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that illustration would be unnecessary. What is it, Christian, which cheers thee in thy rugged path, and urges thee to renewed exertions and unceasing diligence? Is it not the anticipation of that glorious day when corruption shall put on incorruption, and in ortal be clothed in iinmortality: Yon fair world which woos thee persuasingly to its coasts, is peopled with a race of beings whose cheeks are never furrowed by anxiety and care, and who have no inward struggles with sin, and strivings with temptation. And dost thou not feel the greatest satisfaction in reflecting, that thy Sariour, who has so long borne with thy infirmities and supported thy fainting virtue, will there appear in his spotless character, and that thou shalt be cnabled to do him willing service? Oh! where is the heaven of idolatry? What shall now he said of the licentious paradise of the great prophet of Ishmael's tribe, whose religion bears something like that contrast to the doctrines of the Saviour, which the son of the bondwoman did to the son of the free? All these are filled with licentiousness and folly; but the heaven to which we hasten is an abiding city, where God will reign over his people in righteousness.

VI. The society of hell, illustrates the holiness of God. That place of outer dark ness bears a horrible contrast to the scenes above described. There sits, scowling with unsatisfied revenge and boundless cruelty, the prince of darkness, and around him are gathered the wretched spirits of those whom he has deluded and misled.

There the murderer thirsts for blood, or groans for ever in remembering the crimes wherewith he stained the theatre of earth : thieves, rolibers, adul. terers, false witnesses, are mingled there in sad copartnership, and vent their quenchless fury in most awful execrations against the author of their mischief, and their insulted God. Deeply there does the negli. gent man bewail those false and worthless joys which drew him from the contemplation of religion: and horrible is the experience of the formalist, that it is not the uttering or the speaking of certain words, which constitute the worship of the Almighty. But my heart sickens at the awful scene which imagination places before me, and I draw a veil over its horrible blackness: deducing from it, however, the strongest of all arguments in favour of the holiness of God.

Let a review of all that has been thus exhibited make a deep impression on the hearts of all. Let us be careful how we read with inattention; and let us resolve henceforth to aim at more extensive holiness and piety. Let us choose the Saviour for our guide through the scenes and teinptations of life, and while around us we behold the unthinking and the gay, let us remember, that yet a few days, and the grave shall have closed on all the sons of revelry; yet a little while, and the banquetting room shall resound no inore with the voice of mirth and laughter, while the solemn words of God himself attest the awful fact, “ Without holiness no man shall see the Lord.”

B. Z.

Letters to a Mother, upon Education.

LETTER XL.

Religion.

(Continued from p. 365.) With regard to the works of the Creator, it appears to ine to be important to teach, that creation, as far as it relates to the existing scene of it, was the organization of pre-existent matter into the various objects which constitute the furniture of the visible universe; that it was suggested in all its varieties by the intellect of the Supreme ; that these suggestions were carried into effect through the agency of “the Word, who was in the beginning with God, and was with God, and was God," who gave heing to organized forms; and that the Holy Spirit of God endued with life such of them as are gifted with vitality: that the origin of the creation therefore is God; and the agents in it, the Word, who afterwards took our nature, and dwelt in the world, and the Holy Spirit.

Teach your child the true doctrine of the Scriptures respecting the heavens ; namely, the first heaven, comprising the atmosphere, “above” wbich is spread “the firmament of waters;" then the starry heavens; and highest of all the residence of the Deity, the metropolis of the universe, whence angels are commissioned in their ministry, and where innumerable happy beings exult in the vision of God.

It will be important that you should clearly teach the doctrine of the Scriptures respecting the highest orders of intelligence, the gradations into which they are divided, the amazing extent of their attributes, and the grandeur of their employments. Avoid as much as possible all use of pictures, &c. for the illustration of this or of any other topic of Revelation. Thus you will avoid the pernicious mischief of lowering the angelic character from that of glorious beings, rising in the scale of existence from man up towards the Deity, and presiding over occupations which require attributes inconceivable by man in the vast empire of immensity. Without

proper

ideas of the angelic orders, the system of Christianity is scarcely intelligible; and the extent of it as a mere system can only be imperfectly comprehended. Without these proper ideas, the system will appear simply as a transaction confined to the present globe; but under their influence it will be seen as having had in view every order of beings throughout the universe ; and the church of God, instead of seeming intended merely to instruct and save mankind, will be thenceforth viewed as a supreme manifestation of the immensely variegated wisdom of God to principalities

With regard to the purposes proposed in creation, it will be proper to teach to your child that they were, the manifestation of the existence and attributes of God to innumerable orders of rational creatures, and to erect an arena upon which the amazing event of the redemption, and the moral constitution derived from it, might be exhibited to every order of being.

