talking to the children about Naomi the infant school system, in the books out of which the leper! The benefit of the tuition in an infant school teachers select the various lessons for the children. is, that it exercises the faculties of the children, These books are generally written by some infant school trains the perception, and facilitates their iinprovement master! and, strange to say, he has never known an when they are removed to the national schools, which infant schoolmaster who did not contrive to gratify his ought noi to be deferred in any instance after the seventh propensity for writing, and even for-poetry by comyear of a child's age.
posing lessons himself; and in most infant schools be 4. A considerable benefit may be anticipated from believes the master teaches lessons of “his own comthe religious part of the system. Religion, in persons
Would that some one qualified would take of all ages, is more a matter of the affections than of upon him to write or to revise the books alluded to! the intellect: or, as it was said by Pascal, one of the Let them be examined, and they will be found very purest and most exalted of human beings, the truths of often to contain things grossly ridiculous or unintellireligion descend not through the intellect into the gible, bad rhymes, or that universal evil of rhyming, heart, but ascend from the heart into the understand. the use of a word in an unusual sense in consequence of ing. Still the affections must be regulated by knowledge, the necessity of finding some word that jingles in sound and knowledge njust be instilled into the mind; yet with the preceding. The books for infant schools ought where it is done as in an infant school, not by catechis- to be written by the profoundest philosophers and schoing, or by statements and proofs, but in the most cate. lars of the age, for they alone are able to write lessous gorical way imaginable, the ideas being simply sug- adapted to the understanding of the infant mind. gested to the imagination, the affections, it is hoped, Nothing above their power to comprehend, nothing that will be excited in minds that have not yet learned to misrepresents the real nature of things, nothing that doubt or to demur. The following is the mode usually discourages liy its harshness of sentiment or of sound, adopted. “Who took children to his arms? The chil ought to be presented to the memory or understanding
BY MRS. J. H. ELMES.
of infants. Throughout each succeeding period of life
MY MOTHER. similar rules ought to be observed. The lessons also ought to be connected, and as a whole calculated to furnish a complete initiatory view of the subjects to which they relate.
And is she gone, and is she bless'd,
And has she enter'd on her rest, As a proof of the state of things in infant schools, the writer will relate two facts.
By her dear Saviour now caress’d1. As a member of a committee of an infant school,
My Mother? he witnessed a person offering himself as a master. He
Doth she now bow before the throne, had been a mechanic. Every third word he spoke, or
Ascribing praise to him alone nearly so, inanifested his ignorance of the vernacular
Who did for all her sins atonelanguage. Yet, in enumerating his qualifications, he
My Mother? himself stated that he could write poetry. He was ac
Is she now tasting heavenly joys, cepted, and his poetical productions soon appeared in
Feeding on bliss which ne'er alloys, the school in the shape of lessons !
Superior far to earthly toys2. In an infant school he one day visited, a skylight
My Mother? was left open, and a shower coming on, the rain fell upon the heads of some of the children. “There,”
Is she now cloth'd in raiment white, said the master, you are such naughty boys for mak
And is ber faith now turn’d to sight, ing a noise, that the rain is coming on you through the
And has the Lord become her lightwindows." He who could be guilty of such an error
My Mother? in his mode of teaching, proclaimed hiniself capable of
From all distress and sorrow free, repeating the error whenever occasion occurred.
Doth she admire the mystery It was, however, the too usual error in the education
And worship the great One in Threeof young children, in giving them false representations
My Mother? of causes and effects, and facts in general, whereby
Doth she now live on angels' food, their inquisitive minds, which would learn truth if not
Where nothing evil can obtrude, perverted, are discouraged, since they find that their
Or cause a moment's interludeown perceptions are thus contradicted, and it is feared
My Mother? by the writer that such instances conduce to the habit of falsehood!
Doth she now range the heavenly plain,
Where love and peace shall ever reign, (We cannot fully coincide in all the sentiments of our esteemed Clerical correspondent, in his paper on Infant Schools; but we
And has our loss become her gaininsert it, in the hope it may be the means of advancing them
My Mother? to perfection.- Ed.]
