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Letters to a Mother, upon Education. you will ever have adopted towards him. I will immagine

the forbidden act to be nevertheless performed; and LETTER XV.

then, whatever may be the penalty, instantly and reso

lutely inflict it. If it be that you will send him out of On Punishments.

the room, do it promptly and resolutely. Dear Madam,

The next question which is of importance is, what Allow me to offer you a few observa- punishments you will denounce. Of course you will tions upon this forbidding subject. Your own know.

not think of shutting the little offender in a closet, or leilge and proper sentinients upon this, as upon many tic him in an arm-chair, or make him stand in a corner, other topics, render it needless to recommend, or dis- &c.; still less will you ever dream of raising your hand suade from inany things, which in a inere treatise on against him. Banishment from your presence, and an Education it might be proper to insert, in order to appeal to his father, are ainong the most efficacious meet the circumstances of all persons by whom it modes of deterring a young child from the repetition of might be perused. You are fully aware that the only faults. “ Charles has torn his picture book, although object of punishment is remedy or prevention, and that I had told him not to do 30. I ain much grieved; but the momeut the parent's own feelings are commingled I hope he will do so no more." It is useful also to with it, it ceases to have this character, and it also make his punishment the counterpart to his fault. If fails of accomplishing its end, since children, who are anti-social, punish it with solitude. If he is wantonly the keenest of observers, soon infer from tones, and

injuring any thing which has been given to him, tell looks, and actions, when they cease to be the subjects him, with a look of regret, that you are sorry to punish of discipline, to become the objects on which the parent him, but you are compelled to do so, in order to imgratifies his temper ; and from that moment the bosom

print it upon his recollection : then take it from him. of the child feels a sense of estrangement and injury. Happy, however, is the mother, whose greatest punishI have no doubt also that you will feel, that where edu- ment that she can inflict upon her child is his removal cation is commenced as early as it ought to be, the best from her presence, or the declaration that she cannot system adopted, and properly pursued, there, punish. take him with her upon some anticipated excursion or ment of all kinds would be unknown. Punishment is visit. an evil; and, like all evils, it originates in the imper- A well-educated lady, who is in her turn a happy fection of human conduct.

parent, once told me, that she was so educated as that It will also be evident, that in proportion as the best of all punishments she dreaded none so much as to hear system of education is adopted early enough, and pursued

her father say,

There, you may now go and amuse with an approximation to perfection, there also the need

yourself;” which she took to mean a dismissal from of punishment will be proportionably diminished. I will

his presence. suppose, however, that at some period or other of the The rules for punishment are very simple ; namely, infancy of your child, and from some cause or other, Never let a child be punished for au action which he your will, which ought ever to be your law, your word, does not know to be a fault. Never let the punishment which ought ever to be uualterable, have been withstood

be calculated to degrade him in the view of others, for by your infant. He has refused to do something which it will then infallibly harden his heart. Never let a you have commanded, or to cease doing something child be punished till he has offended in the same way which you have forbidden. Here is the case to be con. the third time. Never punish him without being sure sidered. If you make it a matter of importance at the he has committed the fault in question. And let the time, and when his feelings of rebellion are just germi- punishment you intend to inflict be well considered, nating, you will in all probability awake his self-will

and when the proper occasion comes, rigorously inflicted. into sudden perfection. I would advise, that at the

I have no need to guard you against certain practices, inoment you take no notice, but carefully retain the which are nevertheless sufficiently common, in conneccircumstances in your recollection, and choosing some tion with this subject. For instance, you will often see opportunity when he has forgotten the event, and when a parent correct his child, and afterwards lavish pecuhis feeling has totally subsided, take him with you into liar kindnesses upon bim. If the boy goes to school, solitude, and affectionately yet calmly remind him of

he has a holiday; or if not, his mother gives hiin someall the circuinstances : state to him that your will must

thing fine or nice. This is the atonement which the mis. be obeyed (do not reason with him : reasoning with a guided parent offers to her own feelings. The child young child is thrown away, and always awakens his fully understands all this : the punishment was thrown pride): and then lead him to the scene of his disobe

away; provision is only hereby made for its repetition; dience, and overlook him while he fulfils the neglected and, above all, the mind of the child himself is perverted duty. Do not seem affected with joy or wonder at his and ruined. - I am, dear Madam, yours, &c. compliance, nor say any thing upon the subject after