With regard to the world in which we live, I could wish you to avoid the common erroneous representations of its minuteness and insignificance, hy which means a sceptical sentiment inay be induced in his mind, and which may incapacitate him for the perception of those glorious purposes which the Scriptures represent as yet to be accomplished in its regions.

With regard to man, it will be ever proper to speak of him as the Scriptures do, in his threefold composition of body, soul, and spirit; which doctrine corre. sponds to the latest and best views of the physiologists ; and with which all the statements of the Scriptures har

and powers.

Do good while thou mayest, lest thou do evil when thou wouldest noti he that takes pot advantage of a good power, shall lose the benefit of a good will.

Quarles' Enchiridion, chap. xliii, cent. 3. Hath any wronged thee? Be bravely revenged : slight it, and the work's begun ; forgive it, and' 'tis finished. He is below hiinself, who is not above an injury.- Id. chap. lxxxvi, cent. 2.

If thou art rich, strive to command thy money, lest she command thee: if thou know how to use her, she is thy servant ; if not, thou art her slave.

Id. chap. lv, cent. 2.

monize. Teach him then to restrict the term body to obey the will of God, yet that there is a vast diversity the material vehicle, the spirit to the animal life, and of natural disposition among us, one man being natuthe soul to the intellectual nature. This threefold rally disposed, through a vast variety of circumstances, composition is taught and recognized in all the varied to one sin, and another to another. You will bave details of the Holy Scriptures.

abundant reason to teach that all men are depraved, You will above all things furnish him from the Scrip- though you will not fall into the error of teaching that tures with the various proofs that the soul exists after all are equally depraved ; and your whole object in the the body is dead, in a state of consciousness, and capa- education of your child will be, that he may avoid bility of pleasure and of pain.

becoming so as much as possible. It is highly important that you should thoroughly

(To be continued.) acquaint him with the great purposes for which man was created ; nainely, to become prepared by discipline and experience in this life, for the occupations and pleasures designed for him in the life to come.

SORIPTURE BIOGRAPHY. The doctrine of the Divine providence should, I think, be stated to him as general; as consisting of the

ABRAHAM. administration of those laws by which the universe is

Abraham's Children. regulated, while he should be also taught, that in the instance of every person who pleases God, that person The promise of a numerous posterity was repeatedly is, through the ministration of angels, placed under a made to the “father of the faithful,” and “ Abraham system of minute and constant superintendance.

believed on the LORD.” But before he was honoured In reference to fallen spirits, he should be taught, to become a father, he had attained the age of eightythat, under circumstances which are at present un- five, and his beloved wife was only ten years younger known, some individuals of perhaps every order of the than himself. angelic world, have become sinful, miserable, and ma- The first-born son of Abraham was by Hagar, the lignant; and that as there is an archangel, so there is Egyptiau inaid-servant of Sarah. Hagar conceived : also a prince of the unhappy portion of angelic intelli- but being thus favoured, she despised and insulled her gences. Teach him, however, that these spirits are indulgent mistress, who, in return, treated her with demons, who are never represented as tempting to sin, harshness, and she fled from her presence into the but which occupation is ascribed to Satan only, and wilderness. The God of Abraham beheld her in mercy, who, by the greatness of his faculties, is, as far as the He gave her reproof, directed her to return, and globe is concerned, literally omniscient.

charged her to submit to the will of her mistress, proIt is of the greatest importance that he should be mising her that she should bear a son ; and added, instructed, that Satan cannot compel, though he may

