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LIBRARY OF ECCLESIASTICAL KNOWLEDGE. Lives of Eminent Reformers. Vol. I, Biographical

Series, 12mo. cloth, pp. 360. 58. London.

Luther, Zuingle, Melancthon, and Calvin, form the subject of this valuable volume, which we have great pleasure in recommending to our readers. For their extraordinary labours,- in restoring to mankind the possession of the Holy Scriptures, in reforming the churches, overthrowing the arrogant pretensions and the debasing superstitions of Popery,--and recovering the pure doctrines of salvation by Jesus Christ, az contained in the Gospel,- they have laid Europe, and the whole world, under the greatest and most lasting obligations.

M. Claude, in his valuable defence of the Protestant Reformation, gives the following just character of these great inen. “God enriched them with a lively and penetrating understanding; a solid judgment; an exquisite and profound knowledge; an indefatigable propensity to labour; a wonderful readiness to compose and deliver ; an exact knowledge of the Scriptures, and the principles of the Christian religion; a great and resolute soul; an unshaken courage; an upright conscience; a sincere love of the truth; an ardent zeal for the glory of God; a solid piety, without hypocrisy and without pride ; a plain and open carriage ; au entire disengagement from the things of the world; an admirable confidence in God and his providence; a cordial friendship to all good men; the greatest aversion to the vices, profanation, and sophistry of others. These were the gifts and talents wherewith the Divine favour honoured the greatest part of them. There yet remains the liveliest character of them in their writings, and they were as the seal with which God would confirm their call. For when his wisdom designs persons to any great work, it is wont to bestow on theni those necessary qualifications to acquit themselves in it: and we may say, without fear of being charged with derogating from the truth, by those who know history, that from the sixth age until that of our fathers, that is to say for the space of more than nine hundred years, there could not be found any space of time so fertile in great men as that of the Reformation.” This volume illustrates and confirms these observations of Claude.

For the interests of our Country, especially of the Poorer Classes, we are deeply convinced of the importance and necessity of a Cheap Religious Publication of sound principles, and adapted for general circulation at the present eventful crisis. Such a Periodical we consider the “CHRISTIAN's Penny MAGAZINE,” which has been carried on successfully for about eight months. This work has been established on the great principles of the Protestant Reformation, without controversy on those minor points about which British Christians are divided : as such we feel pleasure in recommending it to the Public; and so long as it continues to adhere to those Evangelical principles, we will afford it our patronage.

Rev. J. BLACKBURN, Pentonville.
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Rev. C. GILBERT, Islington.
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Rev. Rowland Hill, A. M. London.
Rev. F. MOORE, Vauxhall.
Rev. G. Rose, Bermondsey.
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CLERICUS next week : his favour came to hand too late for insertion in the present Number.

PUNCTUALITY. A few years since, in a village in the neighbourhood of London, a committee of eight ladies, who managed the concerns of an institution which had been formed for the relief of the poor, agreed to meet, on a certain day, at twelve o'clock precisely: Seven of them attended punctually at the appointed hour; the eighth did not arrive till a quarter of an hour after. She came in, according to the usual mode, with “ I'm very sorry to be behind the time appointed; but really the time slipped away without my being sensible of it. I hope your goodness will excuse it. I am sure I beg pardon.” One of the ladies, who was a Quaker, replied: “ Truly, friend, it doth not appear clear to me that we ought to accept of thine apology. Hadst thyself only lost a quarter of an hour, it would have been merely thy concern; but in this case the quarter must be multiplied by eight, as we have each lost a quarter; so that there have been two hours sacrificed by thy want of punc. tuality.”

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THE EGYPTIAN SPHYNX AND PYRAMIDS. Egypt has been celebrated as a theatre of wonders for a period of inore than 4000 years, from the time of its founder Misraim, the grandson of Noah. Divine inspiration in the Bible, has recorded the antiquity, richness, and mugnificence of Egypt, while it predicted its ruin and buseness as a nation. (See especially Ezek. xxix.) Some of these particulars will engage our attention on a future occasion, as an illustration of the authenticity, and confirmation of the divinity of the Holy Scriptures.