CLERICUS. wards ; and you will perhaps find that your authority is

Should it however so occur that these means fail, they must never be repeated, for their effect TEMPERANCE.- A blacksmith, in the city of Philadepends upon their being but once adopted, and that delphia, was complaining to his iron merchant, that once being upon the first occasion of disobedience. such was the scarcity of money that he could not pay

Should, however, these means be found insufficient, his rent. The merchant then a-ked him how much rum and should the action complained of be repeated, then it he used in his family in the course of the day. Upon seems advisable that you represent to him how he has his answering this question, the merchant made a calcugrieved your heart. The genuine distress which you lation, and showed him that his rum amounted to more will feel, and which he will perceive, will powerfully money in the year than his house rent. The calculaaffect the mind and affections of your infant. Should tion so astonished the mechanic, that he determined it however be repeated the third time, then I advise from that day to buy and drink no spirits of any kind. that the only notice you take of it may be, as calınly as In the course of the next ensuing year he paid his rent, possible, to tell him what kind of suffering you intend and bought a new suit of clothes out of the savings of to infict upon him upon its being repeated ; and when his temperance. He persisted in it through the course this has been announced, let your conduct as soon as of his life, and the consequence was, competence and possible assume the same gentle yet decisive tone which respectability.

fixed for ever.

BRITISH ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.

were subject. These they delivered from idolatry, and

where they were flamens made them bishops, where No. III. Christianity among the Britons.

archflamens, archbishops. The seats of the archflamens

were at the three noblest cities, viz. York, London, CHRISTIANITY, having been introduced into Britain and Caerleon upon Usk, in Glamorganshire. Under during the apostolic age, continued to diffuse its light these three, now purged from superstition, were made from one native tribe to another, until they were all subject troenty-eight bishops, with their dioceses." To in some degree enligbtened. As the Roman arms complete this account Jeffrey adds, “The glorious made progress throughout the land, they became the

king, rejoicing at the great progress the true reliundesigned means of furthering the Gospel. For, re- gion had made in his kingdom, granted, that the ducing all the different nations of South Britain under possessions and territories formerly belonging to the their government, and establishing a free intercourse temples of the gods, should now be converted to a throughout the country, they prepared the way for the advancement of the Gospel.

better use, and appropriated to Christian churches.

And because greater honour was due to them than to Suetonius Paulinus, who commanded in Britain the others, he made large additions of lands and manduring the reign of Nero, perceiving that the Druids sion houses, and all manner of privileges." He further inflamed the resentment of the native tribes, resolved adds, that “Lucius departed this life in the city of on their extermination. Their strongest place of Gloucester, and was honourably buried in the cathedral security was the isle of Anglesey, then called Mona, church, in the 156th year after our Lord's incarnation." to which Paulinus marched his terrible legions, and Though this story is believed by the Roman Catholics, ravaged the consecrated island with fire and sword.

and much of it by many Protestants, yet, as Dr. Henry, Many of the infuriated Druids and Druidesses were in his History of England, observes, “ Every one who taken captive, and sacrificed by the conquerors upon knows any thing of the state of Britain at that time, the altars which they had kindled for sacrificing the must know that it contains as many falsehoods and Roman prisoners, whose leaders they vainly hoped to impossibilities as sentences." overcome.

Gildas, a Briton and a zealous Christian, of the sixth Druidism being thus overthrown, if not quite ex- century, the most ancient of our historians, gives no terminated, in Britain, one of the greatest obstacles to hint concerning Lucius ; and the whole account is the progress of Christianity was removed ; and we have evidently the manufacture of the adherents of the reason to believe that its influence prevailed exten- Papacy, to promote that usurpation. Twenty-three sively, though we have not particular accounts of its different dates are given for the conversion of Lucius ; divine triumphs. The most popular record we have from which it is concluded, that as there are so many is that of the conversion of King Lucius : but the ac. allusions to that affair, we cannot reject it altogether, counts respecting him are 80 contradictory and absurd, It seems highly probable that a petty prince, named that his story is rejected by every judicious writer, as Lucius, about the middle of the second century, was almost altogether a monkish fable. That our readers allowed by the Romans to retain a shadow of authority may form an idea of the extravagance of this tradition, in his country: that this British chieftain embraced we shall give it in brief.