“ Thou shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD persuade; that by prayer to God for help against his hath heard thy affliction.” It was also foretold respectcrafts and assaults, in the name of Jesus Christ, it will ing her son Ishmael, “He will be a wild man; his hand be hestowed through the influences of the Holy Spirit ; will be against every man, and every man's hand against and that, next to the guidance of the Holy Spirit, our him: and he shall dwell in the presence of his bresafety depends upon avoiding all circumstances tending thren." Gen. xvi, 10, 12. to suggest the thought of sin, and upon repressing the Abraham inculcated upon Ishmael the truths and first rise of evil thoughts.

ordinances of God: but it seems little regard was paid You will have occasion to read with him the account by him to the "things of the Spirit of God.” At the of the introduction of evil through means of the moral weaning of Isaac, “ Åbraham made a great feast :” but probation and apostacy of man. Be careful to read all while the family were rejoicing in Isaac, as the heir of this and to represent it to your child in its true light. promise, Ishmael turned it into ridicule, scoffing at Do not strain the stateinents of the Scripture upon their pious joy, and speered at the covenant of mercy. this or any other topic. The great point to be consi. He held Isaac in derision, and his mother appears to dered is as often what the Scriptures do not say as what have encouraged his persecuting spirit. On this acthey do. Follow the plain statements of The Book, count, they were expelled the house of Abraham, at wherever they may lead you, utterly disregarding all the suggestion of Sarah. The measure was grierous systems of human origin, by whatever good or learned to the benevolent soul of the patriarch, and he hesitated men invented.

to comply; but the thing was of the LORD, and he You will probably have reason to perceive that our having determined the matter, it was executed under first parents were the victims of the craft and malignity the Divine command. of a superior spirit; that their misery was of such His mother took him a wife from Egypt; and the character, therefore, as admitted of the exercise of promise of God to Abraham was fulfilled in Ishmael. mercy towards them; and that the whole event was He was honoured with a large family : his sons were permitted with a view to the development of new attri. “twelve princes according to their nations." Tbe butes, and the extent of the Divine compassion, which singular prediction delivered to his inother has been would otherwise bave remained for ever unknown. remarkably accomplished in his descendants. They

You will have reason to teach your child, that the were heads of Arab tribes. The people called Ishmael. curse consisted in the doom to an intenser degree of ites, Hagarenes, Nabatheans, Itureans, Saracens, and lahour, and bodily death; that every descendant of Wahabces, are the posterity of Ishmael, the son of Adam was fairly tried in his first representatives, and Abraham. They have been in all ages a fierce and according to the result was equitably constituted a sin. warlike people: the most powerful nations have vainly ner. You will also liave occasion to see, that the moral attempted to bring them into subjection; and they still weakness of man results from the varied consequences subsist in Arabia, living monuments of the truth and of his hard labour and mortality, transmitted to the inspiration of the Christian Scriptures. enfeebled constitution of all; that evil circumstances Isaac was, in an exalted sense, a child of promise, develope the capacity of depravity; and that depravity born when his father was a hundred years old, and his consists in evil habits.

mother pinety. The soul of the patriarch was bound You will perhaps perceive, that though all men are up in the life of his sou Isaac, and by the grace of God, by nature thus weakened, and could not of themselves he proved worthy of such a father as Abraham. His By her

holy life and excellent character require a distinct con- line of ancestry is reckoned to increase the honour of sideration.

an individual, this, in the East, is displayed on some of But besides Ishmael and Isaac, Abrahain had several their seals with a parade, which we should call ostentaother children. After the death of Sarah, as it is tion or affectation. Some of them have additions, which observed by the inspired historian, “Then again Abra- seldom occupy our cypher seals; such as inscriptions, ham took a wife, and her name was Keturah.”

mottos, sentences, apophthegms of moral wisdom, and the patriarch had six sons, of whom, however, the both political and pious sentiments, which correspond sacred historian gives only very brief notices, nothing some measure with the mottos of our coats of arms, being recorded of their characters or habits of life. but extended to such lengths as custom among us forDuring his life-time Abraham gave them handsome bids. The mottos of the king of Great Britain, the portions for their comfortable settlement in life, and nobility, and the gentry, are generally short: but some dismissed them to choose convenient habitations in the of them contain sentiments of the noblest character, world; but the chief part of his property he reserved worthy not only of the true patriot, but of the devoted for his son Isaac, the heir of the Divine promise.