Shall we then weep and mourn, repine,
Where her Immanuel’s glories shine-
My Mother? The existence of evil and its natural consequent misery
Aud has she pass'd that conquer'd foe, in the world, has ever been and continues to be the
That tyrant which alarms us so ; grand question in theological and sceptical controversy.
The way all mortal flesh must goBut on such a subject we may say with Dr. Young,
My Mother? " Those things which our hands can grasp, our understanding cannot comprehend; why then deny to the
Then can we wish her back? Oh no!
She's now secure from care or woe, Deity himself the privilege of being one amidst that
With Aur'am and with Isaac too! multitude of mysteries he has made. Without these trials, we might indeed have been what the world terms
My Mother. happy, the passive subjects of a series of agreeable
Esteem'd by all who knew her worth sensations ; hut we could not have had the delights of
While her lov'd presence blest this earth, conscience; we could not have felt what it is to be
Reflecting forth a second birthmagnanimous, to have the toil, the combat, and the
My Mother. victory; to exult that we have something within us
Her's was the silent humble walk, which is superior, not to danger ouly, but which can
Which far exceeds all noisy talk, vanquish even pleasure itself."
Looking and hast’ning to the mark
My Mother. AFFLICTION THE TEST OF VIRTUE.
Sincere in friendship, gentle and refin’d, In those eventful instances of life, when our energies
A parent tender, loving, mild, and kind, mental as well as corporeal are put to trial, when it is
Possessing all that could delight the mindrequisite that every manly feeling should be called into
My Mother. action, and each quality of the mind displayed in its
In many a heart thy mem'ry yet shall live, true light, vothing is more calculated to inspire us
And many a tributary tear receive; with becoming resolution than a well-grounded prin
All that affection now has power to give, ciple of virtue, sufficiently strong to spurn the allure
My Mother. ments of vice, and able to detect the tinsel of their
Yes, thou wert dear:—fain would I linger long, temptations. “Virtue shines brightest in affliction's
Recount thy virtues in my feeble song: night;” and as the sun-rays beam forth with height
Those joyous scenes are past, and thou art gone, ened splendor from the passing cloud, and shine in
My Mother? livelier lustre when the tempest has subsided; so is the man exalted in the view of us his colleagues in this turbulent world, who weathers the storms of adversity “ As the brazen serpent was only like a serpent, with. with houour, and fronts the inalicious fickleness of out its venom; so Christ was in the likeness of sinful. fortune heroically and intrepidly.
ness, without sin.”
NEW YEAR'S COUNSEL TO THE YOUNG. “Wisdom is the principal thing : therefore get wisdom; and with all thy getting, get understanding.” Prov. vi, 7. “Say unto wisdom, Thou art my sister; and call understanding thy kinswoman.” Chap. vii, 4. “ If thou criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for understanding : if thou seekest her as silver, and searchest for her as for hid treasures; then shalt thou under. stand the fear of the LORD, and fiud the knowledge of God: for the LORD giveth wisdom : out of his mouth cometh understanding." Chap. ii, 3–6.
NEW YEAR'S COUNSEL IMPROVED.
And grant them a hearenly birth.
Cherubim,” Knowing ones; “Seraphim," Burning ones. Isa. vi, 2; Ezek. i, 5–13; x, 19, 20; Rev. iv, 6-9.
THE CHRISTIAN'S ANNUAL DIRECTORY
THROUGH THE WHOLE BIBLE, With Tables for the Reading of Every Day; by which
the whole of the Holy Scriptures may be read in a year. Designed to induce Young Persons to adopt the practice of Reading through the Bible annually, and to pursue it through life. By T. Timpson. Seventh Edition.
This little Tract contains much inforination in its several Tables : the first of which embraces the order of every day's reading throughout the year. Table II, containe a list of the Historical Books, with the names of their authors, the place where written, the period which each incluiles, its commencement and close, and the date of the year before the advent of Christ when each history terminates. Table III. The Doctrinal Books OF THE Bible. Table IV. The PROPHETICAL Books. Table V. The DEVOTIONAL Books. Table VI. The Moral Books of the Bible, all on the same plan. The Tables are preceded by a useful Essay on the importance of reading the whole Bible. We think we are doing a service to our readers to recommend this cheap little Manual, as a key to the Bible, adapted to lie within its cover for daily reference. This would form a cheap but valuable present to the young and the poor for the New Year.