Christianity, and used his influence to bring others to Nennius, in the seventh century, the most ancient yield to its gentle claims. That for this purpose he British historian by whom it is mentioned, says, “In inight possibly seek spiritual advice from Eleutherius, at the year 164 from the incarnation of our Lord, Lucius, that time bishop or pastor of the Christians at Rome, and monarch of Britain, with all the other petty kings of place under his instruction soine British converts, to be Britain, received baptism, from a deputation sent employed as Home Missionaries in their own country. by the Roman emperors, and by the Roman pope No military or political agitation attending all this, the Evaristus.”

Romans might not interfere, to prevent the accomplishTo suppose that Lucius wa3 monarch of Britain, inent of the desires of Lucius; and Christianity, by with many petty kings dependent on him, while the this ineans, would make silent progress throughout the Romans held most of the country, is absurd: but island. Many of all classes would be baptized, the much more so that the Roman emperors, Marcus Aure- rude pagan temples would be converted into Chrislius Antoninus and his successor Lucing Verus, who tian sanctuaries, and numerous congregations might were

pagans and persecutors, should send a deputation be gathered, listening to the preachers of the gospel of Christian missionaries to convert and baptize the of salvation, and worshipping God by faith in Jesus Britons.

Christ. This story became so embellished, that in the twelfth Mr. Southey, in his “Book of the Church," speakcentury, five hundred years after Nennius, Jeffrey, a ing of this period, and of the "doubtful legends" conBenedictine monk of Monmouth, says, “Lucius imi- cerning Lucius, remarks, “It is said that the first tates all the acts of goodness seen in his father Coilus, church was erected at Glastonbury; and this tradition and above all, sent letters to Pope Eleutherius, desiring may seem to deserve credit, because it was not conto be instructed in the Christian religion. That holy tradicted in those ages, when other churches would hare pope sent to him two most religious doctors, Faganus found it profitable to advance a similar pretension. and Duvanus, who, after having preached the incarna- The building is described as a rude structure of wickertion of the Word of God, administered to him baptism, work, like the dwellings of the people in those days, and and made him a proselyte of the Christian faith. differing from them only in its dimensions, which were People from all countries assembling, followed the threescoré feet in length, and twenty-six in breadih. king's example, and being washed in the same holy An abhey was afterwards erected there, one of the laver, were inade partakers of the kingdom of heaven. finest of those edifices, and one of the most remarkable The holy doctors almost extinguished paganism in the for the many interesting circumstances connected whole land; dedicated the temples that had been with it." founded in honour of many gods, to the one only God Upon the whole, although the popish legends, con and his saints, and filled them with congregations of cerning those times, afford us but little satisfaction as Christians. There were then in Britain eighe and to the true number and character of the British Christwenty flamens (head priests), as also three archflamens, tians, there seems

reason to believe, that in the to whose jurisdiction the other judges and enthusiasts "churches of wattles," which, if any reader pleases, bę may call cathedrals, there were many, who believed at her master's door, which now must be kept locked to the saving of their souls,” who were taught by the and barred, for fear of constables and bailiffs, it was word and Spirit of God, and who lived to "show forth presently opened, and the joy to see her was as great as the praises of Him, who had called them out of dark- when a ship arrives laden with provisions, for the relief ness into his marvellous light.”

of a starving town, closely besieged by an enemy. The children danced round the maid, eager to look into the basket, the patient mother wiped her eyes, the father

smiled, and said, “The Lord hath not forgotten to ve MY SCRAPBOOK.

gracious ; his word is true from the beginning ; the LEAF I.

young lions do lack and suffer hunger, but they that

seek the Lord shall not want any good thing;” Martha " The Bee that wanders, and sips from every flower, disposes what she has gathered into her cells.” Seneca.