Among the astonishing antiquities of this once famous nation, the three Pyramids and the SPHYNX are regarded as the most prodigious remains of human power and skill.

These stupendous monuments of the “mighty dead,”. have excited the admiration of both scientific anal philosophical travellers, whose reports have afforded the highest gratification to the inquisitive who tarry at home.

Vol. II.

“The Pyramid of Cheors,” supposed to have been built by a prince of that name, is the largest; the dimensions of which have been differently given. Herodotus, who visited it about 2300 years ago, computed it at 800 feet square; but the sands blown from the Lybian desert have increased into hills around it, burying part of its baie. It has been recently measured liy a French engineer, who states that the base is a square of 746 feet on each side, covering nearly fourteen acres of land. It is said to be as large as the area of Lincoln's Inn Fields. The perpendicular height is about 560 feet; being 156 feet higher than St. Paul's Cathedral in London. The summit, which, viewed from below appears as a point, is found to be a platform, each side of which is 18 feet long. Many of the stones with which this enormous edifice is built, are 30 feet long; and the whole mass is estimated at 6,000,000 of tons; and that it would be sufficient to build a wall 10 feet high and one foot thick, round the whole kingdom of France, which is about cighteen hundred miles !


“THE PYRAMID OF CEPHRENES," from the name of

MYTHOLOGY OF THE SPHYNX. its supposed founder, the second in magnitude, is stated to be 655 feet at its base, and 398 feet in height ! MANY of our readers, especially those whose reading is Both of these gigantic monuments have been described limited, will naturally be anxious for somc information by many travellers, to whom we refer our readers for concerning the origin of such a strange monster as the particulars, especially to Pocock, Thevenot, Shaw, Sphynx. This anxiety we will endeavour to gratify, as Graves, Denon, Salt, Savary, Volney, and Belzoni. a reason for urging our friends to prize the blessed voOne of these modern writers remarks: “Their stu- lume of the Divine Revelation, and to cherish gratitude pendous height, the steep declivity of their sides, their to God for such a precious treasure of knowledge, truth, enormous solidity, the distantages they recal to and salvation, as is contained in the Holy Scriptures. meinory, the recollection of the labour they must have Heathen mythology informs us of its tradition, that cost, and the reflection that these huge rocks are the the Sphynx was the daughter of Typhon and Echidna. works of man, so diminutive and feeble, who crawls at Typhon is said to have been the son of Juno, whom the their feet, lost in wonder, awe, humiliation, and heathen called the queen of heaven. Typhon is said to reverence, altogether impress the mind of the spectator have had no father; and so vast was his magnitude, that in a manner not to be described."

he touched the east with one hand and the west with the Situated about 300 paces from the Pyramid of Ce- other, and the heavens with the crown of his head. A phrenes, is the celebrated Sphynx. This monument, hundred dragons' heads grew from his shoulders: his whose enormous bulk excites astonishment in the body was covered with feathers, scales, rugged hair, and spectator, is a statue representing a monster of the adders : from the ends of his fingers snakes issued, and heathen mythology. Superstitious dread in the mind his two feet had the shape and folds of a serpent's body: of fallen man conceived this most extravagant idea, his eyes sparkled with fire, and his mouth belched out which consists of the head and breasts of a woman, the flames. He was at last overcome, and thrown down ; body of a dog, the tail of a serpent, the wings of a bird, and, lest he should rise again, the whole island of Sicily the paws of a lion, and a human voice !