Christian. For the edification of our readers we shall give a selection of the mottos of our nobles, with the

dates of their creation, SACRED SEALS, AND MOTTOS OF THE

1. Duke of Norfolk, 1483. Sylu virtus invictu - “Vir.

tue alone is invincible.” ENGLISH NOBILITY.

2. Duke of Somerset, 1546. Foy pour devoir—“Faith SIGNETS, seals, and mottos, have been common from

for duty." a very high antiquity. Tribal distinctions, it appears, 3. Duke of Cleveland, 1670. Secundis dubiisque recwere used in the forin of signets and seals, even in the tus -- "Upright in prosperous and in doubtful affairs." time of the patriarch Jacob: for Judah's signet is 4. Duke of Grafton, 1675. Et decus et pretium recti mentioned in Gen. xxxviii, 19. The Hebrew word here The ornament and the reward of integrity.” rendered signet, denotes a ring-seal, with which im. 5. Duke of Beaufort, 1683. Mutare rel tinere sperno pressions were niade to ascertain property; and from “I disdain to change or to fear.” Jeremiah xxii, 24, it seeing they were worn on the 6. Duke of St. Alban's, 1683. Auspicium melioris hand, though it might also be suspended from the neck avi—“The appearance of a better age.” by a riband, as it is still worn by the Arabs. The

(To be continued.) bracelets of Judah, appear to have been ornamental bandages worn round the wrists, to which the siguet was suspended.

MRS. H. MORE'S APPEAL TO THE BORDERERS. Signets were engraven with names and devices : and hence Moses says, the onyx stones of memorial placed “The BORDBRERS," as ingeniously described by Mrs. on the shoulders of the ephod worn by the priests, were Hannah More, consist of a large class of undecided “graven, as signets are graven, with the names of the professors of religion, who labour to keep on good children of Israel,” Exod. xxxix, 6. The twelve pre- terms with both the pious and the gay. I was lately cious gems in the sacred breast-plate for the high- very much struck with her judicious appeal to them, in priest, were engraven with the names of the children her valuable work, and therefore forward it for the of Israel, “twelve, according to their namnes, like the readers of the Christian's Penny Magazine. engravings of a signet, every one with his name, accord.

ALETHEIA.

LETHE ing to the twelve tribes.” Ver. 14; see ver. 30.

Judab's signet is the earliest mentioned instance of a Be assured, that whatever serves to keep the heart seal, as being the property of the wearer, known by an from God, is one and the same spirit of irreligion, appropriate inscription. This was about the year 1730 whether it appear in the shape of coarse vice, or whebefore the advent of Christ, so that writing and engrav- ther it is softened by the sinoothness of decorum, and ing signets have been in existence 3563 years, about the blandishinents of polished life. We are far from 250 years before Moses wrote the book of Genesis : but comparing them together, as if they were equally injuwe canno: penetrate the height of its antiqnity, and rious to society, or equally offensive to decency; but these arts probably might exist before the deluge. we must compare them together as equally drawing

What inscriptions the siguets contained we find in- away the heart from the worship and the love of God. timated in the passages of Scripture referred to. Courteousness, which is unaccompanied by principle, Among the representations of seals collected by Mr. will stand the most courteous in no stead, with Him Taylor, is one from the traveller Tavernier, and which who is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the is that of the prime minister of some Oriental prince. heart. The scal, in the original, is set on the back of the “Some of these well-bred persons, who exercise patent, no man daring to affix his seal on the same side this large and liberal candour towards practical offences, as that on which the king's is placed ; and this, in the and treat with tenderness certain vices, not thought judgment of Mr. Taylor, gives a correct illustration of disreputable by the world, and who even put a favour. the apostle's expression, 2 Tim. ii, 19, “ The foundation able construction on things very unjustifiable in the of God standeth sure, having this seal (or motto), The sight of God, lose all their kindness, put nu favourable Lord knoweth thein that are his; and, Let every one interpretation when sound religion is in question. They that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity." are, indeed, too discreet to reprobate it under its own The motto around the seal on the side of the patent proper name, but the ready appellation of enthusiasm enclosed and not visible to us is this inscription, " The presents itself — is always at hand, to vindicate the Lord knoweth them that are his :" but on the open and ex- hastiest judgment, and the most contemptuous conposed side of the patent divine is the counter inscrip- struction. tion, to every one conspicuous, “Let every one that “But though we think far better things of you whom nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.