related every circumstance of her little expedition, as

soon as tears of joy would permit her; and all partook ANECDOTE OF THE REV. OLIVER HEYWOOD.

of the homely fare, with a sweeter relish than the In 1664 came out a writ for apprehending him as an

fastidious Roman nobles ever knew, when thousands excommunicated person, but he was not taken. He

of pounds were expended to furnish one rep&st. acted with prudence and cautiou, in order to avoid a

Dr. Fuwcell's Life of Oliver Heywood, p. 34. long imprisonment, keeping himself private ; and it Union among Christians, how effected. There are pleased God to protect him from his pursuers. He only two things that can unite us; the fear of a comhad now several children, and being deprived of his mon evil, which drives us to the same refuge; or a zeal income, must have been in great straits. Martha Bair- for a common good, which excites us to the same purstow, a maid servant, who had lived in his family several suits. The former hath often brought us together : years, would not desert her master and mistress in their O that the latter liad generally the same effect! distress. The little stock of money was quite ex

Preface to Mason's Serm. ad fin. hausted, the provisions were entirely consumed, and

Love of the World.-- The world troubles and molests Martha could lend no more assistance from the savings

me, yet I love it; what, if it did not trouble me? of former days. Mr. Heywood still trusted that God

St. Austin. would provide, when he had nothing but the Divine promise to live upon. He said,

Disputes about Religion. If the sincere love of God

and our neighbour were but once thoroughly kindled When cruse and barrel both are dry, We still will trust in God most high.”

in our hearts, these pure and heavenly flames would in

a great measure extinguish the unchristian heat of When the children began to be impatient for want of dispute and contention; as fires here below are ready food, Mr. Heywood called his servant, and said to her,

to languish and go out when the sun in his full strength “Martha, take a basket and go to Halifax; call upon shines upon them.- Tillotson, vol. i, p. 425. Mr. N. in Northgate, and tell him I request him to lend me fire shillings; if he will be kind enough to do

Necessity of Pious Dispositions. -Our ideas are but it, buy us some cheese, some bread, and such other little pictures and images of the things themselves : and as things as you know we most want; be as expeditious

the picture of a feast cannot satisfy our hunger, nor

the picture of a fire warm and enlighten us; so the as you can, for the poor children begin to be fretful

finest ideas of virtue and religion, cannot make us good for want of something to eat. Put on your hal and cloak, and the Lord give you good speed; in the mean

and happy, without those dispositions of heart, which time we will offer up our requests to Him who feedeth

should be raised and kept alive by them.

Leechman on Prayer, p. 24. the young ravens when they cry, and who knows what we have need of before we ask him."

Tendency of the above.-— All pious dispositions are Martha observed her master's directions; but when fountains of pleasant streams, which by their confluence she came near to the house where she was ordered to du make up a full sea of felicity.-Barrow, vol. i, p. 58. beg the loan of five shillings, through timidity, her Parental Example.-Let us take care of our children: heart failed her. She passed by the door again and children have every thing to learn, and they will learn again, without having courage to go in and tell her

every thing of those who are nearest to them. To them errand. At length Mr. N. standing at his shop door,

example is better than all the books in the world; and seeing Martha in the street, called her to him, and indeed it is the only book they study. Let us not and said,

" Are you not Mr. Heywood's servant ?cheat ourselves into a neglect of them, by chanting When she had, with an anxious heart, answered in the

over, what nobody denies, that "God only can make a affirmative, he added, “I ain glad of this oppor- Christian,” which is equal to saying, that God only can tunity of seeing you; some friends at M. have remitted

make a cucumber.- Robinson's Serm., p. 411. to me five guineas for your master, and I was just

Christmas.- If one of the wise and virtuous Romans thinking how I could contrive to send it.” Martha burst into tears, and for some time could not utter a

was to return into our world, he would judge from the syllable. The necessities of the family, their trust in

conduct of some who call themselves Christians, and Providence, the seasonableness of the supply, and a

pretend to keep Christmas, that they were a worse variety of other ideas breaking in upon her inind

sort of pagans; and that it was not an holy Jesus, but once, quite overpowered her. At length she told

an impure Venus, or drunken Bacchus, whose festival Mr. N. upon what errand she came, but that she had

they celebrated. -- Needham's Serm., p. 20.