was laid upon him ! Dr. Pocock, about two hundred years ago, found Echidna, the mother of the Sphynx, is represented as only the head, neck, and part of the back of this statue a beautiful woman in the upper part of the body, but visible;

the rest being covered with the vast accumu- as a serpent below the waist!" Some say the mother lations of sand, which have buried part of the Pyramids. of the Sphynx was CHIMÆRA, a monster, which “ had He states the height of the head to be twenty-seven feet ; the head and breast of a lion, the belly of a goat, and the beginning of the breast thirty-three feet wide, and the tail of a dragon!” about one hundred and twenty-five feet from the fore Juno is said to have sent the Sphynx into the neighpart of the neck to the tail. According to Thevenot, bourhood of Thebes, in Egypt, for the purpose of pu. à traveller about fifty years later, it was twenty-six feet nishing the family of Cadmus, whom she persecuted high, and fifteen feet from the ear to the chin. "Pliny, a with immortal hatred ; and it laid this part of Bæotia Roman writer, who lived in the time of the Apostle under continual alarms, by proposing enigmas, and deJohn, mentions this Sphynx, and assures us, that the vouring the inhabitants if unable to explain them. In head was no less than one hundred and two feet in cir. the midst of their consternation, the Thebans were told cumference, and sixty-two feet high from the belly, and hy the oracle, that Sphynx would destroy herself as that the body was one hundred and forty-three feet long. soon as one of the eniginas she proposed was explained. It was believed to have been the sepulchre of King In this enigma she inquired, “What animal is that, Amasis, who ascended the throne of Egypt in the time which goes upon four feet in the morning, upon two at of the prophet Ezekiel, five hundred and sixty-nine noon, and upon three in the evening?years before the Christian era.

Upon this, Creon, king of Thebes, promised his crown Travellers have admired the sculpture of this stupen- and his sister Jocasta in marriage, to him who could dedous image: but the nose of it has been shamefully liver his country from the monster by a successful exinutilated by rude barbarians. Denon remarks, “Al- planation of the enigma. It was at last happily explained though the proportions are colossal, the outline is pure by Edipus, who said, Man is that animal; for he and graceful ; the expression is mild, gracious, and creeps upon his hands and feet in his infancy, or the tranquil; the character is African ; but the mouth, morning of life, and so may be said to go on four feet : the lips of which are thick, has a softness and delicacy at noon, or in manhood, he walks erect upon two feet : of execution truly admirable; it seems real life and and in the evening of life, or old age, be uses the support flesh. Art must have been at a high pitch when this of a staff.” The Sphynx, on hearing this explanation, monument was executed; for, if the head is deficient dashed her head against a rock, and expired. in what is called style, that is, the straight and bold Learned mythologists have explained the fable of the lines which give expression to the figures under which Sphynx as relating to one of the daughters of Cadmus, the Greeks have designated their deities, yet sufficient or Laius, who infested the country of Thebes by her justice has been rendered to the fine simplicity and continual depredations, because she had been refused a character of nature displayed in this figure.

part of her father's possessions. Her having the body of M. Belzoni, with the assistance of some Arabs, a dog, they explain as denoting her lasciviousness; the succeeded in removing immense quantities of sand paws of a lion signified her ferocious cruelty; her enig from the base of the Pyramids; and with the like in- mas, the snares she laid for strangers and travellers; and dustry, he cleared away the sand from a great part of her wings, the dispatch she used in her predatory expethe Sphynx, laying open a multitude of curious objects. ditions. A temple of a single stone, considerable in its dimen. Our young readers especially will not fail to be inte. sions, was discovered between the legs of the Sphynx, rested in some further illustrations of this subject, which and another in one of its paws. The ground in front we will add chiefly from the pen of Mr. Taylor, the was covered with Grecian buildings, inscriptions on learned editor of “Calinet's Dictionary of the Bible.” which commemorate the visits of emperors and great They occur under the article CAUCASUS, which is the men to view this remarkable monument. Sphynxes name given to immense chains of mountains in Asia, are among the most common ornaments on the ancient cxtending from China, through India and Persia, to the temples of Egypt; from which we inay conclude they shores of the Mediterranean sea. It was on part of this were intended to convey soune important instruction. range, ARARAT (Gen. viii, 4), that Noah's ark rested