EPITAPH AT WELWYN, HERTFORDSHIRE,
If fond of what is rare, attend !
Of perfect piety,
To whom I pay this mean
The clouds of fortune;
Illustrious in luw estate ;
To lay this little stone
Is my ambition,
While others rear
E. Y. 1749.
THE CHRISTIAN PILGRIM. " For here have we no continuing city, but we seek one to come.
There remaineth therefore a rest for the people of God.”-
Earth hath not an abiding spot!
Where change or sorrow reigns ?
In Heaven alune remains."
This Earth is not our rest;
If with His presence blest.
Which Earth can never give,
Above Earth's changeful round;
S. F. W.
“Think ye, sinners that hear me !” said one, “if God poured out His wrath on Christ, because iniquity was imputed to him, what will he say to you ?”
“ As when the eye is fixed on the sun it loses sight of the stars; so when the sinfulness of sin, as commitied against God, is seen, all minor considerations are lost sight of."
The first volume of the Christian's Penny Magazine, from June to December 1832, is now complete, and may be had, neatly bound in canvass, price 38. 611. through any Bookseller or Newsman; and also any
of the preceding Parts or Numbers. London : Priuted and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppiu's Court,
Fleet Street ; to whom all Communications for the Editor (ost paid) should be addressed ; - -and sold by ali Booksellers and Newsien in the
United Kingdom. Hawkers and Dealers Supplied on Wholesale Terms, by Srkill, Paternoster
Row ; BERGER, Holywell Street, Strand; F. BAINGBR, 121, Oxford Street; and W. N. BAKIR, 16, City Road, Finsbary.
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAS.
JANUARY 23, 18:33.
REGENT'S TOWN, SIERRA LEONE.
templated the diffusion of Christianity, and by this
means the civilization of Africa, we will record here the Sierra LEONE is the principal settlement in Western names of the coipinittee of directors, who were then Africa belonging to any civilized power. Free Town,
“ Henry Thornton, Esq. M. P. chairman; Sierra Leone, is memorable, as the place where Sir John Philip Sansom, Esq. deputy chairman; Sir Charles Hawkins, in 1562, dishonoured the British name and Middleton, Bart.; Sir George Young, Knt.; Williain character, by coiniencing that most criminal oj all Wilberforce, Esq. M. P.; Rev. Thomas Clarkson, A. M. atrocities, the NEGRO SLAVE TRADE!
Joseph Hardcastle, Esq;; Granville Sharp, Esq. : John We shall give some notices of the British colony at Kingston, Esq Samuel Parker, Esq.; Williant Sand Sierra Leone; and then present our readers with a ford, Esel; Vickeriz Taylor, Esq; ; George Wolfe, Esq.” sketch of the history of that crying and abonıinaple Every thing having been settled on ei aitable and betraffic, which commenced its bloody enormnities in that nevolent principles, the ships sailed with the British place.
colonists, to whom, in March 1792, were added 1131 Sierra Leone was colonized in 1787, by the British blacks from Nova Scotia. The building of Free Town Government sending over from London about four was commenced, consisting of about 400 houses, in hundred free negrocs, with sixty whites, inostly women, njue streets, besides a church, and several public of bad character. Captain Thomson, of the
buildings. Before the end of two years, order, Vit took them over, obtained for their use a grant of land, dustry, and prosperity, appeared in such a degree, about twenty
square, fron King Tom, the neigh- that the fame of this colony spread all along the whole bouring chief, and which was confirmed afterwards by western coast of Africa, and embassies of the most Naimhanna, the king of the country. This first attempt friendly character were received from kings and failed and his Majesty granted the land to the Sierra Leone Company," who, October 19, 1791, native chiefs began to cherish and manifest such coufiheld their first meeting. As this “Company dence in the British, as to send their children to the Vol. II.