we are addressing, yet may you not, in this society, be Oriental seal inscriptions consisted not only of the tempted to disavow, or at least to conceal, even the initials of the owners' names ; they contained, especi- measure of piety you actually have, for fear of exciting ally when they belonged to a person of consequence, a that dreaded suspicion of being righteous overmuch?” deseription of his office, residence, &c. And, as a long May not this fear, strengthened by this society, keep

1

you back till your pious tendencies, by being suppressed, Every species of rational information has a tenmay gradually come to be extinguished?

dency to produce pleasing emotions. There is a certain “We are ready to acknowledge, and to love, all that gratification in becoming acquainted with objects and is amiable in you; but we must not forget, that the operations of which we were formerly ignorant; and fairest and most brilliant creature, the inost engaging that too, altogether indepcudent of the practical tenmanners, and the most accomplished mind, stands in dency of such knowledge, of the advantages we may the same need of repentance, forsaking of sin, redemp- expect to reap from it, or the sensitive enjoyments with tion by the Son of God, and renovation by His Spirit, which it may be accompanied. A taste for knowledge, as the least attractive. The more engaging the manners, a capacity to acquire it, and a pleasure acco:npanying and the more interesting the acquirements, the more is its acquisition, forin a part of the constitution of every it to be lamented, that those very attractions, by your mind.' The Creator has implanted in the human mind complacency in them, may have stood between you a principle of curiosity, and annexed a pleasure to its and heaven; may, by your resting in them, bave been gratification, to excite us to the investigation of the the cause of your not pressing towards the mark for wonders of creation he has presented before us, to lead the prize of your high calling of God in Christ Jesus. us to just conceptions of his infinite perfections, and of

“'Bear then in mind, that you may be pleasing to the relation in which we stand to himn as subjects of his others, while you have an unsanctified heart; that po- government. We all know with what a lively interest Jiteness, though it may put on the appearance of humi. inost persons peruse novels and romances, where hairlity, is but a poor imitation of that prime grace; that breadth escapes, mysterious incidents, and tales of good-breeding, though the beautiful decoration of a wonder, are depicted with all the force and beauty of pious mind, is but a wretched substitute for the want language. But the scenes detailed in such writings of it.

produce only a momentary enjoyment. Being retraced “Be assured, however, at the same time, that true as only the fictions of a lively imagination, they pass religion will in no wise diminish your natural or 'ac- away like a dream or a vision of the night, leaving the quired graces; so far from it, those graces will be more understanding bewildered, and destitute of any solid estiinable; they will be even more adınired, when they improvement. In order to improve the intellectnal fa. are known not to be the best things you have. When culties while we gratify the principle of curiosity, it is you set less value on them yourself, they will be more only requisite that we direct the attention to facis in. pleasing to others; who, though they will not estinate stead of fictions'; and when the rell scenes of the unithem above their worth, will not depreciate them verse are presented in an interesting aspect, they are below it.