after the Deluge ; and from his descendants, apostatiz- region where mankind originally settled, or to events ing from the patriarchal worship, and from their cor- principally connected with that region." rupted traditions, that must of the heathen fables arosc. Armenia Alta is one of the highest regions in the Taurus is a naine given to a long range of these inoun. world,” says Moses Chorenensis, “ for it sends out rivers tains, on which Mr. Taylor remarks :

in contrary directions towards the four cardinal points “The word Taur, in many languages, signifies a bull; in the hcavens. It has three mountains, and abounds it is so in Spanish, and French, at this time; it was so with wild animals, and many species of fowl for food; in Latin, Greek, Arabic, &c.; and above all, as being also, with hot baths, and mines of salt, and other things most ancient, it was so in Chaldee; which language was of utility, and the chief Carina.The reader will relittle distant, either in time or place, from the first set- collect, that in coincidence with this testimony, Moses, tlement on inount Taurus. To account for this name, in Gen. ii, 11-14, specifies three provinces adjacent to observe, (l.) that Noah, on coming out of the ark, sa- Paradise ; for though the number of his rivers is four, crificed to God, among other things, a young bull, or the number of his provinces is but three; Ethiopia, beeve, as the most valuable offering in his power: the HAVILAH, and ASSYRIA; and we can scarcely doubt, place of sacrificing might be denominated from this first that this number (three) was received in like inanner offering. (2.) Aš Noah was of pastoral manners, no among the ancients. In proof of this might be quoted doubt he kept around him all the valuable domestic the well-known emblem of Caucasus – a lion, a goat, animals he could, which he cherished, multiplied, and and a serpent, three; or, the bull, the eugle, and the employed. The chief of these, the bull, might give man, three; or, the lion, the eugle, and the human head, name to the mountain where they pastured.

three: hence also the Gi and the SPHYNX. “But not only was this mountain called the ‘Mountain of the Bull,' or beeve; it was also commemorated under the figure of a bull; though possibly sometimes under that of other domestic animals. The number of

EXPENSES OF WAR. animals, companions to inankind by their nature, is not CHRISTIANITY shall ultimately destroy wars, by reno. very great : after the beeve, the goat and sheep, the dog, vating and sanctifying the minds of men. “ And it the swine, the horse, perhaps the elephant, and the shall come to pass in the last days, that the inountain of camel. The number of birds also is not great, the house the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the cock, the swan, and especially the pigeon or dove. mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all Among reptiles, though it may startle us, is the serpent, nations shall flow unto it. And many people shall go of which some kinds are esteemed in many parts of In. and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mouutain of dia to be guardians of the house and premises, and are the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he accordingly admitted as inmates to every apartment. will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: Indeed, of the whole serpent tribe, terrible as its name for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of sounds in our ears, not one kind in ten is venomous; the Lord from Jerusalem. And he shall judge among and those which are fatal, seldom strike without provo- the nations, and shall rebuke mnany people: and they cation. To the serpent we may add the lizard. Ainong shall beat their swords into plough-shares, and their insects, the bee. Such are the chief pastoral riches of spears into pruning-hooks : nation shall not lift up mankind, and such were the pastoral riches of Noah. sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any From these must have descended whatever breeds after- more." Isa. ii, 2, 3, 4. wards roamed the earth; and the mountain on which Who can compute the destruction of life during the these first swarmed, seems to have been typified by the last hundred and fifty years! Look at the expense ! figure and appellation of some one or more of them ; while distant parts of the same range of mountains, to

Wars of William III, cost

£.30,447,382 which the savage creatures were exiled, were typified

Wars of Queen Anne..

43,360,003 by figures and appellations of them; as the lion, the

Wars of George 1

6,048,267 tiger, &c. among beasts ; the eagle, &c. among birds.

Wars begun 1739.