S. J. B***** not courage to ask him to lend her poor inaster money. The tradesman could not but be affected with the story, and told Martha to come to him when the like

necessity The power of Christ will be manifested in all: by the should press upon them at any future time. She made destruction of sin, or the sinner. The hearts which haste to procure the necessary provisions, and, with a now yield to the impressions of the Spirit, are broken heart lightened of its burthen, ran home to tell the only in order to be formed anew, and to become vessels success of her journey. Though she had not been long of honout fitted to the Master's use: those which conabsent, the hungry family had often looked wishfully tinue stubborn and hardened, must be dashed in pieces out at the window for her arrival. When she knocked by the stroke of eternal vengeance. - Horne.

THE REVERIE.

THE INFANT TEACHER'S ASSISTANT, For the use of Schools and Private Families; or Scrip.

tural and Moral Lessons for Infants : with observations on the manner of using them. By T. Bilby and R. B. Ridgway, Masters of the Chelsea and 'Hart Street Infant Schools. Second Edition, price 3s.

Infant Schools we hope to see established in every populous neighbourhood of our country. In every point of view we regard them as beneficial to the poor; and much of their system of instruction may be adopted with incalculable advantage by the higher classes in the domestic training of their young. We consider Infant Schools as the best auxiliaries to Sunday Schools, and they have been worthily pronounced the Nurseries of our Churches." Messrs. Bilby and Ridgway have laid the Public under great obligations by the publication of this volume, which we sincerely recoin mend to Parents, as well as the Teachers for whom especially it has been prepared.

now.

0! that in unfetter'd union,

Spirit could with spirit blend; 0! That in unseen communion,

Thought could hold the distant friend !
Who the secret can unravel,

Of the body's mystic guest ?
Who knows how the soul may travel,

While unconsciously we rest?
While in pleasing thraldoin lying,

Seal'd in slumbers deep it seems, Far abroad it may be flying.

What is sleep? and what are dreams? Earth, how narrow thy dominions,

And how slow the body's pace! 0! to range on eagle pinions

Through illimitable space !
What is thought? In wild succession,

Whence proceeds the motley train ?
What first stamps the vague impression

On the ever-active brain?
What is thought- and whither tending

Does the subtile phantom fee?
Does it, like a moon-beam ending,

Shine, then melt to vacancy? Has a strange mysterious feeling,

Something shapeless, undefin'd, O'er thy lonely musing3 stealing,

Ne'er impress'd thy pensive mind As if he, whose strong resemblance

Fancy in that moment drew, By coincident remembrance,

Knew your thoughts, and thought of you? When at Mercy's footstool bending,

Thou hast felt a secret glow;
Faith and hope to heav'n ascending,

Love still lingering below;
Say, has ne'er the thought impress'd thee,

That thy friend inight feel thy pray'r?
Or the wish at least possess'd thee,

He could then thy feeling share?
Who can tell? the fervent blessing—.

Angels, did you hear it rise?
Do you thus, your love expressing,

Watch o'er human sympathies ?
Do ye some mysterious token

To the kindred bosom bear; And to what the heart has spoken,

Wake a chord responsive there? Laws, perhaps unknown, but certain,

Kindred spirits may control;
But what hand can lift the curtain,

And reveal the awful soul?
Dimly through life's vapours seeing,

Who but longs for light to break?
O this feverish dream of being !

When, my friend, shall we awake? Yes, the hour, the hour is hasting,

Spirit shall with spirit blend;
Fast mortality is wasting,

Then the secret all shall end.
Let then thought hold sweet communion,

Let us breathe the inutual pray'r,
Till in heaven's eternal union,
(), my friend ! to meet thee there!

CONDER.

THE RELIGION OF TASTE, A Poem, by Carlos Wilcox. Reprinted from the Ame

rican edition of his “Literary Remains.” London, Hamilton, Adams, and Co. pp. 56.