calculated to produce emotions of wonder and delight “We are persuaded that you are too reasonable to even superior to those excited by the most bighly. expect that Christianity will change its character, or wrought tales of fiction and romance.” P 1:22, 123. lower its requirements, or make the strait gate wider, “ In the universe we find all things coustructed and or the narrow way broader, or hold out false colours, arranged on the plan of boundless and unirersal variety. in order to induce you to embrace it. It is not that In the aniinal kingdoin there have been actually ascer. easy and superficial thing which some suppose, as retained about sixiy thousand different species of living quiring little inore than a ceremonious attendance on its creatures. There are about 600 species of mammalia, forms, and a freedom from the gross violation of its or aniinals that suckle their young, inost of which are cominands. This may be nominal, but it is not saviug quadrupeds; 4,000 species of birds ; 3,000 species of Christianity. It is not that spiritual, yet practical reli- fishes ; 700 species of reptiles, and 41,000 species of gion, for which the Son of God endured the cross, that insects. Besides these, ihere are about 3,000 species he might establish it in the hearts of his followers, — of shell-fish, and perhaps not less than 80,000 or 100,000 which he is pleading with his Heavenly Father to esta- species of animalcules, invisihle to the naked eye; and blish in your heart. He did not suffer that his children new species are daily discovering, in consequence of the might be excused from self-denial; nor that, because zeal and industry of the lovers of natural history. As he was holy, they might be regligent. He suffered, the systein of animated nature has never been thoroughly that 'the women that are at ease inight rise up; that explored, we inight safely reckon the number of species the careless daughters might hear his voice, and give of animals of all kinds, as amounting to at least three ear unto his word.'»

hundred thousand !

“Now it is a fact, that, from the elephant to the ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF SOCIETY BY THE

mite, from the whale to the oyster, and from the cagle

to the gnat or the microscopic animalcula, no animal DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE;

can subsist without nonrishment. Every species, too, Or, an Illustration of the Advantages which would re

requires a different kind of food. Some live on grass, sult from a more general Disseinination of Rational

some on shrubs, some on flowers, and some on trees. and Scientific Information among all kanks. Ilus.

Some feed only on the roots of vegetables, soine on the trated with Engravings. By Thomas Dick, LL.D.

stalk, some on the leaves, some on the fruit, some on author of the Christian Philosopher, &c. &c. Small

the seed, some on the whole plant; some prefer one 8vo. boards, pp. 544. Edinburgh, Waugh & Innes. species of grass, some another. Linnæus bas remarked,

the cow eats 276 species of plants and rejects 218; the Dr. Dick is extensively known by his admirable and

goat eats 449 and rejects 126 ; the sheep eats 387 and popular works. His Christian Philosopher,” espe. rejects 141; the horse eats 262 and rejects 212; and the cially, has contributed in no small degree to the hog, more nice in its taste than any of these, eats but provement of society by the diffusion of knowledge."

72 plants and rejects all the rest. Yet, such is the upScience and religion have found in him an able advo. bounded munificence of the Creator, that all these cate; and his various treatises are happily adapted to countless nyriads of sentient beings are amply provided excite in the youthful mind a thirst after that know- for and nourished by his bounty.” P. 254 -- 257. ledge, which, while it enlarges and ennobles the soul, prepares it for fellowship with God even on earth, and qualifies it for a glorious immortality. Without extend- London : Printed and Publisbed by C. WOOD AND SON, Poppin': Court, ing our observations, we shall give a few extracts from

Fleet Street; to whoin all Communications for the Editor (post puid)

should be addressed; - and sold by all Booksellers and Jewsinen in the this truly interesting voluine.

United Kingdom.

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THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME, PARIS.
RELIGION IN FRANCE.

built originally in the form of a cross; and is said to POPERY, though a gross corruption of Christianity, has have been founded by King Childeric U. left noble monuments of its worldly grandeur in every Dr. Mosheim, the ecclesiastical historian, remarks country in which it prevailed. England contains many concerning this devoted servant of the papacy, “We inost splendid evidences of the powerful influence which sce, in the annals of the French nation, the following it possessed over the public mind, and of the architec- shocking instance of the enormous power that was, at tural skill which it encouraged and rewarded, in the this time, vested in the Roman poutiff. Pepin, who stately cathedrals which adorn our cities.

was mayor of the palace to Childeric III, and who, in France, in common with the other countries of the exercise of that high office, was possessed, in reality, Europe, possesses many sumptuous edifices, which pro- of the royal authority, not contented with this, asclaim the long-continued power and wealth of the pired to the titles and honours of majesty, and formeil Romish priesthood. Among its most celebrated temples the design of dethroning his sovereign. For this pur. must be ranked the cathedral of Notre Dame, or Our pose, the states of the realm were assembled by Pepin, Lady, at Paris, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It was A. D. 75); and though they were devoted to the in. VOL. JI.

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