46,418,689 And in like mauner, as parts of these mountains might

Wars begun 1756

111,271,996 derive names froin the bull, or beeve, so might other

War with America

139,171,876 parts from the lion, or from the eagle; which suggests

Late war

700,000,000 one reason why the gods of the heathen were accompa


£.1,076,718,213 nied with images of those kinds of creatures which referred to these mountains. So Jupiter had the eagle, originally in reference to 'Eagle Mountain,' or a dis

“ Scatter thou the people that delight in war." Psal. · trict called “The Eagle' - the Garoord-sthan of the pre

lxviii, 30. sent Braming. Dionysius had the bull, Cybele had lions, Venus had doves, bees, &c. Hence, in after.ages,

LONDON MORALS. the imaginary improvement, but really great deterioration of symbolic lore, by combination of figures into

By an official return it appears, that from Jan. 1, 1831, unnatural forms; as, a bull with a human head, mean

to Jan. 1, 1832, the new Metropolitan Police force has ing 'Bull Mountain, with the man who headed'it (i. e.

apprehended no less than 72,824 persons on different governed it), composes the Minotaur (i.e. Menuh-taur)

charges; namely, 45,907 males, and 26,917 females. (taur, or bull, of Menuh?). By equal perversion, the

Out of this number, 23,787 drunken persons were disgoat and the lion are compounded; and when a delinea

charged by the police after they became sober, and tor, or his patron who directed the representation, dis

4,379 were fined five shillings each, amounting to satisfied with a single mountain, or district [perhaps,

1,0941. 15s. Of these, 3,187 were males, and 1,194 dominion), was desirous of including the whole range

females. From the above returns, the police-men have (or Caucasus at large), he combined, in one most mon

apprehended on an average about 199 per day. These strous form,- the lion, denoting one mountain, the

statements do not include the city itself. Such are goat, another mountain, and the tail he converted into

the statistics of ignorance and vice !- Teacher's Mag. à serpent. Hence originated the griffin --- an eagle's COUNTRY MORALS. — The prosecution of felons at head (Mount Eagle) on a lion's body (Mount Lion), the late assizes for Somerset cost the county the enorwith a multitude of other emblems, all referring to the mous sum of 3,3001. — Taunton Courier.


is not to be done well without thinking and reasoning

about them. His Mental Improvement.

“Besides, every son and daughter of Adam bas a

most important concern in the affairs of a life to come, Thirsting for knowledge, especially in those branches and therefore it is a matter of the highest moment for of it which relate to the realities of religion, William cvery one to understand, to judge, and to reason rightly was anxious to form soine plan for the cultivation of about the things of religion. It is vain for any to say, his mind. The claims of business he regarded as im- We have no leisure or time for it. The daily intervals perative, and gave to them a full measure of his time; of time, and vacancies from necessary labour, together attending with his workmen from six or seven o'clock

with the one day in seven in the Christian world, allows in the morning, and sometimes much earlier, until the sufficient time for this, if men would but apply themsame hour in the evening : but by diligent activity, he selves to it with half as much zeal and diligence as they was able generally to devote from four to six hours a do to the trifles and amusements of this life, and it day to reading and literary study. He met with an would turn to infinitely better account. Thus it admirable little work on the “ Advantages of Early

appears to be the necessary duty and interest of every Rising :” he read it with much interest, and reflected person living to improve his understanding, to inform on what Dr. Doddridge, the Rev. Jolin Wesley, and his judgment, to treasure up useful knowledge, and to others had accomplished by that healthful practice, and acquire the skill of good reasoning, as far as his station, in a good measure followed their worthy example, capacity, and circumstances, furnish him with proper allowing himself but six hours for sleep each night. ineans for it. Our mistakes in judgment may plunge

At first he laboured under a painful disadvantage: us into much fully and guilt in practice. By acting he had no judicious intimate friend, whom he could without thought or reason, we dishonour the God that cousult, as to the most eligible mode of accomplishing made us reasonable creatures, we often become injuhis purposes of mental improvement. He sighed over rious to our neighbours, kindred, or friends, and we this inconvenience : but perhaps he was too backward bring sin and misery upon ourselves : for we are acin seeking that assistance, which without much diffi- countable to God our judge for every part of our culty he might have obtained. His purpose, however, irregular and mistaken conduct, where he hath given was fixed, "strengthened greatly by his increasing us sufficient advantages to guard against those misperception of the inestimable value of sound know- takes.” ledge.