This is an interesting little publication, and we doubt not it will be prized by many of its readers. Mr. Carlos Wilcox, its author, was devoted to the Christian ministry in New England; hut his feeble constitution disqualified him for that arduous service. He died in the faith and hope of the gospel in the thirty-third year of his age. His message on his death-bed to his brothers deserves every attention. “Tell my dear brothers,'' said he, “ to prepare, in the inorning of life, for a sick bed. Tell them that the world all appears to me vanity

Tell them that the religion of Christ is the only satisfying portion of the soul." Tell them to make the Bible their daily portion, and the throne of grace their daily resort.”

As a specimen of the style of this poem, we transcribe the last of one hundred and seven stanzas. “ Rouse to some work of high and holy love,

And thou an angel's happiness shalt know,
Shalt bless the earth while in the world above:

The good begun by thee shall onward flow

In many a branching stream, and wider grow;
And seeds that in life's present fleeting hours

Thy hands unsparing and unwearied sow, Shall deck thy grave with amaranthine flowers. And yield thee fruits divine in heav'n's immortal bowers." To CorrESPONDENTS. - We cannot possibly undertake to insert all the communications of our valuable friends : but the delay of their pieces does not imply their rejection.

E.C.C. and W.W. R. will find communications at the Publishers'.

The first volume of the Christian's Penny Magazine, from June to December 1832, is now complete, and may be had, neatly bound in canvass, price 36. Gil. through any Bookseller or Newsman; and also any of the preceding Parts or Numbers. A specimen of the Embellishments in the First Volume is printed on a large Sheet, price 2d., which will be found to contain some beautiful articles for Books of Prints.

London : Printed and Published by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppiu's Court,

Fleet Street ; to wliom all Communications for the Editor (postpaid) should be addressed ; -and sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen in the

United Kingdom. Hawkers and Dealers Supplied on Wholesale Terms, by Sreitlo, Paternoster

Row; Berger, Holywell Street, Strand; F. BAISLER," 124,"Oxford Street; and W. N. BAKER, 16, City Road, Fiosbary.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic]

HENRY II, DOING PENANCE AT BECKET'S TOMB.
THOMAS 'A BECKET.

his own expense, in the war of Thoulouse, where he

attended the king, 700 knights, and 1200 foot soldiers. THOMAS 'A Becket was one of the most extraordinary Upon all occasions Becket showed hiinself so entirely men of the twelfth century. The history of his birth devoted to the will of the king, that he considered hiin is most remarkable. His father, Gilbert Becket, was as always ready to sacrifice every thing to his service. sheriff of London ; but while on pilgrimage in the Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, dying while Holy Land, he was taken prisoner by a Saracen. He Henry was in Norinandy, the king resolved on presucceeded in making his escape from the banditti, and serving the archbishopric for Becket; as, by that the captain's daughter falling in love with him, followed means, he might be serviceable to him in counteracting him to England. Her singular and heroic affection the power of the priesthood, so troublesoine and indeeply affected him; and having consulted some bishops, jurious even to royalty. On the recommendation of he determined ou marrying her, she being baptized by the king, Becket was consecrated before Henry's return the name of Matilda. From this union proceeded the to England, when he sent the great seal to his royal celebrated Thomas à Becket.

benefactor, relinquishing the office of High ChanBecket was educated for the bar: but gaining high cellor. reputation in his profession, he was induced to enter Becket's reason for this step was, his determination the Church, and made Archdeacon of Canterbury. to uphold the usurpations and privileges of the priestHaving some affairs to manage at the court, Henry II hood, which Henry had purposed to abridge, as perconceived a high opinion of his talents, and made nicious to the coinmunity. Among the greatest grievhim Lord Chancellor, on the recominendation of Theo- ances to be redressed, one was the impunity of the bald, archbishop of Canterbury. In the discharge of priests in the commission of crime. By degrees, the this office, Becket behaved to all around him with clergy had acquired an absolute power over all that so much pride and haughtiness, as rendered him ex- belonged to their body; and those accused, were tried tremely troublesome to his equals, and insupportable to in the Ecclesiastical Court, from which there lay no his inferiors. Above all things, he was a lover of appeal. Their trials were carried on with such in pageantry and show. He is said to have maintained at dulgence, that the most enormous crimes were Vol. II.

H

ere punished

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