William's chief attention was directed, for a conWilliam found both a stimulant and an excellent siderable period, to the History of the Bible,- the counsellor in the well-known work of Dr. Watts. In

Evidences of Christianity,--and the Doctrines of the word the memoirs of that excellent man, prefixed to the of God. To enumerate all the books which he read on smaller editions of his l'salms and Hymns, he found the these subjects would be impossible and useless; and observations of Dr. Jolinson, which introduced him to

as to some of thera, he regretted the loss of time which that valuable instructor. “Few books,” says that great he had spent upon them. Such regrets, it is believed, man, “have been perused by me with greater pleasure are very common among those who are seeking iinprovethan his Timprovement of the Mind, of which the ment without a judicious, well-inforiped friend to guide radical principles may indeed be found in ‘Locke's them in the choice of their books; and he must be conConduct of the Understanding ;' but they are so ex- sidered as a sincere friend to youth, who, with the panded and ramified by Watts, as to confer upon him wisdom and kindness of an intelligent Christian, perthe merit of a work in the highest degree useful and forins the office of a friendly counsellor in this repleasing. Whoever has the care of instructing others, spect. pay be charged with deficiency in his duty if this book

Among the books from which William derived most is not recommended.”

instruction and delight, on the former branch of Dr. Johnson's opinion was a recommendation suffi. knowledge, were “Stackhouse's History of the Bible," vient: William purchased it, and gave it a careful read- Josephus's History of the Jews," and “Rollin's ing; and though that work generally supposes a larger Ancient History.” By these excellent works, a new, measure of learning than he considered himself” as

extensive, and most pleasing field of wisdom, was set possessing, he made an extensive collection of the most before his mind. The account which the latter writer useful suggestions and directions, which were never gives of the custoins, learning, riches, public works, forgotten liy himn. William was peculiarly affected and and polity of the Egyptians, the remarkable details of encouraged by the Introduction to that invaluable book the character of “Cyrus the Persian,” and of the siege of Dr. Waits. Probably many of our readers have and conquest of the mighty Babylon, the “ Chaldees' never seen that work, or met with those judicious and excellency,” — the deliverance of the captive Jews, and valuable remarks of that “friend to youth.” On their the utter ruin and desolation of that wondrous city, account we gladly quote them in this place:

all in the most exact accordance with the striking pre“No man is obliged to learn every thing; this can dictions of Isaiah and Jeremiah, impressed his mind neither be sought por required, for it is utterly im- with astonishment, at the confirination thus afforded to possible: yet all persons are under some obligations the divine authority of the Holy Scriptures. to improve their own understanding; otherwise it will The whole series of Scripture Prophecy was conbe a barren desert, or a forest overgrown with weeds templated with still greater admiration by William, on and brambles. Universal ignorance or infinite errors reading “Newton's Dissertations on the Prophecies;” will overspread the mind which is utterly neglected, and the refined and sacred pleasure which he derived and lies without any cultivation.

from this exercise of mind, appeared far superior to “Skill in the sciences is indeed the business and the possession of the greatest portion of worldly wealth. profession of but a small part of mankind; but there He would have been amply satisfied, if he could have are many others placed in such an exalted rank in the devoted his whole time to such studies, without any world, as allows them much leisure and large oppor- consideration of worldly gain; but as he was circumtunities to cultivate their reason, and to beautify and stanced, business required his diligent attention, and enrich their minds with various knowledge. Even the lower the hours redeemed'in his mornings and evenings orders of men have particular callings in life, wherein only could be spared for the pursuits of intellectual they ought to acquire a just degree of skill, and this improvement.

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